IMC304 Midterm Study Guide
IMC304 Midterm Study Guide IMC 304
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory McClurg on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IMC 304 at University of Mississippi taught by Sparks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Account Planning in Integrated Marketing Communications at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
IMC304 Proff.Sparks Midterm Study Guide Important concepts: v Account Planning – the creation of a strategic plan of communication within an organization (agency) to influence the people who write and design communications to do so more efficiently v Why Does it exist? o In England in the 70’s § Stanley Pollitt – The BMP Approach • Developed the method that someone should extract an early indication of consumer response to a marketing strategy • Wanted planners to be involved in the development of creative ideas, strategy, and campaign evaluation § Stephen King – The JWT Planning Cycle • Every account in his agency had a three-person team: o The account director, who was concerned only with the client o The creative group, who develops and implements creative strategies o The planner, who represents the consumer with advertising research, strategy development and media planning direction § The JWT Planning cycle is as follows: Why are Where we are we? there? Are we Where there? we be? How do we get there? o Account planning in the U.S. § Jay Chiat of the agency “Chiat/Day” recognized that British advertising was successful because of account planning, so he hired Jane Newman of BMP London • He had three fundamentals in his agency… For communications to work, it must… o Be noticed IMC304 ProofSparks Midterm Study Guide o Deeply understand and empathize with the consumer o Must be on the leading edge of social change (cultural truth) v The account planner – o Represents “the voice of the consumer” in an agency § Finds hidden consumer insights through thoughtful interviews, ethnographies, surveys, data mining, focus groups, etc o Interprets insights and determines what the brand needs to say to the consumers so that they will pay attention and ultimately so we can change their behavior § Account planners typically ask: • Who are we talking to? • What do they currently feel, think, or do when it comes to our brand our product? Why? Is there a general perception of this product/brand? • What do we want them to think, feel, or do as a result of our messaging/communications? • What are our competitors doing and how do people feel about that? o Aid in the overall marketing communications strategy (what we need to say) and the creative work (how we need to say it) o Monitor the impacts and measure the results of their campaigns o What kind of person is an account planner, typically? § Observant § Interested in pop culture, high culture and low culture, usually giving them a unique perspective v Other types of planners – o Media Planners – determine how to reach consumers at the most influential moment o User Experience Planners – craft interactive experiences using technology v Roles in an Agency – o Account management – directly responsible for client relationships o Brand strategist – decides the direction a brand should be going o Creatives – copywriters/designers; creators of the communication o Integrated production – works with the specs (rebuilding files for specific media outlets) IMC304 Prof.Sparks Midterm Study Guide o Communications planners – determine how the brand is going to interact with consumers v The inquiry and Research Process “Without research, we are flying in the dark… no radio, no compass, and no fuel guage.” – Jon Steele 1. Prepare for Research a. Brand/Service Experience i. Observation ii. Immersion – experience the brand for yourself as a planner first and note your own experience! iii. Client information iv. Questions/Interviews b. Intuition and Observation to formulate a hypothesis of a communications objective 2. Access Resources/Get the Facts (subjective and objective) a. Primary b. Secondary c. Quantitative d. Qualitative 3. Process/Interpret the Information a. Information to Insights – using SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis and taking company, competition, and customers into account b. Infer c. Hypothesize 4. Transferring your Learning – Briefing a. Creative Strategy b. Brief c. Creative Inspiration v So… What is this “sweet spot ” anyway? o The Sweet Spot is the intersection between brand insight and consumer insight within a cultural insight o It keeps the communicator relevant to consumers and helps break through the clutter to have their message heard § If consumers don’t see something about the brand in themselves, they aren’t persuaded by it. People don’t persuade people, people persuade themselves. o Remember, good communication is a receiver-driven process § Examples given in class: IMC304 Prof.Sparkss Midterm Study Guide • Marlboro Man – planner Leo Burnett found a new way to advertise Marlboro cigarettes; connected Marlboros (brand) to magazine pictorial on cowboys (consumer); sweet spot – freedom and independence represented by wide-open spaces, a far horizon, and a cowboy relaxing; researchers questioned the effectiveness because no one dressed like a cowboy anymore, but the planner focused on the feeling the pictorial gave the consumer • Coca-Cola – when consumers decided that Pepsi was better tasting than Coke, the company decided to market a “new coke”; research “facts” didn’t factor in emotions/feelings of loyal Coca-Cola drinkers; return of Coca-Cola Classic doubled shelf space and sales overnight § Examples of when companies missed the Sweet Spot: • Coca-Cola – Coke went to China and tried to make it still sound like “coca cola” in Chinese, but their quote actually meant “bite the wax tadpole” v insights – o What’s an insight? – the capacity to gain intuitive knowledge about someone’s core feelings o Insights are often not made obvious, so planners have to read between the lines – that’s why planners must be such original thinkers… to be successful, they must apply those skills every day, even in their own daily lives o How do you even find one? § Get out in the world! You’ll never actually understand people from looking at data on a computer. • Usually a planner starts from a frame of reference, which means they decide a relevant place to observe others, and relevant questions to ask • Then compare and contrast benchmark behaviors, feelings, and ideas of others § Talk to people, watch people, take notes on what they do in the context and deduce why they’re doing it. • People are complex, emotional, and often irrational; often they’ll just tell you what you want to hear, so as a planner you’ll need to get past their well-intentioned lies; find the information no one is looking at. IMC304 Prof.Sparkks Midterm Study Guide § Focus Groups – • A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people is asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. • The first step is to develop a screener, which is used to sort out the people the organization does not care to reach within the focus group; it is a focus group, after all. • The moderator is the head of the group; he/she asks open- ended questions, sets the pace, and keeps things on track • The number of participants can range from one to twelve, but smaller groups are more desirable because a planner wants to observe both individually and through interactions with other consumers • The planner (occasionally the moderator) will most often be behind a one-way mirror among the Clients, observing and taking notes on the participants o Example of a successful focus group in class: § CitiBank – Upon their second round of focus groups, the first which had no intentional direction, they determined that their communication target is the “Retire by 40” group and the “money as a means to live well/ balance-seeker” group. The extracted insight, “people don’t care about banks, but they care a whole lot about money and its role in their lives” became the creative campaign “Live Richly” § Ethnographies - • The practice of shadowing a consumer in their own environment, instead of in a focus group facility • A form of qualitative research • Allows planners to know what people actually do, not just what they say they would do – like detective work • This is probably the most effective method of extracting insights because you are seeing peoples’ behavior in context and you can get a deeper understanding of their motivations, but it is also more expensive ($50- $100K) and takes a lot more time to complete (2 to 6 months). IMC304 Prof.Sparkks Midterm Study Guide § Customer Intercepts – • The process of reaching a customer inside the store or right outside the store to get a quick reading on their perceptions of the subject • Usually very brief because people are usually in a hurry or are too focused on shopping § Questionnaires/Surveys – • A form of quantitative research that must be very meticulously created so to receive the most accurate results • The three main factors that could skew results: o Order bias – make sure the answers are in no specific order to avoid someone trying to get a specific response instead a unique and accurate response o Question phrasing – depending on how the question is worded, it may get very different responses; to avoid misinterpretations, put yourself in the shoes of the participant o Survey length – we’ve all done it. If the survey isn’t short, concise, and easy to understand…the participant may just start clicking on the first answer they see to get it over with • Public Opinion Survey companies – o Roper Center o Gallup § Interviews – • Tips on how to listen and take notes in an interview: o Listen as you would during a normal conversation. o Try to listen to how people express themselves, just as much as you’re listening to what they say. o Listen for what people don’t say, too. o Try not to take everything a consumer says so literally – people are irrational beings. o Don’t filter what people say through preconceived ideas of what the marketing or advertising strategy should be. Come in with a fresh and open mind! • Methods of asking questions: o Projective questioning – helps you gain insights into a person, independent of product use; finding out how someone thinks of him/herself and what they IMC304 Prof.Sparks Midterm Study Guide aspire to, may be more useful for positioning a brand than knowing how a person uses the product § Examples of projective questions: • Think about your life so far, is there anything you’d go back and do differently? • If you could give a piece of advice to a son or daughter, what would that advice be? • What would you like to be remembered for after you’re gone? • If you could go forward or backward in time, which way would you go, where would you go, and why? • If you won the lottery tomorrow, how would it change your life? o Product and Brand Personality – although it may come as a surprise, brands and products have personalities just as much as people do. Knowing the personality of a brand can help you understand its strengths and weaknesses. § Examples of Brand Image questions: • If ketchup were a person, what would he or she be like? • If you came back as a catalog, what catalog would you be? o Laddering – a structured process of questioning which connects the attributes or characteristics or a product to the benefits that the product gives the consumer to the values those benefits serve in the consumer’s life Attributes -> Benefits -> Values Attribute s + Benefits = What a product is Benefits + Values = What a product means v How do we know who we want to reach? o VALS – using categories of values and lifestyles to create archetypes for different kinds of people through a combination of psychology, demographics, and behaviors; helps select the best target audience, IMC304 Prof.Sparks Midterm Study Guide understand people’s motivations, identify insights, position the brand, and communicate effectively. § VALS breaks society down into 8 archetypes: • Innovators – usually sophisticated, curious, in charge • Thinkers – informed, reflective, content • Believers – literal, loyal, moralistic • Achievers – self-focused, conventional, status-seeking • Strivers – insecure, imitative, undisciplined • Experiencers – trend setting, impulsive, variety-seeking • Makers – responsible, practical, self-sufficient • Survivors – nostalgic, cautious, trusting v What’s a creative brief? o Part of a Planner’s job is to work with the Creatives in order to make something insightful, inspiring, and grounded in consumer truth; this is called creative briefing o Creative briefing is a very important step in the process between the planners and creatives. Your job is to inspire the creatives…but how? Here are a few tips: § Brief with enthusiasm! – your attitude affects your team’s attitude. If you hand them a sheet of paper and read to them what’s on it… they probably won’t be inspired… § Control the tempo – consider bringing in a projector and an interesting powerpoint § Create a situation room (“war room”) – put some thought into the room that you meet with the creatives. Set it up with as much category/competitive imagery as possible o A creative brief typically answers the questions: § What’s the situation and why are we communicating? § What’s the business objective? § What is the communications objective? § Who are we talking to? (Who is the targ § et audience?) § What do they currently think/feel/do, and why? § What do we want them to think/feel/do? § What’s the ONE thing we need to say to get them to think/feel/do that? § What tone should we take? IMC304 Prof.Sparks Midterm Study Guide § How are we going to measure success? Sales? Web traffic? Likes/Followers? v Types of Research – o Primary research – new research that is carried out by the planner and organization to answer specific questions § Tailored to your specific research needs § Allows the company greater control over methodology, time frame, respondents, etc § Gives proprietary information, which is an advantage § Allows the company to select the source (the population sample from which you collect the data) IMC304 Prof.Sparks Midterm Study Guide o Secondary research – information gathered from sources such as competitor reports, BDI, CDI, customer feedback forms, internet articles, etc; effective because it is free and readily available, but ineffective because can have source bias or can be generalized § CDI - % of Market Brand Sales x 100 % Market Population § BDI - % of Market Category Sales x 100 % Market Population o Quantitative research – used to quantify a problem by generating numerical data that can be transformed into statistics; typically collected through objective questions on surveys or studies o Qualitative research – exploratory research; gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements; gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic or even diagnostic (words, images, behavior, or objects subjectively interpreted). v Trends & trendspotting – o What is a trend? - Habits or behaviors currently prevalent among consumers of goods or services. § Consumer trends track more than simply what people buy and how much they spend. § Data collected (secondary or primary) on trends may also include information such as how consumers use a product/brand and how they communicate about a brand with their social networks § Understanding consumer trends is invaluable to a planner. o Trendspotting is central to a planner § Observation, ethnography and consumer focus leads to trendspotting. § Connections with where the consumer will be. § Helps relevance and connection in communications/advertising
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