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UO / Biology / BIO 360 / neurobiology notes

neurobiology notes

neurobiology notes

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Who is galen of rome?



Neuro biology

:

x

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Notes 9.27.16 to The feild of Neurobiology is vast, and only ppartially understood

→ Most known Molecullar, cellular, tissue based

heast known: Cognitive processing and behavior. Reality Electricall signals interperated by your brain

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O A Revised History:

3000 years ago, the Chinese & Minoans independantly thought of

the vital flow of life that sustained the human body

→ (primarily identified the carculatory systems The Egyptious first wrote down a word for brain: BOLD → Hippocrates claimed the brain was responciple for emotions as

well as motion → Galen of Rome was the Gladiator's physician, first drew the

brain & started making connections to injuries and brain loss of function

Andreas vesalius in the Renasanse first accurately diagramed the brain from cadavers (friends w/ Micheal Angelo gor → Descarte came up with the phylosophy of Dualism: Mind & Body


Who is andreas vesalius?



Generated separated fields of psychology & biology → Robert Hook & heeuwenhoek in the 1600's discovered cells in all

plants & animals - except the brain!

→ phrenology studying the brain based on lumps, assuming

it was made only of wires & not cells (1700's phylosophy → camillo, and Ramony o casal developed staining methods for

cells & found there in the brain. ut → Neuvonal Doctrine the brain is made of nerve cells

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o The Human Brain → 3 lbs, made of soft, butter like cells called neurons

there are ł 10th cells in our brain

More than all the stars in the milky way 2

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From sensation to reaction Convergence of many signal recieving neurous signaling to fewer processing cells Cotten in the cortex), followed by Divergent signalling into again, many cells/nevrous that lead to mussel contractions


What is phrenology?



We also discuss several other topics like bio 102 exam 1

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O Basic Neuron Diagrams & Nomenclature

INTEGRATION

(NTEGRATION

OUTPUT

my INPUT

Coworode

CONDUCTION

OUTPUT

e

venenatis

& CONDUCTION We also discuss several other topics like biology exam 1 study guide

neuron

neuron

UVON:

Csoma

axou

Pre

wa

post

axon

rer

Dendrites Synaptic ta post

Terminal

Dena) -

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Home Notes 9.28.16 o Voltage Potential of a neuvon the intracellular space is more (-)

than the extracellular space to → This electrocal difference is held constant when the nerve cell 1 is not firing / recieving stimulus resting potential We also discuss several other topics like temple university housekeeping
If you want to learn more check out syllabus envt

represented as a negative value ex - 70mV recorded using an intracellular micro electrode: small glass cappilary filed with a salt solution inserted into the neurons cytoplasm with the other end not inside the cell

+ V2

* Diagram of testing a nerve cell's

membrane voltage potential

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→ The intra + extra cellular solutions have the same osmolarity

but different conic compositions + different lonic permiability

[kt] is higher inside the cell

[Nat] and [al- ] are hower inside the cells & hy the membrane potential opposses the drive for lous Don't forget about the age old question of underdeveloped superego

to difuse down their concentration gradients → Some signals cause the neuron to depolarize (lower up) others

cause hyperpolarization Chiguer ue]

to Local Graded Potentials into Action Potentials Any sort of external

stimuli that the nevron is designed to sense results in some lever of change to the resting potential as Nations flow into the cell.

→ When the input stimoli is small, the result is a localized

receptor potential I Varries in amplitude (Graded) depending on signal strength

only travels a short distance along the newronal axon, b/c the current propogation depends on the passive

electrical properties of the cell → when the local potential is stimulated above a threshold

level, the all-ov-nothing action potential is triggered

Any signal above the threshold generate a signal of

the same amplituds that travels rapidly along the neuron teh The intensity of the stimulus we feel is conveyed by on the frequency of action potential firing We also discuss several other topics like biol 336

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(t) and (-) ci xt ci

C

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Cont Nat

Notes 9.29.1 0 In cells, currect & Charge is carried by lous both

lous cary the current co

Nat o lonic Concentrations of a nerve cell war

cytoplasmic & Extracellular an f-A Nat 18 mm rosu 150mm

en kts 135 mm

3 mm

A CI- Tuin van 120mm base

116mm *(-) + Macromolecules with many o charges associated

K

A Nat et kt at

Nat

A

a

Nat

o Cellmembranes are permeable to k t through transport channels I → Kt feels a force to flow out of the cell down the concentration gradent. 1 → Kt also feels a force to stay in the cell due to the electrical gradient

@ Equilibrium, Kt in = K tout

Achemical work

electrical work

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o Ohms Law:

*V=Vm-EK

Rx=/ak V = Iki Rk

conductance" cell potential ↑

Copen Channels) current"

resistance" (flow of K+) (closed transport channels)

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→ IK = (Vm-EK).9k opere in una

K+ flow

cell membrane

potential

-open kt channels

creating charge Translocation K + Ea. Potential t Eq. Potential

K

ATP burning lon pumps Actively maintain Kt and Nat

gradients in order to stabilize the Vur at rest.

cl- is often passive in traveling along its [] grad., but not always.

O GKH Equation

Potential of

The best the cell

description

of

the

Resting

Vm= 58. log EPk. Lk Jo + Prai[nalo + Pa.[ci]

E PK. [K] i + Pra [nali + Pel. [cijo

Notes 9.30-16 - DLSSussion

Permeability vs. Conductance

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The physical ability for au lon to cross the membrane, a state of

the membrane not dependant on the presence or movement of cons

The resulting ability to affect the existing Internal vs. external membrane potential when

nous cross the membrane

(movement of charge)

in o Ek (Equilibrium Potential of Potasium) The electrical

force needed in opposition of the consentration gradient to keep (+) ions inside

The Nerust Equation: Describes the membrane Potential (Vm).

Given in terms of Kt's electrical & Chemical gradients, allows

158. log [Koot] = Vm) for calculation of K + Eq. Potential

[ kin]

when internal & external [K] is known

If using an anion in this equation, take [in]/[out I → The membrane potential (Vm) is the same as the Equilibrium

Potential of potasium when the cell is at rest (EK)

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ex Assume the internal [kt] is 10mm. Graph the change

in membrane potential as [kt] externally increases.

- observed +58

e predicted Vm of

* This observed difference tulog woh to implies the model is not complete

b Flow of Nat is missing Imm

10mm coomin

[K+] out to log(/o) logcis log(10)

-587

o The cell membrane is not equally permeable to all lous. I → Kt is much more permiable, making it more important 1 in calculating the membrane potential

[cons]

o Equilibrium Potentials Based on table of

EK= 58. log (636) = -95.88 mv

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135)

Ena = 58 log (150) = +53.41 mV.

Vm of the cell is

made slightly more

- Toms, much closer to Ek, but (t) due to the pressence of Nat and ci

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