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CHEM 109 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: RoseN

CHEM 109 Exam 2 Study Guide CHEM 109

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > CHEM 109 > CHEM 109 Exam 2 Study Guide
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About this Document

Hey! This study guide covers what our next exam is over, right now it is the outline, but I'll be adding to it in the next few days, especially after Tuesday, so keep checking back! Good luck study...
General Chemistry 1
Jason Kautz
Study Guide
Chemistry, General Chemistry
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by RoseN on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 109 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jason Kautz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Hey everyone! So, this is the outline of what I am studying… its a mixture of the learning objectives and notes from class… except for the last part of the thermodynamics part, because we haven’t learned about some of that stuff in class. This is the outline that I make my study guide from, just in case you wanted to know… or so you can have a checklist as you master stuff (that is what I do!). The actual outline is going to have a vocabulary section… with all the vocabulary words that I can think of. And then it is going to be divided like this outline, with my quick explanations of each of the calculations we need to do, and then I’ll do my very best to give good practice problems from the textbook (I’m not going to make my own), and then I’ll post the solutions to those problems in a few days (I still have to work through most of them. Fair warning, I have read the thermodynamics chapter, but there are still quite a few things that are pretty fuzzy to me, so I will probably add a lot of detail to that part after Tuesday when I have gone through the lecture and my recitation. If I end up changing stuff around, I will either upload another document with my changes, and make sure to email you. Now, don’t get me wrong, I love that you bought my study guide, but this isn’t the only thing that I do to study. I also use, I read the chapter, and work through the practice problems as I read, I definitely work through my recitation manual and the practice exam in the back, I go through almost all the problems in the back of the chapter, and I go see my TA at least once a week to clear up questions. If you want to do really well on this exam, those are all the things I suggest (not to mention working through my study guide :D ). Good luck studying, I know you will do great! If you have any questions, please email me! I’m more than happy to help! My email is​ . I. Aqueous Solutions A. Electrolytes, weak/strong electrolytes and nonelectrolytes 1. What is an electrolyte solution? 2. How does the polarity of water work? 3. How do strong electrolytes dissociate in water? 4. How do weak electrolytes dissociate in water? 5. How do non electrolytes dissolve in water? 6. How does the dissociation of a weak carboxylic acid work? 7. Can you dissociate electrolytes into constituent ions? 8. Can you calculate the concentration of formula units, individual ions, and total ions in a solution? 9. Can you determine whether or not a solution will conduct electricity. B. Predicting reactions 1. How do you predict the solubility of ionic compounds? a) Do you have the solubility rules memorized? 2. What is precipitation 3. Can you write molecular, complete ionic and net ionic equations? a) What are the rules that go along with them? b) Don’t forget the states of matter! 4. What are spectator ions? 5. What kind of acids completely dissociate in water? 6. How do you know if a reaction will actually occur when two or more solutions are combined? 7. How do you predict what ions might be present in a solution based on the results of precipitation experiments. C. Acid/Base Reactions 1. What is the difference between strong and weak acids on a molecular level, and for strong and weak bases? 2. How do strong acids and strong bases dissociate? 3. How do weak acids and weak bases dissociate? 4. What are neutralization reactions, and how do they work? 5. What are the 7 strong acids, the 8 strong bases? (pg. 140, table 4.4) a) Do you have them memorized? 6. Do you know what carboxylic acids are? 7. How do you write an acid dissociation reaction? 8. How do you write a base ionization reaction? 9. How do you write a neutralization reaction? 10. How do you calculate the amount of acid required to neutralize a base? And vise versa? D. Redox Reactions 1. What is the process of oxidation? 2. What is the process of reduction? 3. What is a reducing agent? 4. What is an oxidizing agent? 5. How do you write the half-reactions for redox reactions? 6. Can you determine the oxidation number of any element in a compound? 7. Can you use oxidation numbers to ID what is oxidized and what is reduced in a redox reaction? Can you find the oxidizing and reducing agents? 8. Can you use oxidation numbers to balance a redox reaction? 9. Can you use the activity series to predict whether two metals will have a redox reaction? E. Solutions 1. What are the different components of a solution? 2. What is the difference between a diluted and a concentrated solution? 3. Can you find the molarity of a solution? a) What does Molarity even mean? 4. Can you figure out how much of a pure solute you would need to make a solution with a known concentration? 5. Can you calculate the amount of a stock solution needed to make a solution with a known concentration? F. Stoichiometry 1. How do you use stoichiometric principles to solve problems pertaining to solutions? 2. Can you find mass, volume or concentration using Molarity? G. Titration 1. What is titration? 2. What is a standard solution 3. What is the equivalence point of a titration? 4. What is the purpose of an indicator in a titration? 5. Can you calculate the molarity of a substance based on a titration? 6. Can you determine the amount of titrant needed to reach the equivalence point of a titration given a known concentration of acid or base to be titrated? H. Gas forming Reactions (not sure how much of this we need to know) 1. How do you predict reaction products from the reaction of carbonates and bicarbonates with acids? 2. How do you predict reaction products from the reaction of sulfites and bisulfites with acids? 3. How do you predict reaction products from the reaction of ammonium salts and bases? 4. How do you predict reaction products from the reaction of sulfides with acids? II. Thermodynamics A. 1st Law of Thermodynamics 1. What is a thermodynamic system and its surrounding? 2. What is a state function? 3. What is internal energy? 4. What is the relationship between the law of conservation of energy and the first law of thermodynamics? 5. How do you use positive and negative signs to indicate direction of heat or work flow? 6. What do the terms endothermic and exothermic mean? 7. Can you ID the system and surroundings for any process? 8. Can you classify heat transfer as exothermic or enothermic from the system’s point of view? 9. Can you calculate the internal energy change of a system? 10. Can you predict the sign of the internal energy change from an analysis of energy flow into or out of a system? 11. Can you apply the first law of thermodynamics to relate energy changes of the system to energy changes of the surroundings? B. Energy flow 1. What is the relationship between heat and changes in temperature for various substances? 2. What is heat capacity, specific heat capacity, and molar heat capacity? 3. What is pressure-volume work? 4. Can you explain the concept of pressure-volume work using a piston and cylinder? 5. Can you calculate the amount of heat lost or gained associated with temperature change? 6. Can you calculate the temperature change associated with a loss or gain of heat? 7. Can you calculate the heat exchanged between two substances? 8. Can you calculate the amount of work done with a change in volume under conditions of constant pressure? C. Enthalpy 1. What is enthalpy? (H= U + PV) 2. Starting from the definition of enthalpy, can you show that heat transferred under conditions of constant pressure is equal to the enthalpy change? D. Bomb Calorimeter 1. What is a bomb calorimeter, and what is a bomb calorimetry experiment? 2. Can you calculate the heat capacity of a bomb calorimeter from experimental data? 3. When using experimentally determined heat capacity, can you calculate the internal energy of a reaction in both extensive (kJ0 and intensive (kJ/mol) units from bomb calorimetry experiments? 4. Can you calculate the nutritional calories in a food substance using experimental data obtained from a bomb calorimetry experiment? E. Coffee-cup calorimetry 1. What is a coffee-cup calorimeter, and what is a coffee-cup calorimetry experiment? 2. Can you calculate the heat capacity, specific heat capacity, or molar heat capacity of a substance from a coffee-cup calorimetry experiment? 3. Can you calculate the final temperature of a system brought to the thermal equilibrium in a coffee-cup calorimeter? F. Thermochemical equations 1. What is a thermochemical equation? 2. What are the common thermochemical equations and processes? (fusion, vaporization, sublimation, neutralization, combustion, solution, ionization) 3. Can you calculate the amount of a substance needed to produce a certain quantity of heat, given a thermochemical equation? 4. Can you calculate the amount of heat lost or gained from a certain quantity of substance, given a thermochemical equation? G. Enthalpy of a Target Reaction (Hess’s Law) 1. What is Hess’s Law? 2. What are two ways that you can manipulate thermochemical equations? a) Multiplication/division of an equation b) Flipping an equation 3. Can you calculate the enthalpy of a target reaction using Hess’s Law? H. Enthalpy of a reaction from enthalpy of formation data 1. What is enthalpy of formation? 2. How do you use Hess’s law to calculate the heat of reaction from heat of formation? 3. What are the heats of formation for elements? 4. What is the standard state of solids, liquids and gases? 5. Can you write reactions where the heat of reaction is equal to the heat of formation? 6. Can you calculate the heat of reactions for a given reaction using heats of formation? 7. Can you calculate the heat of formation for a given substance if the heat of reaction si known as well as any additional heats of formation?


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