Psy 120 SG
Psy 120 SG PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Popular in PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Val Lumani on Wednesday April 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 382 views.
Reviews for Psy 120 SG
These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/01/15
CHAPTER 9 Language and Thought 0 Language determines how we think or perceive 0 Grammar rules that allow people to combine symbols to convey meaning 0 Phonology rules for combining sounds to make words 0 Syntax rules for combining words to make sentences 0 Semantics rules used to communicate meaning 0 Phonemes smallest significant sound units in speech easY zombIE 0 Morphemes smallest units in a language that carry meaning Surface structure appearance of words in a sentence Deep structure underlying representation of meaning INFANT COMMUNICATION Children are born to learn language 35 weeks repetition of vowel sounds like ooh and ahh 46 months repetition of vowel consonants kaka 618 months vocalizations become specific to the native language first word is spoken by the end of the year 24 months vocabulary nearly 200 words child shows telegraphic speech grammatical 2 word combinations Preschool ability to produce sentences 0 Functional fixedness the tendency to see objects and their functions in certain fixed and typical ways 0 Heuristics rules of thumb we use to solve problems 0 Representative Heuristictendency to make decisions based on an altemative s similarity or representativeness in relation to an ideal 0 People decide Whether a sequence is random based on how irregular the sequence looks 0 Availability Heuristic the tendency to base estimates on the ease With Which examples come to mind CHAPTER 10 Intelligence psychometric the use of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes Charles Spearman 0 G general intelligence explains performance on variety of mental tests 0 8 specific intelligence that are unique to each individual test CATTEL S THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Fluid Intelligence natural ability to solve problems reason and remember It is unin uenced by experience crystalized intelligence knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience schooling Gardner s theory of intelligence intelligence need to be broadened to include special abilities or talents People possess a set of separate and independent intelligences ranging from musical ability to interpersonal ability Sternber s Triarchic theor ro oses threet es of intelli ence anal tic creative ractical y P P YP g y P 0 Achievement tests tests that measure your current level of knowledge in a particular subject 0 Aptitude tests tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject 0 Reliability measure of the consistency of the test results 0 Validity an assessment of how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure 0 Content assesses the degree to which the content of a test samples broadly across the domain of interest 0 Predictive assesses how well the test predicts future criterion 0 Constructive assesses how well the tests taps into a particular theoretical construct 0 Standardization keeping the testing scoring and interpretation procedures similar across all administrations of a test Intelligence quotient formula Mental ageChronological Age x100 Mental age the chronological age that best fits a child s level of performance on a test of mental ability Mental retardation scoring an IQ below 70 Gifted scoring an IQ above 130 scores of identical twins are very similar irrespective of the environment in which the twins have been reared CHAPTER 11 motivation and emotion motivation the set of factors that initiate and direct behavior usually toward some goal Instincts unlearned characteristic patterns of responding that are controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world Drive internal state that arises in response to a need such as hunger or thirst Incentive motivationexternal factors in the environment that exert pulling effects on our actions Achievement motive pushes us to seek success and significant accomplishment in our lives Intrinsic motivation goal directed behavior that seems to be entirely selfmotivated Maslow s Hierarchy of needs 1 2 3 4 5 Physiological needs Safety needs Belongingness and love needs Esteem needs Selfactualization needs EATING DISORDERS Glucose sugar required for energy production When amount of usable glucose falls below a certain level you are hungry again Insulin hormone released by the pancreas Leptin hormone that may regulate the amount of energy stored in fat cells 0 Anorexia person refuses to maintain normal weight because of an intense fear of being overweight 0 Bulimia an eating disorder in which the principal symptom is binge eating followed by purging by vomiting or using laxatives Physiological phases of sexual arousal 1 Excitement phase characterized by changes in muscle tension increased heart rate and blood pressure and a rushing of blood to the genital organs 2 Plateau phase arousal increases at a slower rate toward a preorgasm maximum point 3 Orgasmic phase characterized by rhythmic contractions in the sex organs in men ejaculation occurs 4 Resolution phase arousal returns to normal levels For men there is a refractory period 0 Homeostasis the process through which the body maintains a steady state such as a constant internal temperature or an adequate amount of uids Evolutionary View of Mate Selection 0 Men are more likely than woman to pursue short term sexual strategies 0 Men tend to want younger woman 0 Gender specific reproductive problems 0 Facial feedback Hypothesis muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are the interpreted depending on the pattern as a subjective emotional state 0 James lange theory theory of emotion that argues that body reactions recede and drive the subjective experience of emotions you inch and then emotion of fear comes 0 Cannon Bard theory theory of emotion that argues that body reactions and subjective experiences occur together but independently General adaptive syndrome term to describe the bodies shortlong term reaction to stress CHAPTER 12 Personality The Big Five 1 2 3 4 5 Extroversion talkative sociable funloving affectionate Agreeableness sympathetic warm trusting cooperative Conscientiousness ethical dependable productive purposeful Neuroticism anxious insecure guilt prone selfconscious Openness daring nonconforming imaginative Self report inventories personality tests Which people answer groups of questions about how they typically think act and feel Their responses are then compared to average responses compiled from larger groups Projective personality test test in Which individuals are asked to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli Person situation debate controversial debate centering on Whether people really do behave consistently across situations Self Monitoring tendency to mold or change your behaVior to fit the situation at hand CHAPTER 13 Social Psychology External attribution attributing the cause of a person39s behavior to an external event or situation in the environment Internal attribution attributing the cause of a person39s behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition Fundamental attribution error when people overestimate the in uence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors Actorobserver effecttendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources but to attribute the behavior of others to internal sources Social facilitation the enhancement in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in the presence of others Bystander effect the unwillingness to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders behavior is considered abnormal if it violates the accepted standards of society GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDERExcessive worrying or free oating anxiety that lasts for at least 6 months PANIC DISORDER when people suffer from recurrent episodes or attacks of extremely intense fear or dread 0CD anxiety manifests itself through persistent uncontrollable thoughts called obsessions PHOBIC DISORDERS highly focused fear of a speci c object or situation SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER intense fear of being watched judged and embarrassed in social situations SOMATOFORM DISORDERSpsychological disorders that focus on the phygcalbody Hypochondriasis idea that one has developed a serious disease based on what turns out to be a misinterpretation of normal body reactions Somatization disorder body symptoms that have no identi able cause conversion disorderthe presence of real physical problems such as blindness or paralysis DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS a class of disorders characterized by the separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories 0 dissociative amnesia inability to remember important information dissociative fugue loss of personal identity that is often accompanied by a ight from home may last months or even years dissociative identity disorder a person alternates among what appear to be two or more distinct identities or personality states MOOD DISORDERS prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state 1 major depressive disorder 0 00000 depressed mood and other symptoms Loss of interest in daily normal activities Signi cant change in weight dif culty sleeping Change in activity level Daily fatigue or loss of energy Suicidal thoughts 2 Bipolar disorder person experiences disordered mood shifts in two directions from depression to a manic state SCHIZOPHRENIA A class of disorders characterized by fundamental disturbances in thought processes emotion or behavior split mind hallucinations positive perceptions that have no basis external stimulation auditory Delusions thoughts with inappropriate content CHAPTER 15 Therapy TREATMENTS Schizophrenia chlorpromazine treats positive symptoms Antipsychotic drugs ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY treatment used primarily for depression in which a brief electric current is delivered to the brain PSYCHOSURGERY surgery that destroys or alters tissue in the brain in an effort to affect behavior Insight therapy treatments designed to give clients selfknowledge or insight into the contents of their thought processes 0 Psychoanalysis freud s method of treatment that attempts to bring hidden impulses and memories to the surface of awareness 0 Dream anaIysis freud believed that dreams are symbolic and contain important information about the unconscious Transference the patients expression of thoughts or feelings toward the therapist that are actually representative of the way the patient feels about other signi cant people in his or her life COGNITIVE THERAPIES treatments designed to remove irrational beliefs and negative thoughts that are presumed to be responsible for psychological disorders Rational emotive therapy a form of cognitive therapy in which the therapist acts as a kind of cross examiner verbaIIy assaulting the client39s irrational thought process BECKS COGNITIVE THERAPY rather than directly confronting clients with their irrational beliefs Beck suggests it39s more therapeutic for clients to identify negative forms of thinking themselves Humanistic therapy treatments designed to help clients gain insight into their fundamental selfworth and value as human beings Client centered therapy proposing that it is the client not the therapist that holds the key to psychological health and happiness The therapist39s role is to provide genuineness and empathy Systematic desensitization technique that uses counterconditioning and extinction to reduce the fear and anxiety that have become associated with a speci c object or event 1 Therapist asks client to come up with things that they fear or situations that cause fear 2 Therapist spends time teaching the client ways to achieve deep muscle relaxation 3 They attempt to work through the anxiety by pairing the images of fearful situations with pleasurable state of relaxation AVERSION THERAPY therapist tries to replace a pleasant reaction to a harmful stimulus with something unpleasant CHAPTER 16 Stress and Health 0 General adaption syndrome hans seye39s model of stress as a general nonspeci c reaction that occurs in 3 stages alarm resistance and exhaus on 0 Alarm corresponds to ght or ight response 0 Resistance during which the body adjusts its reaction in an effort to cope with a threat 0 Exhaustion occurs when the body s energy reserves become depleted that it starts to give up Type A an enduring pattern of behavior linked to stressrelated health disorders it is characterized by being hard driving ambitious easily annoyed and impatient Social support the resources we receive from other people or groups often in the form of comfort caring or help
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'