Chapter 6 Study Guide
Chapter 6 Study Guide 2010
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nykira sutton on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2010 at Clemson University taught by Jo Anne Jorgensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Chapter 6 Study Guide Learning Learning: any durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Fundamental concept of psychology Shapes personal preferences, personality traits and emotional responses Behaviorist definition Note. Behaviorism: study of observable behavior Conditioning Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment Two types: o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning Classical conditioning: type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Reflexive response o Ex. turning on a drill in a room full of people who have had fillings. The people will flinch away. Originally called pavlovian conditioning Types of Classical conditioning o Acquisition: initial stage of learning a new response tendency Depends on stimulus contiguity If the stimulus occurs together in time and space Does not automatically produce conditioning o Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Cause: consistent presentation of conditioned stimulus alone w/o unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus (US): stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response (UR): unlearned reaction to unconditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Unconditioned response (CR): learned reaction to conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning Evaluative conditioning: changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli Involve acquisition of likes and dislikes through classical conditioning Operant Conditioning: form of learning in which voluntary response come to be controlled by their consequences Voluntary response o Ex. You study and you get good grades Named by B.F. Skinner o From belief that in this type of responding an organism operates on the environment instead of simply reaction to stimuli Reinforcement: when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response o Response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences o Ex. you study hard because good grades are likely to follow as a result o Fundamental principle of operant conditioning: organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequence Skinner box: small enclosure in which an animal can make specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled o Reinforcement contingencies: circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers o Cumulative Recorder: creates graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time Note. These terms appear later in the textbook then the rest of the terms in this note section but are still relevant to the section Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Shaping: reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response Necessary when an organism does not emit the desired response on its own Ex. when rat is placed in skinner box it may not press the lever but the experimenter could release food pellets whenever the rat moves toward the lever o Increases rat’s tendency to touch the lever and rate of lever pressing Resistance to extinction: when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated The greater resistance to extinction is the longer the responding will continue People want to strengthen response in a way that it is resistant to extinction o Ex. most parents want to see their child’s study response survive even if the child hits a rough patch where studying doesn’t lead to good grades (reinforcement) Discriminative stimuli: cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or no reinforcement) of a response Play key role in regulation of operant behavior Ex. children learn to ask for sweets when their parents are in a good mood Reactions to discriminative stimuli governed by processes of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination Primary reinforcers: events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs In humans: food, water warmth, sex and perhaps affection Secondary or conditioned reinforcers: events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers Vary among members of a species o Depend on learning Material things people work hard to earn Ex. in humans: money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise and applause Schedule of reinforcement: specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time Simplest pattern is continuous reinforcement Continuous reinforcement: when every instance of a designated response is reinforced Used by experimenters in laboratory to shape and establish a new response before moving to more realistic schedules Intermittent reinforcement: when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time Makes a response more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement o Explains why behaviors that are reinforced only occasionally can be difficult to extinguish Ex. temper tantrums Fixed ratio schedule (FR): reinforce is given after a fixed number of non-reinforced responses Ex. rat reinforced for every tenth lever press Ex 2. Salesperson receives a bonus for every fourth gym membership sold Variable Ratio schedule (VR): number of nonreinforced responses varies around a predetermined average Ex. a slot machine in casino pays off once every six tries on the average o Number of nonwinning responses b/w payoffs varies greatly from one time to the next Fixed interval (FI): reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed Ex. you can get clean clothes out of washing machine every 35 min Variable interval (VI): reinforce is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapses Interval length varies around a predetermined average Ex. a person repeatedly dials a busy phone number Positive vs Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus Ex. good grades, tasty meals, paychecks etc. Also known as: Positive reward Negative Reinforcement: when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive unpleasant stimulus Not bad. Leads to removal of aversive stimulus. Ex. If you get good grades you get chores taken away o The chores are the aversive stimulus in this case Also known as: Negative reward Escape learning: organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation Negative reinforcement plays a key role in this Leads to avoidance learning Avoidance learning: organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring operant and classical conditioning work together to regulate behavior here sheds light on why phobias are so resistant to extinction Punishment Punishment: when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response Can involve the removal of rewarding stimulus o Ex. tv watching privileges Also involves presentation of aversive stimulus Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulus Conditioned response can reappear after being extinguished Renewal Effect: if response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place Suggests: extinction somehow suppresses conditioned response o Extinction does not ERASE the response o Extinction does not lead to unlearning Basically: even if you manage to rid yourself of an unwanted conditioned response (Ex. flinching when drill goes on in room if you have had a filling) there is a chance the response will reappear This applies to behavior therapies that help get rid of phobias Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to original stimulus Adaptive. Organisms rarely encounter the same stimulus more than once Ex. woman acquired phobia of bridges during childhood because her father scared her when they went over old bridges o Original CS (conditioned stimulus) is bridges but fear is generalized to ALL bridges Basic law governing generalization: the more similar new stimuli are to original CS, the greater the likelihood of generalization Contribute to panic disorder o Recurrent overwhelming anxiety attacks that occur suddenly and unexpectedly Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to original stimulus Adaptive. Animals survival determined by ability to distinguish between ally and enemy or edible vs poisonous Basic law governing discrimination: the less similar new stimuli are to original CS the greater the likelihood and ease of discrimination High Order Conditioning High order conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Shows: classical conditioning does not depend on presence of genuine US (unconditioned stimulus) New conditioned responses are built on foundation of already established conditioned responses Preparedness and Phobias Preparedness: species specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others Can explain why certain phobias are more common than others Ex. people develop phobia to snakes, spiders, heights and darkness easier Latent Learning Latent learning: learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs Observational Learning Observational learning: an organisms responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models Process crucial to observational learning o 1) Attention: to learn through observation you have to pay attention to another person’s actions o 2) Retention: must store mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory you may not have to use it for weeks, months or even years o 3) Reproduction: enacting response depends on ability to reproduce the response convert mental images into behavior o 4) Motivation: depend on whether you encounter a situation in which you believe the response fits for you unlikely to reproduce response if you are not motivated to do so
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