Health Emergencies 3300 Study Guide
Health Emergencies 3300 Study Guide HLTH 3300
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephan Louis on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 3300 at University of North Texas taught by Curt Fowler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Chapters 1-5 Before Giving Care Study Questions Chap 1. If Not You – Who? 1. What is your primary role in an emergency? a. Recognizing that an emergency exists. b. Deciding to act. c. Activating the EMS system by calling 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. d. Giving care until medical help arrives and takes over. 2. What is the first step toward taking appropriate action? a. The ability to recognize that an emergency has occurred is the first step toward taking appropriate action. 3. What are some indicators of an emergency? a. Unusual noises, sights, odors, and appearances or behaviors. 4. What are some barriers to act? a. Panic or fear of doing something wrong b. Being unsure of the person’s condition and what to do. c. Assuming someone else will take action. d. The type of injury or illness. e. Fear of disease. f. Fear of being sued. g. Being unsure of when to call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. 5. What can bystanders do to help you if they don’t know First Aid? a. Always follow the pre-arrival instructions provided by the EMD. Chap 2. Responding to an Emergency 6. What are the steps to follow in an emergency? a. Check b. Call c. Care 7. What is the most important reason to check the scene? a. The most important reason to check the scene is for others who may be injured within the scene and to make sure the scene is safe for you and bystanders to step in a help the person in need. 8. When should you call 911? a. When the person is unconscious, breathing problems, chest pain, abdominal pain, external bleeding, severe burns, vomiting blood, poising, fractured muscles, stroke, seizures, fire or explosion, presence of poisonous gas, electrical wires. 9. What information should you have when calling? a. The exact address or location and the name of the city or town b. The telephone number and address from which the call is being made. c. The caller’s name d. What happened e. The number of people involved f. The condition of the person g. The care being given. 10. If alone, when should you call first and when should you give care first? a. You should call first as in call 9-1-1 before giving care for unconscious adults or child’s. b. You should care first as in provide 2 minutes if care then call 9-1-1 for an unconscious person. Chap 3. Before Giving Care 11. What does following the standard precautions do for you and the person hurt? a. Following the standard precautions will help prevent you from getting diseases or infections and will help the person prevent loss of blood and body fluids when giving care. 12. What are the standard precautions when giving care to reduce disease transmission? a. Personal hygiene, using personal protective equipment, using proper equipment for cleaning and disinfecting contaminated surfaces and properly disposing of contaminated materials. 13. After giving care to one person, how should you wash your hands? a. Wet your hands with warm water, apply soap to your hands, rub your hands for at least 15 minutes, rinse your hands with water, dry your hands thoroughly with a paper towel, then turn off the faucet using the paper towel. 14. What is your protocol when wearing latex-free gloves? a. Only use the gloves for one use, remove any jewelry, cover up your own scars or cuts, don’t use torn gloves don’t clean or reuse gloves and change gloves before you give care to a different person. 15. How do you clean a blood spill? a. Use disposable gloves, wipe up the spill with a paper towel, use appropriate disinfectant to clean up the area, dispose of the contaminated material used to clean up the mess, and then contact the proper disposal department. 16. How do you obtain consent? a. Identify yourself to the person b. Give your level of training c. Ask the person whether you may help d. Explain what you observe e. Explain what you plan to do. 17. What are the 2 types of consent? a. Expressed consent which can be verbal or thought gestures. b. Implied consent is for those who are unable to respond because they are unconscious. 18. What should you do if someone refuses care or withdraws consent and you consider the injury serious? a. If the person refuses care, then you would call 9-1-1 and continue to monitor their behavior until medical help arrives. 19. What is the purpose of the Good Samaritan laws? a. The purpose of this law is to encourage people to help other in emergency situations, because some people fear that they may be sued if they decide to help other, but it’s rare that someone is sued for that. 20. Why is it important not to move a victim unless there is danger? a. Because movement can lead to further injury or ill person is unnecessary movement 21. When should you move a victim? a. When faced with immediate danger, such as fire, lack of oxygen, risk of exposition, when it is necessary to give proper care, and when you have to get another person who may have a more serious problem. 22. How would you move a person with a possible head, neck or spine injury? a. You would use the cloths drag move which is for the person to grab ahold of your cloths. Chap 4. Body Systems – No Questions Chap 5. Checking the Victim 23. What are some life-threatening conditions? a. Unconsciousness b. Trouble breathing c. Absence of breathing d. Severe bleeding 24. When checking a person, what do you check for first and how? a. When checking a person, you first want to make sure they are conscious, by tapping them on the shoulder and shout “Are you okay”. 25. What does the head-tilt/chin lift do? a. Yes, this method moves the tongue away from the back of the throat, allowing air to enter the lungs. 26. How long should you check for breathing? a. No more than 10 seconds. 27. How should you check a conscious adult with a non-life-threatening injury? What is the difference when checking a child? a. Interview the person and bystanders b. Check the person from head to toe. 28. What are the care steps for shock? (see study questions on First Aid Exam – Chapter 9) a. Keep airway open and clear b. Control any external bleeding c. Lay of back d. Elevate legs 6-12 inches if it does not cause pain e. Maintain normal body temp. f. Do not give anything to eat or drink. First Aid Exam Study Guide Chap 7 – Breathing Emergencies (Asthma only) 1. What should you do if someone is having an asthma attack? Chap 8 – Bleeding 2. How would you care for non-life threatening external bleeding? 3. What would you do if blood soaked through a dressing? 4. In what order should you provide care for severe external bleeding? 5. If you have taken the initial steps to stop external bleeding, but the bleeding continues, what should you do? 6. When would you use a tourniquet? 7. What are hemostatic agents and should they be used? 8. What are the signals of severe internal bleeding? 9. How should you care for minor internal bleeding such as a bruise (i.e., a contusion)? 10.How should you care for severe internal bleeding? Chap 9 – Shock 11.What is shock? a. a life-threatening condition that occurs when the circulatory system fails to provide adequate oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. 12.What might cause shock? a. Cardiogenic shock – resulting from failure of the heart to pump enough oxygenated blood b. Distributive shock – resulting from abnormal dilation of the blood vessels. c. Hypovolemic – resulting from severe bleeding or loss of fluid from the body. d. Injury to the chest, obstruction of the airway. 13.What tells you that a person is in shock? a. Apprehension, anxiety, restlessness or irritability. b. Altered level of consciousness. c. Nausea or vomiting d. Pale, ashen or grayish, cool, moist skin e. Rapid breathing f. Excessive thirst 14.What general care should you give to a person in shock? a. Make sure the person’s airway is open and clear b. Take steps to control any external bleeding and prevent further blood loss. c. If any broken bones or dislocated joints, immobilize them in the position found to prevent movement that could cause more bleeding and damage. 15.What might make you suspect shock in a child? a. If a child is experiencing severe vomiting or diarrhea for an extended period of time. Chap 10 – Soft tissue injuries 16.What closed wound signals would prompt you to call 911? a. A person complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain. b. You think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage. c. An injured extremity is blue or extremely pale. d. The person’s abdomen is tender and distended e. The person is vomiting blood or coughing up blood f. The person shows signals of shock or becomes confused, drowsy, or unconscious. 17.What are the types of open wounds? a. Abrasion – the most common type of open wound. b. Lacerations – a cut, which may have either jagged or smooth edges. c. Avulsions – a serious injury in which a portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away. d. Amputations – the complete removal or severing of an external body part. e. Puncture/Penetration wound – when the skin is pierced with a pointed object, such as a nail, glass. f. Crush injury – the result of a body part, usually an extremity, being subjected to a high degree of pressure. 18.How should you care for a minor open wound? (Someone is slicing tomatoes and accidently cuts themselves slightly, what should you do?) a. First, put on some gloves, apply pressure for a few minutes to control any bleeding, wash the wound with soap and water and gently dry with clean gauze, cover the wound with a clean dressing and a bandage to keep the wound moist and prevent drying, then wash your hands. 19.How should you care for a major open wound? (What would you do if someone is chain sawing a branch from a tree, accidently loses control of the saw and hits his leg with the chain causing serious bleeding?) a. First call 9-1-1, then put on gloves, cover the wound with bandage and apply pressure and add more bandage if the blood seeps through, continue to monitor the person’s condition to make sure they don’t go into shock, have them rest comfortably and reassure him or her, then wash your hands. 20.If a finger or other body part were severed, i.e. amputated from the body, how would you give care? a. Call 9-1-1 b. Put some gloves on, then tend to care for the wound, control the bleeding by cleaning the wound, place the finger in a plastic bag or container while labeling the person name on it, keep the bag cool by placing it in ice and make sure the doctors receive the finger. 21.What would you do if someone had an embedded object? a. Call 9-1-1, put on gloves, do not remove the object, apply direct pressure with sterile dressing to the edges of the wound, make sure to use a bulky dressing to stabilize the object, control the bleeding with bandage, then wash your hands. 22.If a person is burnt, what tells you it is critical and you need to call 911? a. If they have trouble breathing b. Burns covering more than one body part or a large surface c. Suspected burns to the airway, mouth and nose d. Has burns to the head, face neck, hands, feet or genitals e. Partial-or full thickness burn is a younger than age 5 or older than age 60 f. Has a burn resulting from chemicals, explosions or electricity. 23.What are the basic steps to caring for a heat (thermal) burn? a. Check the scene for safety first b. Stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burn c. Check for life- threatening conditions d. ASAP cool the burn down with large amounts of cold running water e. Cover the wound with sterilization f. Take steps in minimize shock g. Comfort and reassure the person 24.Should you put ice or ice water on a burn? Why? a. Neither, because it causes the body to lose critical heat and further damages delicate tissues, making the burn deeper. 25.How would you care for a person with a chemical burn either on the skin or in the eye? a. If the chemical is dry or in a powdered form, brush the chemical form the skin with a gloved hand or a towel and remove any contaminated clothing or jewelry. b. Flush the burn with large amounts of cool running tap water c. Take steps to minimize shock, d. If the eye is burned, flush the affected eye with water for at least 20 minutes. 26.What should you make sure of before helping someone with an electrical burn? a. Check the scene b. Turn off the power at its source and care for any life-threatening emergencies c. Call 9-1-1 d. Be prepared to perform CPR because electrocution cause cardiac and breathing emergencies e. Care for shock and thermal burns f. Look for entry and exit wounds and give appropriate care g. Check for additional injuries. Chap 11 – Musculoskeletal injuries 27.What are the four types of musculoskeletal injuries and what is the definition of each? a. Factures – a break or disruption in bone tissue. b. Dislocations – a displacement or separation of a bone from its normal position at a joint. c. Sprains – the partial or complete tearing or stretching of ligaments and other tissues at a joint. d. Strains – the excessive stretching and tearing of muscle fibers or tendons. 28.What are the signals of musculoskeletal injuries? a. A snapping sound b. Pain c. Bruising and swelling d. Significant deformity e. Injured area has visible abnormal lumps, ridges and hollows. f. The person is unable to use the affected part normally. g. There are bone fragments sticking out of a wound h. Person feels bone grating. (2 bones rubbing together) i. The injured area is cold, numb and tingly. j. The cause of the injury suggests that is may be severe. 29.What is the most important thing you can do initially for a musculoskeletal injury? a. A gentle reassuring approach is important in caring for a person with muscle, bone and joint injury. 30.When should you call 911 for a musculoskeletal injury? a. There is obvious deformity b. There is moderate or severe swelling and discoloration c. Bones sound or feel like they are rubbing together d. A snap or pop was heard or felt at the time of the injury e. There is a fracture with an open wound at, or bone piercing through, the injury site. f. The injured person cannot move or use the affected part normally. g. The injured area is old and numb h. The injury involves the head, neck or spine i. The injured person has trouble breathing j. The cause of the injury suggest that the injury may be severe k. Move the person to a vehicle for transport to a hospital. 31.What is the general care for musculoskeletal injuries? a. Following the mnemonic RICE: rest, immobilize, cold and elevate. Chap 12 – Injuries to the extremities 32.When should you splint and why should you stop splinting? a. You should splint when someone is injured as in there one is broken, you would warp it together to immobilize an injury. 33.An injury results in very severe pain in a thigh and that leg is shorter than the other. What has probably happened and what should you do and not do? a. 34.What should be your focus when giving care to extremity skeletal and extremity soft tissue injuries? 35.Note: Remember which splint we practiced for different injured body parts. Chap 13 – Injuries to the head, neck and spine 36.When should you consider the possibility of a serious head, neck or spine injury? a. Look for any swollen or bruised areas, but do not put direct pressure on any area that is swollen, depressed or soft. 37.What are the signals of a possible head, neck or spine injury? a. Changes in the level of consciousness. b. Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or spine c. Tingling or loss of sensation in the extremities. d. Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part. e. Observable, unusual bumps or depressions on the head or neck. f. Sudden loss of memory. g. Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose. h. Profuse external bleeding of the head, neck, or back. i. Seizures in a person who does not have a seizure disorder. j. Impaired breathing or impaired vision as a result of injury k. Nausea of vomiting l. Persistent headache m. Loss of balance n. Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes or behind the ears. 38.How should you care for possible head, neck or spine injuries? a. Use manual stabilization to minimize movement of the head, neck and spine. b. If the person is wearing a helmet, do not remove it unless you are specifically trained to do so and it is necessary to assess or access the person’s airway. c. Check for life- threatening conditions. d. Monitor consciousness and breathing e. Control any external bleeding with direct pressure unless the bleeding is located directly over a suspected fracture. f. Do not attempt to remove a penetrating object; rather, stabilize it with a bulky dressing g. Wear disposable gloves or use another barrier. h. Take steps to minimize shock. Keep the person from becoming chilled or over heated. 39.What is a concussion and what are the signals of a concussion? a. A concussion is a type of brain injury that involves a temporary loss of brain function resulting from a blow to the head. b. Confusion, which may last from moments to several minutes c. Headache d. Repeated questioning about what happened. e. Temporary memory loss, especially for periods immediately before and after the injury. f. Brief loss of consciousness g. Nausea and vomiting h. Speech problems i. Blurred vision or light sensitivity 40.What should you do if someone hurts their head and you see blood, but when trying to apply pressure with a sterile pad the hurt area feels soft or spongy? a. You then have to control the bleeding on either the outside, inside or both dies of the cheek depending on the severity of the injury. 41.You see someone get hit in the face (cheek) somehow and blood starts coming out of their mouth, what should you suspect and do? a. Begin by examining both the outside and inside of the cheek. b. To control the bleeding inside the cheek, place several dressings, folded or rolled, inside the mouth, against the cheek. c. If there is external bleeding, place dressings on the outside of the cheek and apply direct pressure. 42.What do you do if someone’s nose is bleeding? a. Have the person sit with his or her head slightly forward while pinching the nostrils together for about 10 minutes. b. If that does not work, then you can apply an ice pack to the bridge of the nose. Ice should not be applied directly to the skin. c. Keep the person leaning slightly forward so that blood does not drain into the throat and cause the person to vomit 43.How would you care for someone with a chemical in their eye? a. Try to remove the foreign body by telling the person to blink several times, then try gently flushing the eye with water b. If it’s more serious than the person should flush their eye continually out with water. 44.You see someone gets hit hard in the eye by an object and there is no bleeding, what should you do? a. 45.What should you do if there is an eye with an embedded object? a. Place the person in a face – up position and enlist someone to help stabilize 46.You see someone have a serious head injury and blood starts to come out of one of the ears, what would you do and not do? a. If you can easily see and grasp the object, remove it. b. Do not try to remove any object by using a pin, toothpick or a similar sharp item. c. Sometimes you can remove the object if you pull down on the earlobe, tilt the head to the side and shake or gently strike the head on the affected side. 47.What is your primary concern for an injury to the mouth, jaw or neck? a. To ensure that the airways is open. 48.What would you do if someone has been hit in the mouth, jaw or neck but after checking them out it does not seem too serious? a. Place the person bleeding from the mouth in a seated position with the head tilted slightly forward to allow any blood the drain. 49.What would you do if someone gets a tooth knocked out? a. Control the bleeding and save the tooth or teeth for re-plantation. 50.Someone reaches down to move a bag of concrete. He pulls on it and then grabs his back. What should you suspect and what would you do? a. He pulled a back muscle and I would have to seat them down into a positions that would not harm their back. Chap 14 – Injuries to the chest, abdomen and pelvis 51. What is the general care for serious injuries to the chest, abdomen and pelvis? a. Call 9-1-1 b. Limit movement c. Monitor breathing and signs of life d. Control bleeding e. Take steps to minimize shock. 52.How should you care for a suspected rib fracture? a. Have the person rest in a position that that will make breathing easier. b. Call 9-1-1 c. Give the person a blanket or pillow to hold against the fractured ribs to support and immobilize the area. d. Use a sling and binder to hold the person’s arm and/or blanket or pillow against the injured side of the chest. e. Monitor breathing f. Take steps to minimize shock. 53.What tells you there has been a puncture wound to the chest that has entered a lung? a. When air can pass freely in and out of the chest cavity, and the person cannot breathe normally. With each breath the person takes, you will hear a sucking sound coming from the wound. 54.What should you do to a puncture wound to the chest? a. Cover the wound with a large occlusive dressing, a dressing that does not allow air to pass though. b. Tape the dressing in place, except for one side or corner that remains loose. c. Monitor the person’s breathing d. Take steps to minimize shock 55.What might happen when the liver is damaged? a. When the liver is damaged, it will result in bleeding which can be severe and can be fatal. When the liver is injured, bile can also leak into the abdomen, which can cause severe irritation and infection. 56.What could happen if the spleen is damaged? a. The spleen can cause a severe loss of blood in a short time an can be life threatening. 57.What might happen if the stomach is injured? a. The stomach can bleed severely when injured, and food contents may leak into the abdominal cavity and possibly cause infection. 58.What are the signs of serious abdominal injury? a. Severe abdominal pain b. Bruising c. External bleeding d. Nausea and vomiting e. Pale, or ashen, cool, moist skin f. Weakness g. Thirst h. Pain, tenderness or a tight feeling in the abdomen i. Organs protruding from the abdomen j. Rigid abdominal muscles 59.How would you care for an open abdominal wound? a. Put on disposable gloves or use another barrier. b. Do not apply direct pressure c. Do not push any protruding organs back into the open wound d. Remove clothing from around the wound e. Apply a moist sterile or clean dressing loosely over the wound f. Cover the dressing loosely with plastic wrap, if available g. Cover the dressing lightly with a folded towel to maintain warmth h. Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated 60.How would you know there is a closed abdominal wound? a. If there is internal bleeding that results in shock 61.How would you care for a closed abdominal wound? a. Carefully position the person on his or her back with the knees bent, if that position does not cause pain. Bending the knees allows the muscles of the abdomen to relax. b. Avoid putting direct pressure on the area c. Place rolled up blankets or pillows under the person’s knees if available 62.If there is severe pain in the pelvic region, what should you do? a. Call 9-1-1 b. Do not move the person, try to keep the lying flat c. Check for signs of internal bleeding d. Minimize shock until EMS personal take over. Chap 15 – Sudden illness 63.What are commons signals of sudden illness? a. Changes in level of consciousness, such as feeling, dizzy, drowsy or confused, or becoming unconscious. b. Breathing problems c. Signals of a possible heart attack, including persistent chest pain, discomfort or pressure lasting more than a few minutes. d. Signals of a stroke, including sudden weakness on one side of the face, body, slurred speech and severe headache. e. Loss of vison or blurred vison f. Signals of shock, including rapid breathing, changes in skin appearance g. Sweating h. Persistent abdominal pain or pressure i. Nausea or vomiting j. Diarrhea k. Seizures 64.If someone faints, what should you do? a. Position the person on his or her back lying flat. b. Loosen any thigh or restrictive clothing, such as a tie or a collar c. Check that the person is breathing d. If the person vomits, roll him or her onto one side. 65.What does too much or too little sugar in the blood cause? a. Diabetes 66.Would there be any difference in caring for a diabetic suffering from hyper or hypoglycemia? a. No 67.Someone starts to get dizzy, has irregular breathing, and looks ill, what should you suspect and do? a. They are undergoing a seizure and I would have to remove all objects near the person and then pretty much let it run its course, while also called 9-1-1. 68.How much sugar should you give to someone who is having a diabetic emergency? (see 2015 changes) a. 12 ounce serving of fruit juice. 69.You see someone starting to have a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The seizure lasts a few minutes. What would you do during and after the seizure? 70.A child quickly develops an extremely high fever and starts to have a seizure, what is probably happening and what should you do? a. They are undergoing a febrile seizure and to care for them, I would move all furniture away from them and after the seizure passes, then you would position the person on his or her side or recovery position to that fluids can drain from the mouth. 71.What causes a stroke? a. When blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off or when there is bleeding into the brain. 72.Someone starts to lose control of his speech and you see one side of his face drooping. It lasts only a few minutes then disappears, what should suspect and do? a. I would suspect that they are undergoing a stroke and I would Note the time of onset of signals and report it to the call taker or EMS personnel when they arrive b. If they are unconscious, make sure that he or she has as open airway. 73. Someone starts to lose control of her speech; you see one side of her face drooping; and she cannot hold both arms up. This lasts more than a few minutes, what should suspect and do? a. The same thing as before 74.What does FAST mean and how is it used? a. FAST is used for a stroke, to identify the signals and get the person advance medical care. i. Face ii. Arm iii. Speech iv. Time Chap 16 – Poisoning 75.What are the four ways someone can be poisoned? a. Ingestion b. Inhalation c. Absorption d. Injection 76.What is the basic care for poisoning? a. Removing the person from the source of poison if the scene is dangerous. b. Check the person’s level of consciousness and breathing i. If they are unconsciousness or not breathing, then you would immediately call 9-1-1. c. If the person is conscious, ask questions to get more information about the current situation d. Look for any containers and/or packing and take them with you to the telephone. e. Call the National Poison Control Center Hotline at 800-222-1222 and follow directions 77.What are the indicators of possible food poisoning? a. Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea b. Chest or abdominal pain c. Trouble breathing d. Sweating e. Change in level of consciousness f. Seizures g. Headache of dizziness h. Weakness i. Irregular pupil size j. Burning or tearing eyes k. Abnormal skin color l. Burn injuries around the lips or tongue or on the skin around the mouth. 78.What should you do for absorbed poisons? a. Follow standard precautions and then immediately rinse the affected area thoroughly with water. b. Have them remove any type of jewelry and rinse the affected area for about 20 minutes. 79.What is anaphylaxis and what are some signals of it? a. A form of distributive shock caused by an often sudden severe allergic reaction, in which air passages may swell and restrict breathing. b. Trouble breathing, wheezing or shortness of breath c. Tight feeling in the chest and throat d. Swelling of the face, throat or tongue e. Weakness, dizziness or confusion f. Rash or hives g. Low blood pressure h. Shock 80.How would you care for anaphylaxis? a. Monitor the person’s airway and breathing for changes in his or her condition b. Give care for life-threating emergencies c. Quickly check the person from head to toe. Visually inspect the body d. Check the person head e. Check skin appearance. Look at the person’s face and lips f. Check the person’s breathing g. Care for respiratory distress h. Assist the person with using a prescribed epinephrine auto- injector if available i. Document any changes in the person’s condition over time. 81.How can you prevent poisoning? a. Keep all medication and household products out of children’s reach b. Use childproof safety caps on containers of medication and other potentially danger products. c. Keep products in their original containers, with the label in place d. Use poison symbols to identify dangerous substances e. Dispose of outdated medications f. Wear proper clothing when work g. Just be aware of what is poison. Chap 17 – Bites and stings 82.How should you remove a bee stinger, and after removing it what should you do? a. Remove any visible stinger. Scrape it away from the skin with the edge of a plastic card b. Wash the site with soap and water c. Cover the site with a dressing and keep it clean d. Apply ice or a cold pack to the area to reduce pain and swelling. Place a layer of gauze or cloth between the source of cold and the skin to prevent skin damage. 83.How should you remove an embedded tick and what should you do immediately after removal? a. With a gloved hand, grasp the tick with fine-tipped, pointed, non-etched, non-rasped tweezers as close to the skin as possible b. Do not try to burn the tick off. c. Do not apply petroleum jelly or nail polish to the tick. d. Place the tick in a jar containing ribbing alcohol to kill it. e. Wash the site with soap and water. f. Apply antiseptic or antibiotic ointment to help prevent infection g. Wash your hands thoroughly. 84.You have a rash around your wrists and ankles and it spreads; what do you probably have? a. The Rocky Mountain spotted fever. 85.You have a rash that is lighter colored in the middle than on the outside; what might you have? a. The Lyme disease. 86.What are the general signs of a spider bite and scorpion sting? a. Rigid muscles in the shoulders, chest, back, and abdomen b. Restlessness c. Anxiety d. Dizziness e. Headache f. Excessive sweating g. Weakness h. Drooping or swelling of the eyelids 87.How do you care for a spider bite or scorpion sting? a. Wash the sire thoroughly with soap and water b. Bandage the wound. Apply and antibiotic ointment to the bandage first if the person has no known allergies or sensitives to the medication c. Apply ice or a cold pack to the site to reduce pain and swelling. Place a layer of gauze or cloth between the source of cold and the skin to prevent skin damage. 88.How do you care for venomous snakebites? a. Wash the site with soap and water. b. Apply an elastic bandage to slow the spread of venom through the lymphatic system. c. Do not apply ice. d. Do not cut the wound e. Do not apply suction f. Do not apply a tourniquet g. Do not use electric shock, such as from a car battery. 89.You’re at the coast and someone yells out that they were stung, what would you do? a. Get a lifeguard to remove the person from the water as soon as possible b. Use gloves or a towel when removing any tentacles c. If you know the sting is from a jellyfish, irrigate the injured part with large amount of vinegar as soon as possible for at least 30 seconds. d. Do not rub the wound or apply a pressure immobilization bandage, fresh water, aluminum sulfate, meat tenderizer or other remedies because these may increase pain. e. After that care for pain by hot-water immersion. Have the person take a hot shower if possible for at least 20 minutes 90.If sting is known to be from a stingray, sea urchin or spiny fish, what should you do? a. Flush the wound with tap water, and ocean water may be used as well. b. Keep the injured part still and soak the affected area in non-scalding hot water for at least 20 minutes or until the pain goes away. c. Clan the wound and apply a bandage. d. Watch for signals of infection and check with a health care provider to determine if a tetanus shot is needed. 91.What would you do if someone was bit by another person or an animal? a. First try to get the person away from the animal without endangering yourself. b. Animal bite i. Control the bleeding first if the wound is bleeding seriously ii. Do not clean serious wounds. The wound will be cleaned at a medical facility. iii. Watch for signals of infection. iv. Advise the person to seek additional care from his or her health care provider or a medical facility. c. Human bite i. Control bleeding first if the wound if bleeding seriously. ii. Do not clean serious wounds. The wound will be cleaned at a medical facility iii. Watch for signals of infection. iv. Advise the person to seek additional care from his or her health care provider or a medical facility. Chap 18 – Substance abuse and misuse 92.Victims of substance misuse or abuse should be treated like victims of ____? 93.If the person seems to be violent or threatening, what should you do? a. Call 9-1-1 b. Try to learn from the person or others what substances may have been taken. c. Clam and reassure the person. d. Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated. Chap 19 – Heat- and cold-related emergencies 94.What are the heat-related emergencies and what is their progression? a. Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Dehydration is also another condition. 95.You see someone running and they stop and grab their calf, they say it feels tight, what would you do? a. Help the person move to a cool place to rest. b. Give an electrolyte- and carbohydrate-containing fluid such as a commercial sports drink, fruit juice or milk. Water is also a factor. c. Lightly stretch the muscle and gently massage the area. d. Do not give the person salt tablets. They can worsen the situation. 96.Someone has been out in the heat working and starts to get cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin and is dizzy, weak and sweating heavily, what would you suspect and do? a. Heat Exhaustion. i. Move the person from the hot environment to a cooler environment with circulating air. ii. Loosen or remove as much clothing as possible iii. Apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets, taking care to remoisten the cloths periodically. iv. If the person is conscious, give them a commercial sports drink or fruit juice to restore fluid and electrolytes. v. Let the person rest in a comfortable position. 97.What are the signals of heat stroke? a. Extremely high blood temperature b. Flushed or red skin that can be either dry or moist. c. Rapid, shallow breathing d. Throbbing headache e. Dizziness, nausea or vomiting. 98.What is the care for heat stroke? a. Rapidly cool the body by immersing the entire body with cold, wet towels. 99.How would you recognize frostbite? a. Lack of feeling in the affected area b. Swelling c. Skin that appears waxy, is cold to the touch and is discolored d. In more serious cases, blisters may form and the affected part may turn black and show signals of deep tissue damage. 100. How would you care for frostbite (both minor and serious)? a. Handle the area gently, Rough handling can damage the body part. Never rub the affected area, as this can cause skin damage. b. If there is a chance that the body part may refreeze or if you are close to a medical facility, do not attempt to re-warm the frostbitten area. c. For minor frostbite, rapidly re-warm the affected part using skin-to-skin contact such as with a warm hand. d. For more serious frostbite, re - warm the affected area by gently soaking it in water not warmer than 105. e. Loosely bandage the area with dry, sterile dressings. f. If the fingers or toes are frostbitten, place dry, sterile gauze between them to keep them separated g. Avoid breaking and blisters h. Take precautions to prevent hypothermia. i. Monitor the person and care for shock. j. Do not give any ibuprofen or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs k. Call 9-1-1 101. Someone has been in the cold for a long period of time and is shivering, numb, and has a glassy stare, what is happening and what should you do and not do and why? a. Call 9-1-1 b. Move the person to a warmer environment if possible. c. Check for breathing if the person is unconscious d. Make the person comfortable. Remove any wet clothing and dry the person off. Put on dry clothing if available. e. Warm the body gradually by wrapping the person in blankets and plastic sheering to hold in body heat. f. If they are conscious, give them something warm to drink.
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