EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CPO 2002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lilayali Garcia on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CPO 2002 at Florida State University taught by Quintin Beazer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS in Political Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 2: What is Science Science is a method for provisionally understanding the world. Science is a quest for knowledge. This quest relies on criticism and requires allowing for the possibility that our theories or claims might be wrong. Science is tentative, objective, and public. Invites criticism and improvement. Falsifiability = the thing that distinguishes science from nonscience is that scientific statements must be potentially falsifiable. Tautology = statement that is true by definition. The scientific method describes the process by which scientists learn about the world. A theory is a set of logically consistent statements that tell us why the things we observe occur. Proposes a “cause” or a causal process. Often referred to as a “model.” Hypotheses = Deduce implications from the model other than those we set out to explain in the first place. Empirical Observation = to test our claims, we examine whether the model’s implications of the model are consistent with what we observe in the world around us. Evaluation = If we observe those things implied by our theory, then we say that our theory is supported. We do not say that our theory is proven. Comparative politics is a subfield of political science. The study of politics predominantly between countries. Argument = set of logically connected statements, typically in the form of a set of premises and a conclusion. Premise = statement that is presumed to be true within the context of an argument leading to a conclusion. Conclusion = claim that is thought to be supported by the premises. An argument is valid when accepting the premises compels us to accept its conclusion. An argument is invalid if, when we accept the premises, we are free to accept or reject its conclusions. Categorical syllogism Mayor premise = typically a conditional statement such as “If P, then Q.” The “If” part is called the antecedent. The “then” part is called the consequent. Minor premise = consists of a positive/negative claim about either the statement’s antecedent or consequent. Conclusion = claim that is thought to be supported by the premises Anteced Consequent ent Affir Valid Invalid m Deny Invalid Valid Deductive approach to learning = formulates expectations based on a theory and then finds observations Inductive approach to learning = start with observations, find patterns that can be used to generate explanations Necessary Condition = A circumstance in whose absence the event in question cannot occur. (Y never happens unless X happens) Sufficient Condition = A circumstance in whose presence the event in question will/must occur. (Y always happens if X happens) Necessary and Sufficient Condition = A circumstance in whose absence the event will not occur and in whose presence the event must occur. Comparative Method – Mill = the systematic search for “necessary,” “sufficient,” and “necessary and sufficient” conditions. Method of Agreement = when the cases agree on the phenomenon to be explained. Method of Difference = when the cases disagree on the phenomenon to be explained. Myths about Science 1) Science leads to certain and verifiable truth (No! Science only presents tentative statements about what seems reasonable in light of the best available logic and evidence) 2) Science can be done only when experimental manipulation is possible (No! Theories only need to be falsifiable) 3) Science is value-neutral (No! The pursuit of knowledge is closely related to attempts to change the world) 4) Politics cannot be pursued in a scientific manner (No! The study of politics uses the scientific method) CHAPTER 3: What is Politics Politics = subset of human behavior that involves the use of power or influence. One of the tools political scientists use to study politics is known as game theory. Game theory models the interaction between two or more strategic political actors using formal (math) notation. Players’ actions are interdependent (Decisions are based in part by what others are doing). Players are faced with choices, available courses of action. Players face a decision at a choice node. A payoff indicates how the players’ value each of the outcomes The goal is to identify players’ strategies. A strategy is a plan that specifies what a player would do under every possible circumstance. Nash Equilibrium = A set of strategies (one for each player) such that no player has an incentive to unilaterally switch to another strategy. A game can be represented: 1) by a game tree (extensive form games), or 2) by a payoff matrix (normal form or strategic form games). Extensive form games are good at modeling sequential behavior. We typically solve extensive form games like this by finding the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium, or SPNE. A subgame is the part of a game beginning at one choice node and including all succeeding choice nodes. We solve for SPNEs using backward induction (this means starting at the end of the game and reasoning backward). Exit, Voice, & Loyalty Game Citizen must decide whether to: 1. Accept change–remain loyal (L). 2. Resist the change by exiting the situation (E). 3. Protest and try to get benefit back through use of voice (V). CHAPTER 4: What is the State State = entity that uses coercion and the threat of force to rule in a given territory. 1. A given territory. 2. The use of force or the threat of force to control the inhabitants Nation = group of people who share some sort of common identity. Nation-State = state in which a single nation predominates. The state’s legal, social, demographic and geographic boundaries are connected meaningfully to that nation. (Ex: Egypt, Armenia, Japan) Unlike other social organizations, the state is “a violence producing enterprise.” (coercive) Failed states = states that cannot coerce or control the inhabitants of a given territory. (Ex: Afghanistan, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Congo, Iraq, and others) Contractarian View = a social contract is an agreement among individuals to create and empower the state. Focuses on the conflicts of interests between individuals. Neutral, behind the scenes, passive, omniscient, omni-present, implicit Based on work of Thomas Hobbes (The Leviathan), John Locke (The Social Contract) How would people behave if they did worry about being punished by a state? Hobbes described this situation as “the state of nature.” Life in the state of nature described as a “war of every man against every man”. Life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” People in the state of nature face a dilemma. We can represent their preferences and decisions using something called a game matrix. A best reply is the action that yields the highest payoff given what the other player is doing. Dominant Strategy = the player is better off with a specific action no matter what the other player does. Dominant Strategy Nash Equilibrium = both players have a dominant strategy. Predatory View = focuses on conflicts of interest between citizens and the state. The predatory approach sees the state as an organization that trades security for revenue. Strategic, rational, individual, political. Charles Tilly used this idea to explain the rise of the modern state in Europe. This view emphasizes that the state is not just a neutral referee of social conflict; rulers faces their own problem of cooperation. Four strategies that lead to rise of modern European State: 1. War making: Eliminating or neutralizing their own rivals outside the territories in which they have clear and continuous priority as wielders of force. 2. State making: Eliminating or neutralizing their rivals inside those territories. 3. Protection: Eliminating or neutralizing the enemies of their clients. 4. Extraction: Acquiring the means of carrying out the first three activities. CHAPTER 5: Measuring Democracy Substantive View of Democracy = classifies political regimes in regard to the outcomes that they produce. DD/PACL and Polity IV Minimalist View of Democracy = classifies political regimes in regard to their institutions and procedures. Freedom House Democracy-Dictatorship (DD) A country is a democracy if: 1. The chief executive is elected. 2. The legislature is elected. 3. There is more than one party competing in elections. If these conditions do not hold, then the country is a dictatorship. Contested elections are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for DD classification of democracies. DD is a minimalistic view of democracy. DD treats regime type as a dichotomy (democracy or dictatorship) rather than as a continuum (more or less democratic). Polity IV Provides an annual evaluation of democracy and autocracy. Based on five attributes. 1. Competitiveness of executive recruitment. 2. Openness of executive recruitment. 3. Executive constraints. 4. Regulation of participation. 5. Competitiveness of participation Freedom House Not a measure of democracy, but of “global freedom.” Freedom has two broad categories. 1. Political rights (e.g. right to vote, compete for office) 2. Civil rights (e.g. freedom of speech) Based on Universal Declaration of Human Rights Freedom House classifies countries as Free, Partly Free, and Not Free. Evaluating measures 1. Conceptualization = is the process of creating mental categories that capture the meaning of objects, events, or ideas. Different measures are appropriate for different questions. 2. Validity = is the extent to which our measures correspond to the concepts they are intended to reflect. Measurement Level I. Nominal measure Discrete categories. DD/PACL II. Ordinal measure Rank order cases. More or less democratic than others Level of education Attributes No hard and fast rules for determining which attributes to include. 3. Reliability = A reliable measure is one that repeatedly and consistently produces the same score for a given case. Reliability depends on the extent to which the measure is based on observables rather than subjective judgments. 4. Replicability = refers to the ability of third-party scholars to reproduce the measurement process. Allows for independent evaluation of the reliability and validity of a measure. Requires that scholars provide clear coding rules and make disaggregated data available. CHAPTER 6: Economic Determinants of Democracy Modernization theory All societies develop through a series of stages. Modernization leads to societal changes that lead to political change. Empirical Analysis 1. Dependent Variable This is the thing we want to explain 2. Independent Variables These are the things we think explain or determine the value of the dependent variable
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