Exam 2 Study Guide Research Methods PSYC 2201
Exam 2 Study Guide Research Methods PSYC 2201 PSYC 2210
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosemarie Pacitto on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2210 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Lyndon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Study Guide for Exam II Ethics 1. Know some of the examples of unethical studies described in your text/in class (e.g., Tuskeegee Syphilis study, Willowbrook, etc.) Tuskeegee during the 20’s it was suggested that 35% of all black men living in the south were infected with syphilis. The study wanted to measure the effects of untreated syphilis on men’s health over the long term. Men were not informed they had syphilis, they were told they had “bad blood” Never given any beneficial treatment At one point, researchers conducted a painful and dangerous spinal tap procedure in order to follow progression of disease lied to men in order for them to come telling them it was “special free treatment” Kept men from enlisting in military. Ethical Violations in this study: 1. The men were not treated respectfully 2. The men were harmed 3. Researchers targeted a disadvantaged social group (poor and African American) Milgrams Obedient Study 2 participants (a teacher and a learner) are used as participants to study obedience. As study goes on, the teacher is told to punish the learner for errors by administering electric shocks at increasingly high intensities. For each wrong answer, the teacher generates a shock to the learner at 15volt intervals until 450 volts. The teacher however does not know that the shocks aren’t actually being administered and that the learner is actually acting as if he is being harmed by the shocks. Level of obedience for study was 65% (meaning that the teachers complied every time the experimenter urged them to continue administering shocks) 2. What is the IRB and what is its purpose? The IRB is the Institutional Review Board (committee) responsible for interpreting ethical principles and ensuring that research using human participants is conducted ethically (these committees can be the university and department levels) 3. What are the three components of ethics according to the Belmont Report? Be able to recognize examples. Respect for persons (see informed consent #4) 1. People are free to make up their own mind about whether they wish to participate or not after learning about the project. 2. Some people entitled to special protection when it comes to informed consent (children and other individuals may not be able to give consent because they might not understand the procedures well enough to make informed choices) Principle of beneficence researchers must take precautions to protect participants from harm and to ensure their well being. 1. Cost benefit Analysis for participants (will this study be beneficial to the participant?) 2. Cost benefit for Society (will this study benefit the community?) Principle of justice a. How are the participants selected? Do they represent the people who will benefit from the study? (For example, in the Tuskeegee study, participants were all poor African Americans, but anybody can get syphilis) 4. What is the purpose of informed consent and assent? When isn’t informed consent necessary? What is coerced consent? The purpose of informed consent is so that researchers cannot mislead people about the study’s risks and benefits. It is the researchers obligation to explain the study to potential participants in everyday language, and give them a chance to decide whether to participate. Consent is not necessary if the study is not likely to cause harm and if it takes place in an educational setting. Not necessary in anonymous questioners, or when the study involves naturalistic observation of participants in low risk public settings. Coerced consent or coercion occurs when researchers explicitly or implicitly suggest that those who do not participate will suffer negative consequence (rewards, power structure, prisons) 5. What is necessary information on a consent form? Name of researcher Goal/Purpose of the study Potential risks Potential benefits Voluntary withdrawal at any time without penalty Contact information of Principal Investigator and IRB Board member All written in simple language = 8 grade reading level is preferred 6. When is it appropriate to use deception (researchers withhold some details of the study from participants deception through omission; researchers actively lie to participants deception through commission)? It is acceptable to use deception when you are trying to record the responses of individuals in a particular setting. If you were to tell them what the researchers are planning and measuring, the results and data wouldn’t be meaningful. Researchers also must debrief the participant after the study. 7. What is minimal risk? research in which participants are exposed to risks that are no greater than those encountered in daily life or in routine physical or psychological tests 8. What’s the purpose of debriefing? When researchers use deception, they must spend time after the study debriefing each participant in a structured conversation. In this session, researchers describe the nature of the deception and explain why it was necessary. Emphasizing the importance of the research attempts to restore an honest relationship with participant. 9. What groups are considered "protected populations" according to the IRB? Children and persons with intellectual or developmental disabilities (see question #3) 10. What is considered plagiarism? Representing the ideas or words of others as your own. Identifying Good Measurement 1. Be able to identify different ways to measure variables and some of their strengths and weaknesses (e.g., physiological, behavioral, selfreport) (see pages 122124) Self report operationalizes a variable by recording peoples answers to questions about themselves in a questionnaire or interview (cognitive: what/ how do you think?, affective: how do you feel?, behavioral: how do you behave A problem with self report is reporting bias Behavioral (observational) measure directly observe behavior Observers may see what they expect to see, observers can affect what they see Often require a behavioral coding to convert behavior into a numerical code. Can see participants in natural habitat where their behavior cannot be affected by examiner being knowingly present Physiological Behavior examine the physiological correlates of behavior (brain activity, nervous system activity, hormone levels, heart rate, blood samples) EMG, MRI’s can be used to measure this Weakness: would have to ask participant at the same time the brain scan is being done if they are happy at that moment (how do you measure happiness from brain activity) 2. What is reliability and validity? What is the relationship between the two concepts? IN order to tell if a study has construct validity, reliability and validity are the 2 aspects that measure construct validity. Reliability how consistent the results of a measure are Validity whether the operationalization is measuring what it is supposed to measure. 3. The differences between these additional types of validity: construct validity (convergent & discriminant validity) and criterion validity (concurrent and predictive). Criterion validity evaluates whether the measure under consideration is related to a concrete outcome, such as behavior, that it should be related to, according to the theory’s being tested (examines whether a measure correlates with key outcomes and behaviors) (read pg 143145) Convergent validity whether there is meaningful pattern of similarities and differences. The measure should correlate more strongly with other measures of the same constructs; and it should correlate less strongly with measures of different constructs measuring discriminant validity. (a measure should correlate more strongly with similar traits convergent validity and less strongly with dissimilar traits discriminant validity) 4. Know the differences between these types of reliability: testretest, inter rater/observer, and internal consistency. Testretest reliability the researcher gets consistent scores every time he or she uses the measure (if people take iq test one day, the same results should occur if taken a month later) Interrater reliability consistent scores are obtained no matter who measures/observes(2 or more independent observes will come up with consistent or similar findings, most relevant for observational study’s) Internal reliability a study participant gives a consistent pattern of answers, no matter how the researcher has phrased the question. 5. Be able to recognize examples of the different types of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval, & ratio). Nominal Scale a naming scale, each number represents an arbitrary category label rather than an amount of a variable (ex: Male/Female, if you’re from the north/south) Voting libertarian in an election, being a sophomore in college) Categorical variable Ordinal Scale scale that indicates rank ordering, reflect the order but not the amount of a variable (ex: 1 in class, 2 in class) Third place in a spelling bee Ordinal data/ variable Interval Scale scale that has equal intervals and indicates amount but has no 0 point on the scale (temperature on the Celsius scale, iq test) The distance between 1 degree c and 2 degree is the same amount between 2 degrees c and 3 degrees c BUT being 0 degrees c doesn’t mean you have no temperature. Produces score data Ratio Scales scale that fits the number system well and has a true 0 and equal intervals, just like the real number system (time, distance, numbers correct,age, weight) When measuring how many questions are right on a test, 0 can be measured as none right on the test Produces score data 6. Know the difference between systematic variance and error variance. a. Where do both come from? Variance one measure how much behavioral variability you’ve observed (how things change across conditions, between individuals) Reduced variance is good Error variance can come from just about anywhere (participants moods, experimenter error) this is stuff you don’t want and you want to get rid of it. Systematic variance variability that due to the things you’re interested in. there is a pattern and you want to find that pattern which in turn is your hypothesis. Total variance= systematic variance + error variance. 7. Know statistical significance Alpha Level(α)= probability of obtaining your results if the null hypothesis is really true. –greater than >.05, less than <.05 a. And its role in researchers’ decisions regarding the null hypothesis. 8. Know the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis a. Be able to recognize examples. b. Know the statistical notation we use for both (H Ho, 1 The Null Hypothesis (H0) The hypothesis we are statiscially testing We hope to be able to reject the null, thereby supporting the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis assumes there is no relation to our variables (nothing is present, the independent variable has no effect on the dependent variable) You always start out assuming that the independent variable has no effect until otherwise proven wrong The Alternative Hypothesis (H1) The hypothesis we prefer to find and are trying to support Actual hypothesis means there is an actual pattern 9. Know what rejecting the null hypothesis means. Which situation (rejecting the null or failing to reject the null) does the researcher want to see? The researcher wants to reject the null. If the observed difference is bigger than expected from error variance alone, then we reject the Null Hypothesis (we reject the idea that nothing is there/ that there is no relation between variables) If not, we fail to reject the null hypothesis (accept the idea that the independent variable has no effect) 10. Know Type I and Type II error. If the null hypothesis is false (if there is relation) yet the statistical decision fails to reject the H0 (there is no relation) then Type II error is obtained. If the null hypothesis is true (there is no relation) yet the statistical evidence rejects the null (there is relation) then Type I error is obtained. Descriptive Research: Observations, Surveys, Sampling 1. Know examples of these types of inappropriate question wording on surveys: a. Doublebarreled questions, b. leading questions, c. negative wording, d. Why we use reversescored questions 2. Know the critiques of observational research. What are the pros and cons? Why would a researcher want to use one of these designs? Can you recognize examples of each? a. Naturalistic observation (covert & overt) b. Participant observation (covert & overt) c. Archival research 3. Know researcher bias in relation to observational research. 4. Know the difference between a population and a sample. 5. Know and be able to recognize examples of the following types of sampling methods: a. Simple random sampling b. Stratified random sampling c. Convenience sampling d. Purposive sampling e. Oversampling
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