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Study guide for the test on chapters 1-4

by: Nicole Notetaker

Study guide for the test on chapters 1-4 ANTH - 18630 - 003

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This study guide is a response to Dr.Zirkle's study guide. He asked questions and I answered them. There was a question on the study guide about ABO blood types and if you have a question about tha...
Human Evolution
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH - 18630 - 003 at Kent State University taught by Dexter Zirkle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Evolution in ANTH at Kent State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Key terms Eukaryotes: Multicellular organism with a nucleus and organelles (Chapter 3) Prokaryotes: Single cell organism that does not have a nucleus (Chapter 3) Mitochondria: An organelle in eukaryotic cells that has its own DNA, separate from nuclear DNA. It makes ATP and ATP in turn powers the cell. Making the Mitochondria the POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL. (Chapter 3) Gametes: “Sexual reproductive cells, ova and sperm, that have a haploid number of chromosomes and that can unite with a gamete of the opposite type to for a new organism” (pg 46) (Chapter 3) Somatic cells: “Diploid cells that form the organs, tissues, and other parts of an organism’s body” (pg 46) (Chapter 3) Mitosis: “The process of cellular and nuclear division that creates two identical diploid daughter cells” (pg 49) (Chapter 3) Meiosis: “The production for gametes through one DNA replication and two cell (and nuclear) divisions, creating four haploid gametic cells.” (pg 49) (Chapter 3) Transcription: “The first step of protein synthesis, involving the creation of mRNA based on the DNA template” (pg 56) (Chapter 3) Translation: “The second step of protein synthesis, involving the transfer of amino acids by tRNA to the ribosomes, which are then added to the protein chain.” (pg 56) (Chapter 3) Gene: “Basic unit of inheritance. A sequence of DNA on a chromosome, coded to produce a specific protein.” (Slide 23 in the week 2 slides) (Chapter 2) Allele: “Alternate form of a gene” (slide 23 in the week 2 slides) (Chapter 2) Chromosomes: “The strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contains hundreds or thousands of genes” (pg. 36) (Chapter 2) Dominant: “Refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism’s phenotype and that simultaneously masks the effects of another allele, if another one is present” (pg. 35) (Chapter 2) Recessive: “An allele that is expressed in an organism’s phenotype if two copies are present but is masked if the dominant allele is present.” (pg. 35) (Chapter 2) Phenotype: “The physical expression of the genotype; it may be influenced by the environment.” (pg. 36) (Chapter 2) Genotype: “The genetic makeup of an organism; the combination of alleles for a given gene.” (pg. 36) (Chapter 2) Heterozygous: When one possesses different alleles for a single trait. (Chapter 3) Homozygous: When one possesses the same alleles for one singular trait. (Chapter 3) Codominance: When two different traits are equally dominant and they end up being expressed at the same time. (Chapter 3) Pleiotropy: “One gene has multiple biological effects” (pg 66) (Chapter 3) Polygenic: “Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes” (pg 65) (Chapter 3) Evolutionary fitness: Being able to produce offspring that can reproduce Triplet: “Sequences of three nitrogen bases each in DNA, known as codons in mRNA” (pg 57) Codon: “The sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce specific amino acids in protein synthesis (pg 57) Anticodon: “Sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by tRNA, the match up with the complementary mRNA codons and each designate a specific amino acid during protein synthesis” (pg 57) Evolution: A process in which living beings gain qualities to help them survive as a species through natural selection and mutation People to remember James Hutton: Focused on how wind, rain, and other natural forces affected the planet’s surface. He saw the erosion was caused by rain and wind and that in turn the products of erosion formed “strata” or geologic deposits of things like sand rock and soil. Robert Hooke: Studied the “microscopic structure of fossil wood” (pg. 25) His big discovery was that the fossil wood that he was studying was once alive. Georges Cuvier: Studied the “structural makeup of many kinds of animals” (pg. 25). Through his study of fossils, he “reconstructed the… appearance, physiology and behavior” (pg. 25) of past animals. By doing this, he began to prove that these fossils were from animals that had been extinct for a long time. John Rey: “Advocated personal observation, careful description and consideration of plants’ and animals’ many attributes” (pg. 26) Carolus Linnaeus: Developed the system of binomial nomenclature. A system where all plants and animals are given “a higher-level genus… and a lower- level species” (pg. 28) Thomas Malthus: Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population in which he states that population size is limited by food supply and that those that survive are the ones that can best compete for it. Chevalier de Lamarck: Came up with a theory that in essence says that an organisms inherits traits (from its “parents”) that have been acquired by their parents in their parents own lifetime. Key concepts How the scientific method works (Chapter 1) 1. Make an observation about the world around you 2. Use that observation to form a hypothesis 3. Test your hypothesis 4. Study your results and form a conclusion 5. If your hypothesis has been proven incorrect return to step 2; if proven correct, publish your findings Anthropology and its sub disciplines (Chapter 1) 1. Cultural Anthropology: “The study of cultures and societies of human beings and their very recent past. Traditional cultural anthropologists study living cultures and present their observations in an ethnography.” (pg 6) 2. Archaeology: “ The study of past societies and their cultures, especially the material remains of the past, such as tools, food remains, and places where people lived.” (pg 6) 3. Linguistic Anthropology: “The study of language, especially how language is structured, the evolution of language, and the social and cultural contexts for language.” (pg 6) 4. Physical Anthropology: “All humans are products of their evolutionary history, and all humans are product of their individual life history. Nature vs. Nurture” (Slide 7 in the week one slides) Micro and Macro Evolution (Chapter 4) Micro Macro Small – scale Large – scale Change in allele frequency Change in physical characteristics From one generation to another Over hundreds or thousands of years Main drivers of evolution (types of genetic drift) (Chapter 2) 1. Natural Selection: A species survives through natural selection because the weakest parts of a species will die off, and the strongest, best parts of a species will survive. 2. Mutation: Random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait, that may be advantageous (good), deleterious (bad), or neutral in its effects. (Slide 29 of week 2 slides) 3. Gene Flow: Random exchange of alleles between populations of organisms (AKA: Migration) 4) Genetic Drift: Random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next. Having a greater impact on small populations.(Example: Bottlenecking and Founder Effect) What pieces of evidence that convinced Darwin that evolution takes place (Chapter 2) Darwin’s understanding of the findings of the men that founded the 5 scientific disciplines (Geology, Paleontology, Taxonomy and systemactics, Demography, and Evolutionary biology) helped him for his theory of evolution. Hutton and Lyell helped him to see how natural catastrophes could lead to changes to the face of the earth. Cuvier led him the conclusion that some of the fossils he discovered could be the product of animals that once lived but don’t live any longer. “Malthus’s ideas about reproduction” (pg. 32) opened Darwin’s eyes to the possibility of inheritance of beneficial traits. When Darwin brought his conclusions together he was encouraged to write what would be On the Origin of Species. In part due to the fact that another man Alfred Russel Wallace had come to many of the same conclusions and Darwin wanted to make sure that his voice was heard. So he did publish the aforementioned book 15 months afterward. Difference between RNA and DNA (Chapter 3) DNA RNA Main sugar Deoxyribose Main sugar ribose Adenine (A) Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Uracil (U) Guanine (G) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Cytosine (C) A with T A with U G with C G with C Steps to protein synthesis (Chapter 3) 1. A DNA strand is unzipped and it’s base pairs are coded for and made into a strand of mRNA (transcription) 2. Next comes translation where the mRNA “attaches itself to structures called ribosomes” (pg 57). 3. Once the mRNA is attached to the ribosome, tRNA helps code for the polypeptides that that particular mRNA needs by reading the codons and coding for the correct anticodon. This completed chain of amino acids is held together by peptide bonds. 6 things that differentiate humans from other animals (Chapter 1) 1. Bipedalism: about 6 million years ago 2. The loss of a nonhoning canine (or a tooth that sharpens itself): about 5.5 million years ago 3. Material Culture and tools: about 3.3 million years ago 4. Speech (due to our hyoid bone): about 2.5 million years ago 5. Hunting: about 1 million years ago 6. Domestication (of both food and animals): about 11,000 years ago Why variation is important Variation is important because of the possible advantageous effects it brings to a species or a community, or even an individual. If there wasn’t variation, then all the species on earth would be at a standstill. There would never be any growth good or bad in fact there probably wouldn’t be life. Eukaryotic life had to evolve out of a variation from Prokaryotic life; so in essence, there wouldn’t be any life at all without variation. Differences between artificial and natural selection There is only one big difference, natural selection happens as the name suggests; naturally. Genes are passed on naturally and the gene set that prevails is the one that provides the most benefits to a species and gives a species a better evolutionary fitness. Artificial selection happens when human beings chose to genetically alter something and this might even be something that wouldn’t happen naturally or be good for a species such as an example from class chicken teeth. Citation Larsen, Clark. Essentials of Physical Anthropology. W.W. Norton & Company, 2016.


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