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Exam #2 Study Guide

by: Jourdin Bailey
Jourdin Bailey
GPA 3.93

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About this Document

This study guide encases information from chapters 4-6. Important note from Loconto that includes a possible short answer question.
Introduction to Sociology
Dr. LoConto
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology, sociology, Bureaucracy, NMSU, aggies
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jourdin Bailey on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101G at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. LoConto in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
SOC101G Exam #2 Study Guide Ch.4-6 PERCEPTION= the process of assessing and interpreting the situation and people in the situation Assessed through: * verbal cues * Nonverbal cues * Status characteristics * Props They each have different meanings and are demonstrated differently in different cultures SOCIALIZATION= The process of learning how to interact within society by learning the roles and expectations of that society Socialization continues until you die. It is always changing, going, & moving Most of socialization is at a subconscious level, so we don’t notice anything until we see someone do it differently. OUTCOMES OF SOCIALIZATION: 1. Knowledge of culture: learn some of it in school, work, home, social media, television, etc. 2. Cognitive Competence: thinking like everybody else 3. Emotions: expressing emotions through socialization 4. Establishes a Fit within society: if you accept it you should be able to fit in no matter where you go 9.22.2016 Howard Becker.. How to Become a Marihuana Smoker..? Univ. Of Chicago, wrote (the above) Learning to smoke pot .. Its effects aren't necessarily chemically induced. You have to learn to recognize the effect and enjoy it Not smoked the same way any other drug is. You have to learn how to smoke it efficiently. You learn the norms by smoking with other people. ASPECT OF SOCIALIZATION... Conformity= the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group. Conformity is normally associated with people doing something negative or bad things Big thing after WWII due to the Holocaust.. Soloman Asch: Asch did one of the first conformity studies..On visual perception 7 people that would show up to look at cards, all line up side by side in chairs. 6/7 people were known as confederate (in on the study) Stanley Milgram: Milgram 1961-1974 Did a lab study on more complex situations that involve conformity Teacher, Learner (Confederate) & Experimenter (Confederate) .. Electric Shock with learning. Hannah Arendt & Adolf Eichmann: Eichmann was in charged of the camps...escaped to Argentina. Captured by Israelis Hannah Arendt, was an escaped German Jew, who reported his trial.. She coined the term "Banality of Evil". Eichmann had a normal everyday life just like everyone else. Normal people can do evil things. 2 * ... Banality of evil: ordinary people perpetrate evil. * Ethnicity is a fairly new term, coined in the 1930s. * Albert Speer.. He was in the first group of Nazi's who were on trial, during his testimony he showed remorse. * Robert Merton's Thesis= when there is great social change, social disorganization manifests itself through conflict between diverse social groups. With increased polarization, there becomes an effort to claim truth. * Propaganda: info, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, by an organization or movement. * Hate crimes U.S. 2014 victims: o African American 2022 o White 734 o Hispanic 389 o Native American 148 o Jews 648 o Muslim 184 o Catholic 70 o Gay male 703 o Lesbian 174 Groupthink= the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise. Group pressures lead to carelessness, poor decisions and low quality actions Group pressures result in irrational thinking and action SYMPTOMS OF GROUPTHINK 3 * Illusions of morality- the feeling that the group is right, good and moral therefore anything it does it right, good and moral * Collective rationalization- members discount warnings that their thinking is irrational * Stereotyping the adversary- painting an unappealing, inaccurate, self- serving picture of the adversary. * Self-Censorship- members censor thoughts that are opposed to group ideas. PREVENTING GROUPTHINK 1. Leaders should encourage dissent (I can talk to you about anything) 2. Leaders should remain impartial 3. Allow third party analysts to provide feedback to group Division of Labor Society * Dissertation of Emile Durkheim: he studied the effects or social functions of increased division of labor on the social structure, and social solidarity. *******TWO FORMS OF SOLIDARITY 1. Mechanical: associated with PREINDUSTRIALIZATION. How people interacted and what kind of relationships they had... a society based on a strong collective consciences where people are alike and share normative behaviors. Individuality is not stressed, but conformity is.... a group of people that think the same, acted the same. 2. Organic: emerges as the division of labor increases. This encourages the development of individual differences, and the basis of social order is interdependence. Two sources of strain within organic solidarity: 4 * Increased heterogeneity: This weakens the collective conscience and encourages individuals to identify with smaller groups and not the collective whole. EX: I identify more with New Mexico than the USA Heterogeneity= MORE DIVERSITY, people aren't coming together as an whole, so they don’t think the same. EX. Prior to WWII America was in its ethnic enclaves, interstates were built to promote less heterogeneity. * Excessive Individualism: Individuals see themselves as unique and different from others. This weakens social bonds and removes adequate anchorage. Super isolated from anyone. EXPLAIN THE 2 SOURCES OF STRAIN WITH ORGANIC SOLIDARITY. ON THE EXAM!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! * Bureaucracy according to Max Weber: 1. High degree of division of labor: MORE SPECIALIZATION 2. Hierarchy of authority: PYRAMID OF POWER or CHAIN OF COMMAND 3. Rules and Regulations: HANDBOOK 4. Impersonal relationships: NO CLOSE TIES, EVERYBODY IS REPLACEABLE 5. Career Ladders: OPPORTUNITY TO BE PROMOTED 6. Efficiency: Problems with Bureaucracy: 1. Ritualism: BOREDOM 2. Alienation 3. Over-specialization McDONALDIZATION OF SOCIETY: * Society as fast food mentality. 1. Efficiency: Fastest way to get from point a to point b. 5 2. Calculability: large amount of product for less money.. Buy one get one 50% off 3. Predictability: You know what you're going to get 4. Control: things are often replicated Ethical Issues: * Objectivity in research, by bringing in all your experiences. o You have the responsibility to maintain objectivity in research to the best of your ability. 6


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