Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 1010
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannan Dillen on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception Sensation – simple stimulation of a sense organ -basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor, or taste as parts of your body interact with the physical world Perception – organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation -after sensation, perception identifies what your body just felt, smelled, saw, etc. Transduction – when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system Psychophysics – methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus People measure stimuli with thresholds – boundaries Absolute Threshold – minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus Threshold – boundary between two psychological states (ex: “awareness” and “unawareness”) -finding absolute threshold – sensing and not sensing some stimulus Approximate Sensory Thresholds Sense Absolute Threshold Vision A candle flame 30 miles away on a dark, clear night Hearing A clock’s tick 20 feet away when all is quiet Touch A fly’s wing falling on the cheek form 1 centimeter away Smell A single drop of perfume diffused through an average 3 bedroom apartment Taste A teaspoon of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water Just Noticeable Difference – minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected -no fixed quantity – roughly proportional to magnitude of stimulus Weber’s Law – the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity -difference is more noticeable at lower levels than the same difference at higher levels Signal Detection Theory – the response to a stimulus depends both on a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person’s criterion -if a stimulus exceeds the criterion, it is detected -if it does not, the stimulus is not detected 5 Senses Sight – The Human Eye Retina – light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball Accommodation – process where the eye maintains a clear image on the retina -muscles change the shape of the lens to focus objects at different distances Lens flatter for objects that are far away Lens rounder for nearby objects Cones – detect color – wavelength -operate under normal daylight conditions -allow us to focus on fine details Rods – become active under low-light conditions for night vision -intensity – brightness Fovea – an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all -absence of rods decreases sharpness Blind Spot – location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina Receptive Field – the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron -applies to all sensory systems Area V1 – part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex -information mapped into a representation of the visual scene Visual-Form Agnosia – inability to recognize objects by sight Binding Problem – how features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined features Illusory Conjunction – perceptual mistake in which features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined Ex: Blue A and Red X, saying X is Blue and A is Red Feature Integration Theory – focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus, but is required to bind those features together -Ex: color, shape, size, and location of letters -attention provides the “glue” necessary to bind features together -illusory conjunctions occur when it is difficult to pay full attention to the features that need to be glued together Perceptual Constancy – even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains constant -makes perception efficient Principles of Perceptual Organization Simplicity: visual system tends to select the simplest or most likely interpretation Closure: tendency to fill in missing elements of a visual scene Continuity: tendency to group together edges or contours that have the same orientation Similarity: regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape, or texture are perceived as belonging to the same object Proximity: objects that are close together tend to be grouped together Common Fate: elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object Monocular Depth Cues – aspects of a score that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye Retinal Image Size – relative size Linear Perspective – the phenomenon that parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance Texture Gradient – the fact that the size of the elements on a patterned surface and the distance between them appear to grow smaller as the surface recedes from the observer Interposition – the fact that when one object partly blocks another, you can infer that the blocking object is closer than the blocked object Relative Height in the Image – the fact that objects that are closer to you are lower in your visual field, while far away objects are higher Binocular Disparity – difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth -each eye registers a slightly different view of the world because our eyes are slightly separated Apparent Motion – perception of the movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations Change Blindness – when people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene Inattentional Blindness – failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention Sound Pitch – how high or low a sound is -frequency – wavelength of a sound wave -how often the peak in air pressure passes the ear or a microphone Loudness – a sound’s intensity -amplitude – height of a sound wave – relative to the threshold for human hearing Complexity – mix of frequencies of sound waves Timbre – a listener’s experience of sound quality or resonance The Human Ear Outer ear -consists of visible part on the outside of the head (pinna), auditory canal, and eardrum -ossciles – 3 smallest bones in the body -fit together into a lever that mechanically transmits and intensifies vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear -Area A1 – a portion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex -neurons respond well to simple tones -similar frequencies activate neurons in adjacent locations -Place Code – used mainly for high frequencies -active when the cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane -sounds of different frequencies cause waves that peak at different points on the basilar membrane -Temporal Code – registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve Touch Haptic Perception – active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands We use sensory receptors in our muscles, tendons, and joints, and receptors in our skin to get a feel for the world around us. Thermoreceptors – nerve fibers that sense cold and warmth -respond when skin temperature changes Touch receptors have receptive fields that cause the cell’s response to change. Pain – among most important aspects of touch for survival -indicates damage or potential damage to the body -without pain, we might ignore infections, broken bones, or serious burns A-delta fibers – transmit initial sharp pain one might feel right away from a sudden injury Ex: paper cuts C fibers – transmit longer-lasting, duller pain that persists after the initial injury Ex: stubbing your toe Referred Pain – sensory information from internal and external areas converges on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord Ex: heart attack – feel pain from left arm instead of chest Gate-Control Theory – signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped, or gated, by interactions in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions Vestibular System – 3 fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear -maintain balance Smell -only sense directly connected to the forebrain -close relationship with areas involved in emotional and social behavior Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) – receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell -receptors bind to some odorants but not others Olfactory Bulb – brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes Pheromones – biochemical odorants emitted by other membranes of its species that can affect the animal’s behavior or physiology Ex: parents know the smell of their own children from the smell of other children Taste -one of the primary characteristics – identify things that are bad for you -smell contributes heavily to taste Taste buds – (papillae) organ of taste transduction 5 Main Types of Taste Receptors: salt, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory) Chapter 5 – Consciousness Phenomenology – how things seem to the conscious person Problem of Other Minds – fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others -we lack the ability to directly perceive the consciousness of others -“You are the only thing in the universe you will ever truly know what it is to be.” Mind/Body Problem – how the mind is related to the brain and body -mind and brain are connected everywhere to each other -“the mind is what the brain does” Four Basic Properties 1. Intentionality – being directed toward an object a. Always about something 2. Unity – resistance to division a. Can’t focus on two things at a time 3. Selectivity – include some objects but not others a. Cocktail Party Phenomenon – people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby 4. Transience – tendency to change a. The mind wanders Consciousness Has Levels 1. Minimal Consciousness – consciousness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior a. Sensory awareness and responsiveness 2. Full Consciousness –you know and are able to report your mental state a. You are aware of having a mental state while you are experiencing the mental state 3. Self-Consciousness – person’s attention is drawn to the self as an object Mental Control – attempt to change conscious states of mind Thought Suppression – conscious avoidance of a thought Rebound Effect – thought to return to consciousness with great frequency following suppression Ironic Processes of Mental Control – ironic errors occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself produce them -when trying not to think of something, the brain is actually searching for it Dynamic Unconscious – active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, person’s deepest instincts and desires, and person’s inner struggle to control these forces Repression – removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious Sleep Altered State of Consciousness – experience that departs significantly from the normal experience of the world and the mind Circadian Rhythm – naturally occurring 24-hour cycle Sleep Cycle o Awake – Beta waves o Drowsy – Alpha waves o Stage 1 – Theta waves Easily woken up o Stage 2 – Theta waves Sleep spindles Quick changes in neural firing Body jerks o Stage 3 – Delta waves Body temperature drops Slow heart rate “mini hibernation” o Stage 4 – Slow Delta waves Deepest stage of sleep Difficult to wake up o REM – similar to Beta waves Rapid eye movement Dreaming Body temp rises Paralysis Night terrors Sleep Apnea – disorder where the person stops breathing while asleep Somnambulism (Sleep Walking) – person gets up and walks around while asleep Narcolepsy – disorder where person suddenly falls asleep in the middle of waking activities Sleep Paralysis – waking up unable to move Night Terrors – abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal Why do we dream? Psychodynamic Theory – the unconscious mind plays an important role in dreaming o Sex and death o Freud was a “psychologist” Manifest Content o The literal content within a dream Latent Content o The underlying meaning Activation-Synthesis Theory – dreams are the result of random neural firing Computer Model Theory – dreams are the result of the brain processing information gathered throughout the recent day The Sensory Perspective – recent sensory experiences are being replayed Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs – influence consciousness or behavior by altering the brain’s chemical messaging system Drug Tolerance – larger drug doses required over time to feel the same high Physical Dependence – withdrawal symptoms, physically negative effects on body, brain physically needs it o Narcotics (opiates: morphine, heroin) Euphoria Decreased inhibitions Reduced reaction time Can definitely build up tolerance Physical and psychological dependence o Sedatives (barbiturates and alcohol) Increase mood swings Reduced inhibitions Euphoria Can build up tolerance Physical and psychological dependence o Stimulants (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine) Can build up tolerance Physical and psychological dependence Calming o Hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline) Increase sensory awareness Paranoia Emotional swings Tolerance tends to be very low Low physical dependence Can have psychological dependence o Cannabis (marijuana) Calming – euphoria Heightened senses Low physical dependence Psychological dependence Can build tolerance o Compound drugs (ecstasy) Fall under at least 2 categories Burns out serotonin receptors – never coming back Expectancy Theory – alcohol effects are produced by how people expect it to make them act in different situations Alcohol Myopia – alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations Hypnosis – altered state characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that none’s actions are occurring involuntarily -not everyone can be hypnotized -susceptibility varies -get people very comfortable -“your arm is as light as a feather” – arm starts rising -can be used to help mental illness – OCD, anxiety Hypnotic Analgesia – reducing pain with hypnosis in people who are hypnotically susceptible Meditation – practice of intentional contemplation -clear mind of thought/focus on a single thought -period of quiet -can be restful and revitalizing -can enhance psychological well-being -influences EEG recordings of brain waves Chapter 7 – Learning Learning – acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner Classical Conditioning – neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a naturally occurring stimulus that produces a response Ex: Pavlov trained dogs to salivate when hearing a bell ring, as they learned that that meant food was coming Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – something that produces a naturally occurring reaction Unconditioned Response (UR) – reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response Conditioned Response (CR) – reaction that resembles an unconditioned response, but is produced by the conditioned stimulus Acquisition – phase when the CS and the US are presented together Second-Order Conditioning – stimulus that functions as US is actually CS from an earlier procedure Extinction – a learned response being no longer present because it hasn’t been used in a while Spontaneous Recovery – learned behavior that is lost due to extinction comes back quickly when brought on again Generalization – CR is generalized out to similar things Ex: fearing white rats – fear anything that looks like a white rat Discrimination – CR only related to that one thing Ex: fearing white rats – ONLY fearing white rats Taste Aversions – food makes you sick – sight or smell of that food makes you sick Ex: eating a whole coconut and throwing it all up – later the sight and smell of coconut makes you nauseous Operant Conditioning – the consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future Law of Effect – behaviors that are followed by good consequences tend to be repeated and those that are followed by bad consequences are less likely to be repeated Operant Behavior – behavior produced that has some impact on the environment Reinforcer – stimulus or event that increases the likelihood of the behavior Punisher – stimulus or event that decreases the likelihood of the behavior Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Interval Schedules a. Fixed Interval Schedule – reinforcers are presented at fixed times, provided that the appropriate response is made b. Variable Interval Schedule – behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has passed since the last reinforcement 2. Ratio Schedules a. Fixed Ratio Schedule – reinforcement delivered after a specific number of responses has been made b. Variable Ratio Schedule – delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses 3. Intermittent Reinforcement a. Intermittent Reinforcement – hen only some of the response are followed by reinforcement b. Intermittent-Reinforcement Effect – the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent-reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those of continuous reinforcement Shaping – learning that results from reinforcement to a final desired behavior Latent Learning – something is learned, but it isn’t manifested as a behavioral change until later in the future Cognitive Map – mental representation of the physical features of the environment Observational Learning – learning takes place by watching the actions of others Diffusion Chain – individuals initially learn a behavior by watching others and then other people learn from them Implicit Learning – learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information learned Habituation – general process where repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
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