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UO / Physics / PHYS 353 / What is the contribution of camillo golgi in sensory physiology?

What is the contribution of camillo golgi in sensory physiology?

What is the contribution of camillo golgi in sensory physiology?


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What is the contribution of camillo golgi in sensory physiology?

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ensory Primarily visual,


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Notes 9.26 16e

Focus: The physics of the messages recieved as signals, the biological components & organizational phathways for processing the Information, and the cognitive processing / behavior that relates to sensation

What are axons for?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the usual behavioral characteristics of chicken?


10 Ramon y Cajal → Spanish Scientist that disproved the traditional

theory that the CNS was a single network not made up

of individual cells

• Camillo Golgi upheld the above reticular theory that

it was a completely undivided, extended system, non cellular


What are the components of astrocytes?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the major means of judging abnormal behavior?


o General Neuron Structure

axial potential

• Axous are excitable cells

wrapped in Synaptic

adjacent non terminal excitable, supporting cells

xon, pre- post- oligodendrocytes Soma

create layers of axon hillock digodendrocytes &

myelin to insulate

the electrical signal o Dendrites

Individual cells separated by Ranvier

Nodes y Astrocytes Another type of supporting cell (t might be excitable?) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the components of the basic structure of the earth?

→ connect neurous to tissues + capillaries = nutritive

Buffers Kt by absorbing it after the electrical pulse r as - Responsible for re-uptake of neurotransmiter after they pass

into the synaptic terminal to either excite or suppress adjacent neurons

→ Act as scaffolding for neurons in brain developement 4 Microglia Lymphocytes from the circulatory system that

police the brain and phagocytose bacteria & Invading pattogens


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Notes 9.28.16 o Electrical potentials exist across cell membranes + cells contain Don't forget about the age old question of What three beliefs were christians supposed to accept about god’s nature and the existence of evil?

high amounts of potasium (K+) and autous CA-) such as RNA and large (-) charged proteus

→ Kt in isolation is pernilable across the phospholipid bylayer

through special transport channels suit

Force exists for Kt to exit the cell down it's love concentration gradient (We) Don't forget about the age old question of What happens if genes are located on the same chromosome?
We also discuss several other topics like How do we deal with lactic acid accumulation?

→ The large A- macromolecules cannot pass through the

cell membrane, and their charge is many negatives s lt A- exibits a force on Kt to retain it inside the

cell to neutralize and balance the charge of all the (-) side chaius (

we) These two opposing forces create both an inballance dat in consentraction accross the membrane as well as an son tres luballance in charge voltage potential







Inside: 7kt Kt os

A 12 outside 4Kt

n= # of moles

R = Gas constant At Equilibrium, Wc = We

T= Temp ink

Z = #valence en Wc=n. R.T. In / [ko] we=n.z. Vk F

F-fevradays , ([ki]).


Ko= [kt outside Nernst Equation for : Uk= 58 • log10 [ko] /

Ki= [kt inside Potasium

Vk= electrical

7 affinity this equation only takes

* Equilibrium Potential

for Potasium & Vk = Ek Kt into account




o Goldman Katz Hogden (GKH) Equation The voltage

potential accross a cell membrane is equal to onnis haw derived from the Equilibrium potential losed (voltage) & ability to cross the membrance can resistance) of all the

cous int outside of the cell

current en

a = conductance Vm = Vk gk + Vna gwa...

Ol-12 Voltage of the cell gk + gna

=/Resistance Ohmshaw: Vm = { IERA

A voltage current resistance * qk values are

known, tabulated numbers * Vk Values come from the Nernst Equation = Equilibrium potentials




Notes 9.30-16

using ther Nerust vs. GRI equations 10

→ The Nexuist Equation gives the voltage potential accross the

membrane that is generated by the opposing chemical and

electrical gradient forces acting on a single type of cou (ex: K+) → The GKH Equation gives the voltage potential accross the

membrane that occurs from the sum of them all the voltage lequlibrium potentials generated by each con in and around the cell (ex: K +, Na+, Cl-), while taking into account the

permiability / Conductance of each ion, thus weighting the Contribution of each ion to the total membrane potential



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o At Rest, Potasium is far more permiable than any other on

GK + >> Gnator Ger when this is true, the GKH equation can be simplified

to show Vm ñ Vk alone Vm = V.. gk + Vna gua + Verigel → Vm= Vk gk Vm = Vkl

in gk + ana + gols


o Action Potentials Are both caused by and result in a change

in Nat permeability and propagation of a positive (t) electrical wave felt along the neurons membrane

→ The instigation is the reception/ binding of specific

neurotransmiters at the dendrites of the post synaptic.

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& Results in localized conformational changes in Nat

soul transport channel protiens, opening them up → Na+ permeability increases dramatically, Nat flows into

the cell body causing g Nat to spike

→ VNa has a more profound effect on Um: Vm moves

awway from Vk totwards Vna, becoming more possctive The cell is depolarized, causing a (+) electrical wave

to be felt along the membrane a → Nat transport profien channels at the axon hillock and

all along the axon are opened - not in responce to neurotransmiters

• Voltage - Gated Trausport Protiens The Lt) electrical wave.

caused by membrane depolarization causes Nat and kt

transport channels to open, allowing the cous to flow.

down their concentration gradients - Channels are activated

Nat channels open before Kt channels do ut Nat flows into the cell, continuing the depolarization, su propagating the Ct) electrical wave, and causing

Nat V-G Nat channels closer to the synapse along the Na Naxon to subsequently open


o Nat

+ + +

+ +







Nat Depolarization activates the gate,

opening it

At Rest, the

Gate is closed

The gate is closed/ innactivated by a protien factor

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Shortly after membrane depolarization and the oppening of the V-G transport channels, a protien factor attached to the channel moves into place, plugging the channel

The V-G channel is inactivated and Nat stops flowing into the cell The innactivation factor has alugh binding afinity after the (t) electrical wave causes the v-Gchannel

to undergo a confirmational change anell alle After the action potential moves further along the axou membrane, the innactivation factor falls off

and the V-G channel returns to its closed, resting state y A similar mechanism allows kt V-G channels to be opened lactivated

The Kinetics/ Dynamics of the the ktu-G channels cause them to open slightly after the Nat channels due.

GK increases as these channels open, causing a Il re-establishment of the membrane potential Vu

close to VK

A- Depolarization of membrane

Na increases as +35 /

V-G channels open






(g Nat)

B- Natu-G channels

are closed/mactivated as K+ u-G channels

are opened bg Nat decreases

Ki lucreases



Kt conductance


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-70 mit


Kt+ Nat conductance follow overlayed axis with units. not in my

C-Ktv-G channels begin to

close but qkt is again So much greater than guat that Vm returns to rest a Vk

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O ATPase lon pumps return [kt] and [Nat ] to resting

levels but do not contribute greately to the decrease

of the action potential → 3 kt lous pumped in for every 2 Nat ons pumped out - Re-establishes concentration gradients and readys the

cell for the next instance of firing

To Passive Propagation of membrane potential → The distance that

the elecrital wave / ct) current caused by depolarization travels taboough the axon without the re-juvinating help of the U-G Nat channels depends on membrane +

cytoplasmic resistance.

VW Vo.ee

-The Space/length

constant Voltage Potential Voltage Potential

Distance @givendistance @ site of initiation along axon


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won> A measure of the axon's elecrical conduction of the current

→ The value distance at which the voltage potential Vx t is 37% of Vo initial

rm & resistance accross the membrane rat resistance through the axon cytoplasin

less resistance through the axon and/or more resistance accross the membrane makes the axon a better conductor

Squid nerous are fat, w/ a large diameter tot ra Our neurons are insulated by meylin to n rm.

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* The Nat U-G channels are clustered at the Ranvier

nodes between myelin sheeth cells to capture the

passively propagated action potential and rejuvinate it by opening and a gNa, boosting the (t) corrent/depolarization

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