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UA / Biology / BSC 216 / The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine cel

The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine cel

The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine cel


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Anatomy & Physiology II
Professor: Austin hicks
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Respiratory system, Endocrine system, immune system, LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, and Anatomy & Physiology II
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 216 Study Guide Exam 2
Description: All the learning objectives from the lectures on the endocrine system, lymphatic system, immune system and respiratory system answered. Reviewing this will really help on the exam
Uploaded: 10/03/2016
12 Pages 7 Views 12 Unlocks

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine cells and received by target cells.

The Endocrine System  

1. Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems. a. The nervous system is composed of a network of neural fibers that are  dispersed throughout the body and have very quick effects on a  specific organ they act upon but, it is also very short lived.  

b. The endocrine is composed of specific organs that secrete hormones  into the bloodstream and take a long time to affect their target but,  also have more prolonged and widespread effects.  

c. Both the endocrine and nervous systems communicate with  neurotransmitters and hormones and may have overlapping effects on  the same target cells.  

2. Name the organs of the endocrine system. We also discuss several other topics like What happened in Indian wars?

a. Can be primary, secondary or neuroendocrine

b. Anterior and posterior pituitary glands, thyroid, parathyroid, heart,  kidneys, small intestine, hypothalamus, pineal gland, pancreas,  ovaries, testes and adrenal glands.  

What is the effects of growth hormone?

3. Describe the major structures and functions of the endocrine  system.

a. The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine  cells and received by target cells

b. Hormones are chemical messengers that are transported by the  bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another  tissue or organ, often a considerable distance away  

c. Hormones can act on their target cells through different mechanisms  depending on whether the hormone is hydrophilic or hydrophobic.  i. Hydrophilic cells affect their target cell through the use of  

secondary messengers and activation of already existing  

proteins to reach nucleus

ii. Hydrophobic cells affect their target cell by moving freely  

through the plasma membrane and binding to a receptor at the  nucleus which stimulate the DNA to produce a change  

Parafollicular cells lie between the follicles in clusters and produce calcitonin.

If you want to learn more check out What is Brown colonialism?

d. Cell communication can occur through gap junctions,  

neurotransmitters, paracrine hormones or endocrine hormones.  4. Compare and contrast the different kinds of chemical signals a. Endocrine signals occur when endocrine cells secrete hormones into  the blood to affect a different cell type We also discuss several other topics like //This is where the Input goes (where the program will ask for input and get it) WriteLine("What's your name?

b. Paracrine signals occur when tissue cells secrete paracrine chemicals  into the extracellular fluid to affect a nearby different cell We also discuss several other topics like What is Hormone?
We also discuss several other topics like How do muscles contract?

c. Autocrine signals occur when a specialized cell secretes an autocrine  chemical into the extracellular fluid to affect the same cell or cell type  5. Describe the role of negative and positive feedback on hormone  regulation

a. Negative feedback loops occur when there is a homeostatic imbalance, the target cell receptor cells detect it, and then the hormone triggers a  response in the target cells to return things back to homeostasis. The  closer to homeostasis the more the control center decreases the  effector response

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

b. Unlike a negative feedback loop, in a positive feedback loop the  effectors activity increases and amplifies the response instead of  shutting off  

i. Occurs with oxytocin during childbirth  

6. Describe the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus  and pituitary gland.

a. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected through the  hypophyseal portal system and many neurons that begin in the  hypothalamus end in the pituitary, traveling via the infundibulum  We also discuss several other topics like What the rumen increase in response to starch o Decrease in response?

7. Distinguish between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. a. The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also called the adenohypophysis  and is composed of epithelial tissue and communicated with the  hypothalamus via portal veins  

b. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is called the neurohypophysis and is  composed of neural tissue and communicates with the hypothalamus  via hypothalamic axons  

8. List the hormones produced by the hypothalamus and each lobe of  the pituitary, and identify the functions of each hormone. a. Hypothalamus produces antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. The  anterior pituitary synthesizes follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing  hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone,  prolactin, growth hormone  

b. Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) increases water retention and prevents  dehydration

c. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions, propulsion of semen,  promotes feelings of sexual satisfaction and emotional bonding  between partners, stimulates milk flow during lactation and promotes  bonding between lactating mother and infant.

d. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates secretion of ovarian sex  hormones and development of follicles and sperm production

e. Luteinizing hormone(LH) stimulates ovulation, progesterone secretion  by corpus luteum and testes secretion of testosterone.  

f. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates secretion of thyroid  hormone  

g. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex to  secrete glucocorticoids

h. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk and  enhances secretion of testosterone in the testes

i. Growth hormone (GH) stimulates mitosis and cellular differentiation  9. Explain how the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus and its  target organs.

a. The posterior pituitary is controlled by neurons in the hypothalamus  that secrete hormones that travel through the hypothalamic axons via  the infundibulum. These hormones then stay at the end of the axon  terminal in the pituitary until the action potential is fired and they  enter the blood stream.  

b. The anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic neurons secreting  hormones into the hypothalamic capillary bed that then travel through

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

portal veins in the infundibulum and exit in the anterior pituitary  capillary bed to bind to receptors on anterior pituitary cells. The  hypothalamus hormones then control the secretion of hormones from  anterior pituitary cells.  

10. Describe the effects of growth hormone.

a. Growth hormone influences a number of actions in the body.  b. It increases the synthesis of protein by boosting DNA transcription,  producing mRNA, amino acid uptake into cells and suppressing protein  catabolism.  

c. It increases lipid metabolism by catabolizing fat in adipocytes providing energy for growing tissues

d. It reduces the dependence of cells on glucose by mobilizing fatty acids  e. It promotes sodium, potassium and chloride retention by the kidneys  and enhances calcium absorption in the intestine

f. The overall effect is bone, cartilage and muscle growth in children and  bone thickening and remodeling in adults.  

11. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid gland.

a. The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped with two lobes connected by an  isthmus

i. At the microscopic level, the thyroid is composed of sphere  

shaped thyroid follicles surrounded by simple cuboidal epithelial  cells called follicular cells.  

ii. On the inside of the follicle there is a protein rich gel called  


iii. In between the thyroid follicles there are parafollicular cells. b. The parathyroid glands are small and embedded on the posterior  surface of the thyroid gland

12. Identify and describe the types of cells within the thyroid  gland that produce thyroid hormone and calcitonin

a. Follicular cells are simple cuboidal epithelial cells that produce thyroid  hormones, they surround the colloid

i. Colloid contains the precursor for the creation of thyroid  


b. Parafollicular cells lie between the follicles in clusters and produce  calcitonin

13. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effects of thyroid hormone

a. Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 are created with iodine atoms and  thyroglobulin and are released into the blood after being created in the colloid  

i. This is stimulated by the secretion of Thyroid-stimulating  

hormone from the anterior pituitary gland  

b. Thyroid hormone works to regulate the metabolic rate, thermoregulate, promote growth and development and work together with the  

sympathetic nervous system  

i. Because of all these functions it is evident that thyroid hormone  works to target all body cells

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

14. Explain how negative feedback loops regulate the production  of thyroid hormones

a. To trigger the negative feedback loop the amount of thyroid hormone  first deviates from its normal range

b. A receptor on the thyroid then detects the deviation of the hormone  level  

c. The stimulated control center then increases or decreases the  secretion of thyroid hormone  

d. Thyroid hormone then triggers a response in its target cells to move  conditions back toward the normal range

e. As conditions return back to normal the control center then decreases  the effector response  

15. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effects of parathyroid hormone

a. Parathyroid hormone release is stimulated by a detected decrease in  blood calcium  

i. A negative feedback loop triggers release of PTH by chief cells in parathyroid

b. PTH targets osteoclasts and the kidneys  

c. PTH works to maintain blood calcium ion concentration and works to  raise calcium by either stimulating osteoclasts, activation vitamin D to  vitamin D3 or increasing reabsorption of calcium ions from fluid in the  kidneys  

16. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the cortex and  medulla of the adrenal gland.

a. The kidneys are pyramid shaped glands located on the superior end of  the kidney  

b. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the gland

i. Made up of the outer capsule and three distinct layers

1. Zona glomerulosa is immediately deep to capsule and  

contains tightly packed, unorganized cells

2. Zona fasciculata is immediately deep to the zona  

glomerulosa and is the largest area of the cortex and  

contains organized cells stacked on one another

3. Zona reticularis is deep to the zona fasciculata and  

contains cells arranges in loose clusters  

c. The adrenal medulla is the inner portion of the gland

i. As the innermost portion the adrenal medulla lies deep to the  zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex  

17. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effects of mineralcorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex a. Released in response to imbalances in electrolytes and pH

b. Mineralcorticoids target the kidneys to regulate electrolyte imbalance c. They maintain concentrations of extracellular sodium and potassium  ions within their normal ranges, regulate extracellular fluid volume,  maintain blood pressure and maintain acid-base homeostasis  

18. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effects of glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

a. Stimulated for release in response to stress and abnormal blood  glucose levels

b. Targets liver, muscle, adipose tissue specifically  

c. Causes gluconeogenesis in the liver, the release of amino acids from  muscle tissue, release of fatty acids from adipose tissue and is an anti inflammatory agent  

i. Androgenic steroid produced as byproduct of cortisol  

19.Explain the relationship of the adrenal medulla to the sympathetic nervous  system

a. The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine which  increase heart rate, bronchiole dilation, pupil dilation and decrease  digestive function which are all effects of activation of the sympathetic  nervous system  

i. Acetylcholine released by sympathetic nervous system activate  chromaffin cells to release epinephrine and norepinephrine  

20. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effects of catecholamines

a. Stimulated by acetylcholine from sympathetic nervous system  b. Targets all cells in the body but, especially the heart, bronchioles, eyes  and digestive system

c. Increase heart rate, dilate bronchioles, dilate pupils and decrease  digestive function

21. Describe the structure of the endocrine pancreas and its  hormone-secreting cells

a. Pancreas lies superficial to stomach and duodenum and has a head,  body and tail

b. Microscopically it contains pancreatic islets and acinar cells  

i. The pancreatic islet is made up of alpha, beta and gamma cells  ii. The acinar cells surround the pancreatic islet  

22. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effect of glucagon

a. Released when levels of blood glucose are too low

b. Targets the liver, adipose tissue, amino acids and blood glucose c. Stimulates gluconeogenesis, glyconeogenesis, releases glucose into  circulation, stimulates fat catabolism and release of free fatty acids,  promotes amino acid absorption and provides cells with raw material  for gluconeogenesis

23. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the  effect of insulin

a. Released from beta cells during and after a meal when glucose and  amino acid levels are rising

b. Targets liver, adipose tissue, amino acids and glucose

c. Promotes synthesis of glycogen, fat and protein all as forms of storage  to lower blood glucose levels, suppresses use of already stored fuels 24. Explain how insulin and glucagon work together to maintain  the blood glucose level within the normal range

a. Insulin works to lower blood glucose levels when they are high and  after a period of fasting when the glucose levels drop too low glucagon  works to bring sugar levels up and back to normal

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

25. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments for the two  types of diabetes mellitus

a. Type I diabetes occurs as an autoimmune system that damages the  beta cells of the pancreas so that glucose can’t be taken up and blood  glucose remains high

i. Treated by use of insulin (injections, pump or inhaler)

ii. Polyphagia,polydipsia, ketonuria and ketoacidosis are symptoms b. Type II diabetes occurs in individuals who have developed a resistance  to insulin and although they have beta cells that work the target cells  do not respond to insulin

i. Those who are genetically disposed, above 40 years old, are  obese, Native American, Hispanic or Asian are at risk for Type II  diabetes

ii. Treatment includes a weight loss program with exercise and oral  medications that improve insulin secretion or target cell  


iii. Symptoms include diabetic neuropathy, cardiovascular damage  including arterial damage in retina and kidneys and  

atherosclerosis, polyphagia and polydipsia

The Lymphatic and Immune System  

1. Describe the major functions of the lymphatic system

a. Fluid Recovery, Immunity and Lipid absorption  

2. Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels and blood vessels in terms  of structure and function.

a. Lymph fluid is low in protein

i. Blood plasma has high protein content (albumin, globulin, etc.) b. Lymphatic capillaries are blunt and only flow towards the heart i. Blood capillaries are a portal system and flow both ways

c. Lymph vessels have stopping points such as lymph nodes

d. Both lymph and blood vessels have lots of branching  

e. Both lymph and blood vessels are “moved” by skeletal muscle pump,  respiratory pump, physical activity and contain valves for backflow  prevention

i. Lymph vessels are also pushed along by the strong pulses of  arteries

3. Describe the mechanisms of lymph formation, and trace the pathway of lymph circulation through the body.

a. Lymph is the fluid forced out of the blood at the arterial end of capillary bed and returned to blood via lymphatic vessels  

b. Travels from lymphatic capillarieslymphatic collecting vesselslymph  nodeslymphatic trunkslymphatic ducts

4. Describe the basic structure and cellular composition of lymphatic  tissue, and relate them to the overall functions of the lymphatic  system.

a. Lymphatic tissue contains nodules that are a concentration of lymphoid tissue

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

b. They also contain germinal centers that provide proliferation grounds  for dendritic cells and B lymphocytes  

c. Lymphatic tissue in the lymph nodes typically have more afferent  vessels than efferent vessels so that the lymph is forced to spend more time in the node to be surveyed for pathogens  

d. Lymphatic tissue in the tonsils contains tonsillar crypts to trap bacteria  and particles  

5. Describe the structures and functions of the lymphoid organs. a. Lymphoid organs have connective tissue capsules to well define the  lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues  

b. Can be primary or secondary

i. Primary lymphatic organs are sites where T and B cells become  immunocompetent  

ii. Secondary lymphatic organs are places where  

immunocompetent cells reside and function  

6. Describe the roles that phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells and  plasma proteins such as complement and interferon play in the  innate immunity.

a. Phagocytic cells are the cells that engulf pathogens and foreign matter b. Neutrophils work through phagocytosis, digestion and production of a  cloud of bactericidal chemicals  

c. Eosinophils guard against parasites, allergens and pathogens i. They kill tapeworms and roundworms  

ii. They promote actions of basophils and mast cells  

iii. The phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes  

iv. Limit action of histamine

d. Basophils aid mobility and action of other leukocytes through secretion of chemicals  

e. Lymphocytes function in immune surveillance and specific immunity  but, they do also work in innate defense if the attack on an antigen is  not SPECIFIC

f. Interferons work to warn nearby cells that an attack has occurred when a virus enters

g. The complement system is a group of about 30 proteins that circulate  the blood in inactive forms and are activated by the presence of a  pathogen  

i. Bring about destruction of pathogen through inflammation,  

immune clearance, phagocytosis and cytolysis

7. Walk through the stages of the inflammatory response, and describe its purpose.

a. Stages of inflammation are mobilization of body defenses, containment and destruction of pathogens and tissue cleanup and repair

i. The tissue damage occurs  

ii. Damaged cells and mast cells release inflammatory mediators iii. Inflammatory mediators trigger dilation of arterioles, increased  capillary permeability, occurrence of pain and recruitment of  

other cells

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

b. Purpose of inflammation is to limit the spread of pathogens and  destroy them, remove debris from damaged tissue and initiate tissue  repair

8. Describe the process by which fever is generated, and explain its  purpose.  

a. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature that is generated when  pyrogens reset the body’s homeostatic temperature set point  

b. The raised temperature works to enhance the action of antimicrobial  proteins and inhibits bacteria reproduction  

9. Identify the differences between innate and adaptive immunity. a. Innate immunity involves non-specific attacks while adaptive involves  attacks on a particular pathogen

b. Adaptive immunity can react quickly once re-exposed to a pathogen  because of memory  

10. Describe the three lines of defense and the role they play in  the immune response.

a. First line of defense is surface barriers

i. Surface barriers can be in the form of skin or mucous  

membranes and serve as the first barrier that pathogens will  

encounter when attempting jto attack the body  

b. Second line of defense is internal defenses

i. Cells and chemical defenses are nonspecific and they recognize  foreign substances but not specific foreign substances

ii. Can be in the form or phagocytic cells, non-phagocytic  

leukocytes, interferons and complement system  

c. Third line of defense are the adaptive defenses that can be broken  down into humoral immunity and cellular immunity  

i. Cellular immunity is when the T cells directly attack and destroy  foreign cells or diseased host cells and red the body of  

pathogens inside human cells where they are not accessible to  


ii. Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies that do not directly destroy a pathogen but, rather are marked for destruction and  

are killed by other cells  

The Respiratory System  

1. Know the seven main functions of the respiratory system a. Provide oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between blood and air b. Serve for speech and other vocalizations

c. Provide sense of smell

d. Affect pH of body fluids by eliminating carbon dioxide  

e. Affects blood pressure by synthesis of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II f. Breathing creates pressure gradients between thorax and abdomen  that promote flow of lymph and venous blood  

g. Breath-holding helps expel abdominal contents during urination,  defecation and childbirth (Valsalva maneuver)

2. Name the main organs of this system  

a. Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

3. Trace the flow of air from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli a. Nasal cavitypharynxlarynxtracheamain bronchisecondary  bronchitertiary bronchibronchiolesterminal bronchiolesrespiratory  bronchiolesalveolar ductsalveolar sacs  

4. Describe and distinguish between the conducting and respiratory  zones of the respiratory tract.

a. The conducting division includes the passages of the respiratory  system that serve only for airflow with no gas exchange  

i. Includes the nostrils through the terminal bronchioles

b. The respiratory division consists of alveoli and other gas exchange  regions  

i. Respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli  

5. Describe the histology of the different regions of the respiratory  tract, the types of cells present in alveoli, and the structure of the  respiratory membrane.

a. The olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity consists of ciliated  pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with goblet cells (cilia are  immobile)

b. Respiratory epithelium lining the rest of the nasal cavity is also made  of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells (cilia  are motile)

i. Goblet cells secrete mucus and cilia propel mucus toward  


c. The trachea is lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium  and composed mainly of mucus secreting cells, ciliated cells and stem  cells  

i. Upward beating of cilia move trapped particles upward towards  pharynx

d. The bronchioles contain ciliated cuboidal epithelium with no mucous  glands or goblet cells but, do have cilia moving mucus upward to  mucocilliary elevator

e. The alveoli contain type I alveolar cells, type II alveolar cells and  alveolar macrophages

f. The respiratory membrane of the alveoli consists of a fluid containing  surfactant, type I alveolar cell, basal lamina and capillary endothelial  cell

6. Describe Boyle’s law, and relate it to the specific sequence of events causing inspiration and expiration.

a. Boyle’s law states that when temperature is constant pressure is  inversely proportional to volume  

b. During inspiration the lung volume increases and intrapulmonary  pressure decreases and if the intrapulmonary [pressure rises above  atmospheric pressure the air moves out of the lungs  

i. The opposite is true of expiration  

7. Explain how the muscles of inspiration, forced inspiration, and  forced expiration change the volume of the thoracic cavity. a. During inspiration

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

i. The sternocleidomastoid elevates the sternum, the scalenes  elevate ribs 1 and 2, the external intercostals elevate ribs 3-12  and widen the thoracic cavity, the pectoralis minor elevates ribs  3-5 and the internal intercostals aid in elevating the ribs  

b. During forced expiration  

i. Internal intercostals depress ribs 1-11 and narrow chest cavity,  diaphragm ascends and reduces depth of thoracic cavity, rectus  abdominis depresses the lower ribs and pushes the diaphragm  

upward by compressing abdominal organs and the external  

abdominal obliques have the same effect as the rectus  


1. During forced inspiration the exact opposite occurs in  


8. Explain how the values for atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary  pressure, and intrapleural pressure change with inspiration and  expiration.

a. During inspiration the lungs increase in volume and intrapulmonary  pressure decreases and intrapleural pressure decreases as well.  Atmospheric pressure remains the same  

b. During expiration the intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural  pressure both increase and the atmospheric pressure remains the  same  

9. Explain how each of the following factors affects pulmonary  ventilation: airway resistance, pulmonary compliance, and alveolar  surface tension.

a. Increased Airway resistance slows the flow

b. Increased pulmonary compliance slows airflow

c. Increased surface tension slows airflow

10. Describe and identify the values for the respiratory volumes  and the respiratory capacities.  

∙ Tidal volume (TV)

o Amount of air inspired or expired during normal, quiet ventilation\ ∙ Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)

o Volume of air that reaches the alveoli multiplied by the breaths per  minute  

∙ Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

o Volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal tidal  inspiration

∙ Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

o Air that can be forcibly expired after a normal tidal expiration ∙ Residual volume (RV)

o The air that remains in the lungs even after the most forceful  expiration

∙ Inspiratory capacity  

o Total amount of air that a person can inspire after a tidal expiration  o TV + IRV

∙ Functional residual capacity  

o Amount of air that is normal after a tidal expiration

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide


∙ Vital capacity

o Total amount of exchangeable air  


∙ Total lung capacity  

o Total amount of exchangeable and nonexchangeable air in the lungs  o IRV+TV+ERV+RV

11. Describe the locations and functions of the brainstem  respiratory centers.

a. Ventral respiratory group(VRG)

i. Located in medulla oblongata  

ii. Primary generator of respiratory rhythm  

iii. 2 sec firing od inspiratory neurons and 3 second firing of  

expiratory neuron  

iv. Produces rhythm of 12 breaths per minute

b. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

i. Located in medulla oblongata

ii. Receives influences from external sources and modifies the rate  and depth of breathing

c. Pontine respiratory group (PRG)

i. Located in the pons

ii. Modifies rhythm of VRG by outputs to both the VRG and DRG iii. Adapts breathing to special circumstances like sleep, exercise,  vocalization and emotional responses

12. State Dalton’s law and Henry’s law, and relate both laws to the events of internal and pulmonary gas exchange and to the amounts  of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.

a. Dalton’s law states that total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the  contributions of the individual gases  

i. Gases always diffuse from areas of higher partial pressure to  lower partial pressure  

b. Henry’s law states that for a given temperature the amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its  partial pressure to air

i. The greater the pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air the more  oxygen the blood picks up  

ii. Since the blood arriving at an alveolus has a higher pressure of  carbon dioxide than air it releases carbon dioxide into the air  

13. Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure gradients and  net gas movements in pulmonary gas exchange.

a. Higher pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air leads to the oxygen  diffusing into the blood

b. Higher pressure of carbon dioxide in blood leads to carbon dioxide  diffusing into the alveolar air

c. More carbon dioxide diffuses across the respiratory membrane than  oxygen because carbon dioxide is 20 times more soluble (even through oxygen has a higher pressure gradient)

14. Describe the ways gases are transported in the blood.

BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide

a. Carbon dioxide is mainly transported in the blood in the form of  bicarbonate followed by attachment to the globulin portions of  

hemoglobin followed by dissolving in plasma

b. Oxygen is mostly transported in the blood through attachment to the  ferrous ion in the heme group of hemoglobin and a very small  

percentage being dissolved in the plasma  

15. Describe the 3 different types of lung carcinomas a. Squamous-cell carcinoma

i. Transformation of bronchial epithelium tissue to stratified  

squamous cells from ciliated pseudostratified epithelium cells

ii. Dividing cells cause leisons that heal into no longer functional  scar tissue

b. Adenocarcinoma

i. Originates in mucous glands of lamina propia

c. Small cell/oat-cell carcinoma

i. Most dangerous  

ii. Named for cluster cells that resemble oat grains

iii. Originates in primary bronchi and invades the mediastinum  metastasizing quickly  

16. Explain how lung cancer begins, progresses, and exerts its  lethal effects.

a. Most lung cancer begins in the primary bronchi where tumors (quickly  dividing cells) invade the bronchial wall

b. This then compresses the airway and causes atelectasis (lung collapse) c. Metastasis is very quick and common sites of spreading are the  pericardium, heart, bones, liver, lymph nodes and brain

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