BSC 216 Study Guide Exam 2
BSC 216 Study Guide Exam 2 BSC 216
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide The Endocrine System 1. Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems. a. The nervous system is composed of a network of neural fibers that are dispersed throughout the body and have very quick effects on a specific organ they act upon but, it is also very short lived. b. The endocrine is composed of specific organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream and take a long time to affect their target but, also have more prolonged and widespread effects. c. Both the endocrine and nervous systems communicate with neurotransmitters and hormones and may have overlapping effects on the same target cells. 2. Name the organs of the endocrine system. a. Can be primary, secondary or neuroendocrine b. Anterior and posterior pituitary glands, thyroid, parathyroid, heart, kidneys, small intestine, hypothalamus, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes and adrenal glands. 3. Describe the major structures and functions of the endocrine system. a. The endocrine system is a series of hormones secreted by endocrine cells and received by target cells b. Hormones are chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or organ, often a considerable distance away c. Hormones can act on their target cells through different mechanisms depending on whether the hormone is hydrophilic or hydrophobic. i. Hydrophilic cells affect their target cell through the use of secondary messengers and activation of already existing proteins to reach nucleus ii. Hydrophobic cells affect their target cell by moving freely through the plasma membrane and binding to a receptor at the nucleus which stimulate the DNA to produce a change d. Cell communication can occur through gap junctions, neurotransmitters, paracrine hormones or endocrine hormones. 4. Compare and contrast the different kinds of chemical signals a. Endocrine signals occur when endocrine cells secrete hormones into the blood to affect a different cell type b. Paracrine signals occur when tissue cells secrete paracrine chemicals into the extracellular fluid to affect a nearby different cell c. Autocrine signals occur when a specialized cell secretes an autocrine chemical into the extracellular fluid to affect the same cell or cell type 5. Describe the role of negative and positive feedback on hormone regulation a. Negative feedback loops occur when there is a homeostatic imbalance, the target cell receptor cells detect it, and then the hormone triggers a response in the target cells to return things back to homeostasis. The closer to homeostasis the more the control center decreases the effector response BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide b. Unlike a negative feedback loop, in a positive feedback loop the effectors activity increases and amplifies the response instead of shutting off i. Occurs with oxytocin during childbirth 6. Describe the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. a. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected through the hypophyseal portal system and many neurons that begin in the hypothalamus end in the pituitary, traveling via the infundibulum 7. Distinguish between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. a. The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also called the adenohypophysis and is composed of epithelial tissue and communicated with the hypothalamus via portal veins b. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is called the neurohypophysis and is composed of neural tissue and communicates with the hypothalamus via hypothalamic axons 8. List the hormones produced by the hypothalamus and each lobe of the pituitary, and identify the functions of each hormone. a. Hypothalamus produces antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. The anterior pituitary synthesizes follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, growth hormone b. Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) increases water retention and prevents dehydration c. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions, propulsion of semen, promotes feelings of sexual satisfaction and emotional bonding between partners, stimulates milk flow during lactation and promotes bonding between lactating mother and infant. d. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates secretion of ovarian sex hormones and development of follicles and sperm production e. Luteinizing hormone(LH) stimulates ovulation, progesterone secretion by corpus luteum and testes secretion of testosterone. f. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone g. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids h. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk and enhances secretion of testosterone in the testes i. Growth hormone (GH) stimulates mitosis and cellular differentiation 9. Explain how the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus and its target organs. a. The posterior pituitary is controlled by neurons in the hypothalamus that secrete hormones that travel through the hypothalamic axons via the infundibulum. These hormones then stay at the end of the axon terminal in the pituitary until the action potential is fired and they enter the blood stream. b. The anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic neurons secreting hormones into the hypothalamic capillary bed that then travel through BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide portal veins in the infundibulum and exit in the anterior pituitary capillary bed to bind to receptors on anterior pituitary cells. The hypothalamus hormones then control the secretion of hormones from anterior pituitary cells. 10. Describe the effects of growth hormone. a. Growth hormone influences a number of actions in the body. b. It increases the synthesis of protein by boosting DNA transcription, producing mRNA, amino acid uptake into cells and suppressing protein catabolism. c. It increases lipid metabolism by catabolizing fat in adipocytes providing energy for growing tissues d. It reduces the dependence of cells on glucose by mobilizing fatty acids e. It promotes sodium, potassium and chloride retention by the kidneys and enhances calcium absorption in the intestine f. The overall effect is bone, cartilage and muscle growth in children and bone thickening and remodeling in adults. 11. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid gland. a. The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped with two lobes connected by an isthmus i. At the microscopic level, the thyroid is composed of sphere shaped thyroid follicles surrounded by simple cuboidal epithelial cells called follicular cells. ii. On the inside of the follicle there is a protein rich gel called colloid. iii. In between the thyroid follicles there are parafollicular cells. b. The parathyroid glands are small and embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland 12. Identify and describe the types of cells within the thyroid gland that produce thyroid hormone and calcitonin a. Follicular cells are simple cuboidal epithelial cells that produce thyroid hormones, they surround the colloid i. Colloid contains the precursor for the creation of thyroid hormones b. Parafollicular cells lie between the follicles in clusters and produce calcitonin 13. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effects of thyroid hormone a. Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 are created with iodine atoms and thyroglobulin and are released into the blood after being created in the colloid i. This is stimulated by the secretion of Thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland b. Thyroid hormone works to regulate the metabolic rate, thermoregulate, promote growth and development and work together with the sympathetic nervous system i. Because of all these functions it is evident that thyroid hormone works to target all body cells BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide 14. Explain how negative feedback loops regulate the production of thyroid hormones a. To trigger the negative feedback loop the amount of thyroid hormone first deviates from its normal range b. A receptor on the thyroid then detects the deviation of the hormone level c. The stimulated control center then increases or decreases the secretion of thyroid hormone d. Thyroid hormone then triggers a response in its target cells to move conditions back toward the normal range e. As conditions return back to normal the control center then decreases the effector response 15. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effects of parathyroid hormone a. Parathyroid hormone release is stimulated by a detected decrease in blood calcium i. A negative feedback loop triggers release of PTH by chief cells in parathyroid b. PTH targets osteoclasts and the kidneys c. PTH works to maintain blood calcium ion concentration and works to raise calcium by either stimulating osteoclasts, activation vitamin D to vitamin D3 or increasing reabsorption of calcium ions from fluid in the kidneys 16. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. a. The kidneys are pyramid shaped glands located on the superior end of the kidney b. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the gland i. Made up of the outer capsule and three distinct layers 1. Zona glomerulosa is immediately deep to capsule and contains tightly packed, unorganized cells 2. Zona fasciculata is immediately deep to the zona glomerulosa and is the largest area of the cortex and contains organized cells stacked on one another 3. Zona reticularis is deep to the zona fasciculata and contains cells arranges in loose clusters c. The adrenal medulla is the inner portion of the gland i. As the innermost portion the adrenal medulla lies deep to the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex 17. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effects of mineralcorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex a. Released in response to imbalances in electrolytes and pH b. Mineralcorticoids target the kidneys to regulate electrolyte imbalance c. They maintain concentrations of extracellular sodium and potassium ions within their normal ranges, regulate extracellular fluid volume, maintain blood pressure and maintain acid-base homeostasis 18. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effects of glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide a. Stimulated for release in response to stress and abnormal blood glucose levels b. Targets liver, muscle, adipose tissue specifically c. Causes gluconeogenesis in the liver, the release of amino acids from muscle tissue, release of fatty acids from adipose tissue and is an anti- inflammatory agent i. Androgenic steroid produced as byproduct of cortisol 19.Explain the relationship of the adrenal medulla to the sympathetic nervous system a. The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine which increase heart rate, bronchiole dilation, pupil dilation and decrease digestive function which are all effects of activation of the sympathetic nervous system i. Acetylcholine released by sympathetic nervous system activate chromaffin cells to release epinephrine and norepinephrine 20. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effects of catecholamines a. Stimulated by acetylcholine from sympathetic nervous system b. Targets all cells in the body but, especially the heart, bronchioles, eyes and digestive system c. Increase heart rate, dilate bronchioles, dilate pupils and decrease digestive function 21. Describe the structure of the endocrine pancreas and its hormone-secreting cells a. Pancreas lies superficial to stomach and duodenum and has a head, body and tail b. Microscopically it contains pancreatic islets and acinar cells i. The pancreatic islet is made up of alpha, beta and gamma cells ii. The acinar cells surround the pancreatic islet 22. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effect of glucagon a. Released when levels of blood glucose are too low b. Targets the liver, adipose tissue, amino acids and blood glucose c. Stimulates gluconeogenesis, glyconeogenesis, releases glucose into circulation, stimulates fat catabolism and release of free fatty acids, promotes amino acid absorption and provides cells with raw material for gluconeogenesis 23. Describe the stimulus for release, the target tissue, and the effect of insulin a. Released from beta cells during and after a meal when glucose and amino acid levels are rising b. Targets liver, adipose tissue, amino acids and glucose c. Promotes synthesis of glycogen, fat and protein all as forms of storage to lower blood glucose levels, suppresses use of already stored fuels 24. Explain how insulin and glucagon work together to maintain the blood glucose level within the normal range a. Insulin works to lower blood glucose levels when they are high and after a period of fasting when the glucose levels drop too low glucagon works to bring sugar levels up and back to normal BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide 25. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments for the two types of diabetes mellitus a. Type I diabetes occurs as an autoimmune system that damages the beta cells of the pancreas so that glucose can’t be taken up and blood glucose remains high i. Treated by use of insulin (injections, pump or inhaler) ii. Polyphagia,polydipsia, ketonuria and ketoacidosis are symptoms b. Type II diabetes occurs in individuals who have developed a resistance to insulin and although they have beta cells that work the target cells do not respond to insulin i. Those who are genetically disposed, above 40 years old, are obese, Native American, Hispanic or Asian are at risk for Type II diabetes ii. Treatment includes a weight loss program with exercise and oral medications that improve insulin secretion or target cell sensitivity iii. Symptoms include diabetic neuropathy, cardiovascular damage including arterial damage in retina and kidneys and atherosclerosis, polyphagia and polydipsia The Lymphatic and Immune System 1. Describe the major functions of the lymphatic system a. Fluid Recovery, Immunity and Lipid absorption 2. Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels and blood vessels in terms of structure and function. a. Lymph fluid is low in protein i. Blood plasma has high protein content (albumin, globulin, etc.) b. Lymphatic capillaries are blunt and only flow towards the heart i. Blood capillaries are a portal system and flow both ways c. Lymph vessels have stopping points such as lymph nodes d. Both lymph and blood vessels have lots of branching e. Both lymph and blood vessels are “moved” by skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump, physical activity and contain valves for backflow prevention i. Lymph vessels are also pushed along by the strong pulses of arteries 3. Describe the mechanisms of lymph formation, and trace the pathway of lymph circulation through the body. a. Lymph is the fluid forced out of the blood at the arterial end of capillary bed and returned to blood via lymphatic vessels b. Travels from lymphatic capillarieslymphatic collecting vesselslymph nodeslymphatic trunkslymphatic ducts 4. Describe the basic structure and cellular composition of lymphatic tissue, and relate them to the overall functions of the lymphatic system. a. Lymphatic tissue contains nodules that are a concentration of lymphoid tissue BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide b. They also contain germinal centers that provide proliferation grounds for dendritic cells and B lymphocytes c. Lymphatic tissue in the lymph nodes typically have more afferent vessels than efferent vessels so that the lymph is forced to spend more time in the node to be surveyed for pathogens d. Lymphatic tissue in the tonsils contains tonsillar crypts to trap bacteria and particles 5. Describe the structures and functions of the lymphoid organs. a. Lymphoid organs have connective tissue capsules to well define the lymphatic tissue from neighboring tissues b. Can be primary or secondary i. Primary lymphatic organs are sites where T and B cells become immunocompetent ii. Secondary lymphatic organs are places where immunocompetent cells reside and function 6. Describe the roles that phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells and plasma proteins such as complement and interferon play in the innate immunity. a. Phagocytic cells are the cells that engulf pathogens and foreign matter b. Neutrophils work through phagocytosis, digestion and production of a cloud of bactericidal chemicals c. Eosinophils guard against parasites, allergens and pathogens i. They kill tapeworms and roundworms ii. They promote actions of basophils and mast cells iii. The phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes iv. Limit action of histamine d. Basophils aid mobility and action of other leukocytes through secretion of chemicals e. Lymphocytes function in immune surveillance and specific immunity but, they do also work in innate defense if the attack on an antigen is not SPECIFIC f. Interferons work to warn nearby cells that an attack has occurred when a virus enters g. The complement system is a group of about 30 proteins that circulate the blood in inactive forms and are activated by the presence of a pathogen i. Bring about destruction of pathogen through inflammation, immune clearance, phagocytosis and cytolysis 7. Walk through the stages of the inflammatory response, and describe its purpose. a. Stages of inflammation are mobilization of body defenses, containment and destruction of pathogens and tissue cleanup and repair i. The tissue damage occurs ii. Damaged cells and mast cells release inflammatory mediators iii. Inflammatory mediators trigger dilation of arterioles, increased capillary permeability, occurrence of pain and recruitment of other cells BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide b. Purpose of inflammation is to limit the spread of pathogens and destroy them, remove debris from damaged tissue and initiate tissue repair 8. Describe the process by which fever is generated, and explain its purpose. a. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature that is generated when pyrogens reset the body’s homeostatic temperature set point b. The raised temperature works to enhance the action of antimicrobial proteins and inhibits bacteria reproduction 9. Identify the differences between innate and adaptive immunity. a. Innate immunity involves non-specific attacks while adaptive involves attacks on a particular pathogen b. Adaptive immunity can react quickly once re-exposed to a pathogen because of memory 10. Describe the three lines of defense and the role they play in the immune response. a. First line of defense is surface barriers i. Surface barriers can be in the form of skin or mucous membranes and serve as the first barrier that pathogens will encounter when attempting jto attack the body b. Second line of defense is internal defenses i. Cells and chemical defenses are nonspecific and they recognize foreign substances but not specific foreign substances ii. Can be in the form or phagocytic cells, non-phagocytic leukocytes, interferons and complement system c. Third line of defense are the adaptive defenses that can be broken down into humoral immunity and cellular immunity i. Cellular immunity is when the T cells directly attack and destroy foreign cells or diseased host cells and red the body of pathogens inside human cells where they are not accessible to antibodies ii. Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies that do not directly destroy a pathogen but, rather are marked for destruction and are killed by other cells The Respiratory System 1. Know the seven main functions of the respiratory system a. Provide oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between blood and air b. Serve for speech and other vocalizations c. Provide sense of smell d. Affect pH of body fluids by eliminating carbon dioxide e. Affects blood pressure by synthesis of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II f. Breathing creates pressure gradients between thorax and abdomen that promote flow of lymph and venous blood g. Breath-holding helps expel abdominal contents during urination, defecation and childbirth (Valsalva maneuver) 2. Name the main organs of this system a. Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide 3. Trace the flow of air from the nose to the pulmonary alveoli a. Nasal cavitypharynxlarynxtracheamain bronchisecondary bronchitertiary bronchibronchiolesterminal bronchiolesrespiratory bronchiolesalveolar ductsalveolar sacs 4. Describe and distinguish between the conducting and respiratory zones of the respiratory tract. a. The conducting division includes the passages of the respiratory system that serve only for airflow with no gas exchange i. Includes the nostrils through the terminal bronchioles b. The respiratory division consists of alveoli and other gas exchange regions i. Respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli 5. Describe the histology of the different regions of the respiratory tract, the types of cells present in alveoli, and the structure of the respiratory membrane. a. The olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity consists of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with goblet cells (cilia are immobile) b. Respiratory epithelium lining the rest of the nasal cavity is also made of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells (cilia are motile) i. Goblet cells secrete mucus and cilia propel mucus toward pharynx c. The trachea is lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and composed mainly of mucus secreting cells, ciliated cells and stem cells i. Upward beating of cilia move trapped particles upward towards pharynx d. The bronchioles contain ciliated cuboidal epithelium with no mucous glands or goblet cells but, do have cilia moving mucus upward to mucocilliary elevator e. The alveoli contain type I alveolar cells, type II alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages f. The respiratory membrane of the alveoli consists of a fluid containing surfactant, type I alveolar cell, basal lamina and capillary endothelial cell 6. Describe Boyle’s law, and relate it to the specific sequence of events causing inspiration and expiration. a. Boyle’s law states that when temperature is constant pressure is inversely proportional to volume b. During inspiration the lung volume increases and intrapulmonary pressure decreases and if the intrapulmonary [pressure rises above atmospheric pressure the air moves out of the lungs i. The opposite is true of expiration 7. Explain how the muscles of inspiration, forced inspiration, and forced expiration change the volume of the thoracic cavity. a. During inspiration BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide i. The sternocleidomastoid elevates the sternum, the scalenes elevate ribs 1 and 2, the external intercostals elevate ribs 3-12 and widen the thoracic cavity, the pectoralis minor elevates ribs 3-5 and the internal intercostals aid in elevating the ribs b. During forced expiration i. Internal intercostals depress ribs 1-11 and narrow chest cavity, diaphragm ascends and reduces depth of thoracic cavity, rectus abdominis depresses the lower ribs and pushes the diaphragm upward by compressing abdominal organs and the external abdominal obliques have the same effect as the rectus abdominis 1. During forced inspiration the exact opposite occurs in muscles 8. Explain how the values for atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure change with inspiration and expiration. a. During inspiration the lungs increase in volume and intrapulmonary pressure decreases and intrapleural pressure decreases as well. Atmospheric pressure remains the same b. During expiration the intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure both increase and the atmospheric pressure remains the same 9. Explain how each of the following factors affects pulmonary ventilation: airway resistance, pulmonary compliance, and alveolar surface tension. a. Increased Airway resistance slows the flow b. Increased pulmonary compliance slows airflow c. Increased surface tension slows airflow 10. Describe and identify the values for the respiratory volumes and the respiratory capacities. Tidal volume (TV) o Amount of air inspired or expired during normal, quiet ventilation\ Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR) o Volume of air that reaches the alveoli multiplied by the breaths per minute Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) o Volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal tidal inspiration Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) o Air that can be forcibly expired after a normal tidal expiration Residual volume (RV) o The air that remains in the lungs even after the most forceful expiration Inspiratory capacity o Total amount of air that a person can inspire after a tidal expiration o TV + IRV Functional residual capacity o Amount of air that is normal after a tidal expiration BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide o ERV+RV Vital capacity o Total amount of exchangeable air o TV+IRV+ERV Total lung capacity o Total amount of exchangeable and nonexchangeable air in the lungs o IRV+TV+ERV+RV 11. Describe the locations and functions of the brainstem respiratory centers. a. Ventral respiratory group(VRG) i. Located in medulla oblongata ii. Primary generator of respiratory rhythm iii. 2 sec firing od inspiratory neurons and 3 second firing of expiratory neuron iv. Produces rhythm of 12 breaths per minute b. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) i. Located in medulla oblongata ii. Receives influences from external sources and modifies the rate and depth of breathing c. Pontine respiratory group (PRG) i. Located in the pons ii. Modifies rhythm of VRG by outputs to both the VRG and DRG iii. Adapts breathing to special circumstances like sleep, exercise, vocalization and emotional responses 12. State Dalton’s law and Henry’s law, and relate both laws to the events of internal and pulmonary gas exchange and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma. a. Dalton’s law states that total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the contributions of the individual gases i. Gases always diffuse from areas of higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure b. Henry’s law states that for a given temperature the amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure to air i. The greater the pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air the more oxygen the blood picks up ii. Since the blood arriving at an alveolus has a higher pressure of carbon dioxide than air it releases carbon dioxide into the air 13. Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure gradients and net gas movements in pulmonary gas exchange. a. Higher pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air leads to the oxygen diffusing into the blood b. Higher pressure of carbon dioxide in blood leads to carbon dioxide diffusing into the alveolar air c. More carbon dioxide diffuses across the respiratory membrane than oxygen because carbon dioxide is 20 times more soluble (even through oxygen has a higher pressure gradient) 14. Describe the ways gases are transported in the blood. BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide a. Carbon dioxide is mainly transported in the blood in the form of bicarbonate followed by attachment to the globulin portions of hemoglobin followed by dissolving in plasma b. Oxygen is mostly transported in the blood through attachment to the ferrous ion in the heme group of hemoglobin and a very small percentage being dissolved in the plasma 15. Describe the 3 different types of lung carcinomas a. Squamous-cell carcinoma i. Transformation of bronchial epithelium tissue to stratified squamous cells from ciliated pseudostratified epithelium cells ii. Dividing cells cause leisons that heal into no longer functional scar tissue b. Adenocarcinoma i. Originates in mucous glands of lamina propia c. Small cell/oat-cell carcinoma i. Most dangerous ii. Named for cluster cells that resemble oat grains iii. Originates in primary bronchi and invades the mediastinum metastasizing quickly 16. Explain how lung cancer begins, progresses, and exerts its lethal effects. a. Most lung cancer begins in the primary bronchi where tumors (quickly dividing cells) invade the bronchial wall b. This then compresses the airway and causes atelectasis (lung collapse) c. Metastasis is very quick and common sites of spreading are the pericardium, heart, bones, liver, lymph nodes and brain
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