New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Marketing Research Exam 3 Studyguide

by: Alicia Turman

Marketing Research Exam 3 Studyguide MKTG 3633

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Marketing > MKTG 3633 > Marketing Research Exam 3 Studyguide
Alicia Turman
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover information from: -Chapter 7 (surveys etc.) -Chapter 8 (question formats etc.) -Scales -Reliability and Validity
Marketing Research
Steven Kopp
Study Guide
Marketing, principles of marketing, Intro to Marketing, research
50 ?




Popular in Marketing Research

Popular in Marketing

This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Turman on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKTG 3633 at University of Arkansas taught by Steven Kopp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Marketing Research in Marketing at University of Arkansas.


Reviews for Marketing Research Exam 3 Studyguide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/02/16
Marketing Research Exam 3 Study Guide: Chapter 7: Terms: Surveys o Surveys involve interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire o 5 advantages of using survey methods (SEASS)  Standardization, ease of administration, ability to tap the unseen, suitability to tabulation and statistical analysis, sensitivity to subgroup differences. Person-administered survey—A interviewer reads questions, either face-to-face or over the telephone, to the respondent and records his or her answers without the use of a computer o 4 advantages of person-administered surveys (FRAQ): feedback, rapport, adaptability, quality control  Feedback—interviewer may be able to adjust his or her questions according to verbal and nonverbal cues.  Rapport—person administering the survey creating trust and understanding that non-personal forms cannot achieve  Quality Control—ensure that respondents are selected correctly  Adaptability—interviews are trained so they don’t alter the meaning of a question by interpreting the question to the respondent o 4 disadvantages of person administered surveys (HSHF)  Humans make errors- interviews may change the wording of a question, which could change the meaning  Slow speed- writing things down on paper requires a separate data input step to build a computer data profile  High cost—personal interviewers are highly skilled and need to be compensated for that  Fear of interview evaluation—participants feel like they have to answer “correctly” and not how they normally would respond. Computer-assisted survey o The interview basically verbalizes the questions while relying to some degree on computer technology to facilitate the interview work o Computer and interviewer o 4 advantages: (SRVQ)  Speed, relatively error-free interviews, use of pictures videos and graphics, quick capture of data o 2 disadvantages: (TS)  Technical skills may be required, setup costs can be high Self-administered survey-respondent reads the questions on a page and responds by writing on the questionnaire; no human, no computer o Also called paper and pencil o 3 advantages: (RRN)  Reduced cost, respondent control, no interview- evaluation apprehension o 3 disadvantages of self-administered survey (RLH)  Respondent control, lack of monitoring, high questionnaire requirements Computer-administered survey- computer communicates the questions and records the respondents answers o Usually an online survey o 3 advantages: (BRR)  Breadth of user-friendly features, relatively inexperience, reduction of interview evaluation concern in respondents o Disadvantage:  Requires computer-literate and internet connected respondents Mixed-mode survey o Use multiple data collection modes o Sometimes are referred to as hybrid surveys o Why are mixed-mode surveys becoming more popular? (IM)  Increasing use of online surveys, meeting the need to match data collection mode with respondent preferences. o Advantage of mixed-mode surveys:  Multiple avenues to achieve data collection goal o Disadvantages of mixed mode surveys (2)  Survey mode may affect response  Additional complexity -4 data collection methods for person-administered and computer- assisted surveys (IMIT) In-home interview- interviewer conducts the interview in the respondents home o When is an in-home interview used?  When personal contact is essential to the success of the interview (survey requires respondents to see, read, touch, use, or interact with a product prototype), when the researcher believes the security and comfort of the respondents homes are important in affecting the quality of the data collected Mall-intercept interview o Shoppers in a mall are approached and asked to take part in a survey o Questions may be asked I the mall or the company’s facilities located in he mall In-office interviews o Interviewer makes an appointment with business executives or managers to conduct the interview at the respondents place of work Internet-based questionnaire o Online survey o Industry standard for surveys in virtually all high-internet penetration countries o Advantage of online survey is referred to as:  Real Time Research o Internet surveys don’t fall into the category of self- administered surveys because they don’t allow respondents to avoid answers key questions -3 data collection methods for self-administered surveys (GDM) (Group self-administered, drop-off, mail) Group self-administered survey o Respondents take the survey in a group context o Each respondent works individually, but they meet as a group (allows the researcher to economize) Drop-off survey o Questionnaires are left with the respondent to fill out o Administrator may return at a later time to pick up the completed questionnaire or it may be mailed in o Sometimes called “drop and collect” Mail survey o Questionnaires are mailed to prospective respondents who are asked to fill them out and return them by mail o Mail surveys are plagued by 2 things: Nonresponse and self-selection bias o Nonresponse—questionnaires that aren’t returned o Self-selection bias- those who do not respond are probably different from those who don’t fill out the questionnaire and return it Incidence rate o Percentage of the population that posses some characteristic necessary to be included in the survey Researcher must take into consideration 5 things when deciding on a survey data collection mode: (TBRIC)  Time horizon  Data collection budget  Type of respondent interaction required  Incidence rate  Cultural and infrastructure. Chapter 8: Terms  Open-ended questions (un-probed format, probed format) o Open-ended questions- present no response options to the respondent o Unprobed format- seeks no additional information from the respondent  “Why did you chose to shop at RiffRaff today?” and that’s all o Probed format- includes a response probe instructing the interviewer to ask for additional information  Ask initial question  Ask follow up probe question o Advantages of open-ended questions  Respondents answer in own wording  Respondents may bring up things that the researcher did not consider o Disadvantages of open-ended questions:  Answers are typically difficult to code  Answers can be difficult to interpret  Questions take longer to administer  Lower response rates than close-ended  Close-ended question (dichotomous, multiple category, scaled- response) o Advantages of close-ended questions:  Simple to administer and code  Allows for a range of possibilities  More data o Disadvantages of close-ended questions:  May oversimplify responses  May not include all responses  Respondents may not understand scale  Unlabeled scaled-response format  Labeled scared-response format  Measurement o Determine a description or the mount of some property of an object that is of interest to the researcher o Marketing research relies heavily on measurement o We are measuring properties of object  Properties o Properties are sometimes called: characteristic, attributes, or qualities o Properties are the specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object  Ex: the object we want to research is a consumer, the properties of interest are age, gender, and preferred brand  Objective properties o Measurement is a simple process as long as we are measuring objective properties o Objective properties are physically verifiable characteristics (age, income, number of unites purchased) o Objective properties are observable and tangible  Subjective properties o Cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs o A persons attitude or intentions are subjective properties  Scale development o Designing questions and response formats to measure the subjective properties of an object  Order  Nominal scales o Uses only labels o Posses only the characteristics of description o Designations as to race, religion, brand last purchased are all nominal measures o Nominal measurements answers: Yes/no, agree/disagree, any instance in which descriptor cannot be differentiated except qualitatively  Ex: if you describe respondents in a survey according to their occupation (banker, doctor, computer programmers) you used an nominal scale.  Ex: True or false: nominal scales do not provide other information such as “greater than” or “twice as large” TRUE  Ordinal scales o If the respondent is asked to indicate his first, second and third choice, you are using a ordinal scale o Ordinal scales indicate relative size differences among objects o Examples of relative size differences used on ordinal scales : Greater than, less than, equal to Scale measures- distance between each level is known. -2 types: ratio and interval  Interval scales o Rating scales for subjective properties where for adjacent levels, the distance is normally one scale unit. o Ex: when a coffee brand is rated 3 in taste, which is one unit away from one rated 4, an interval scale is used o Interval scales always measure subjective properties o Because most subjective (psychological) properties exist on a continuum ranging from one extreme to another, it is common to use an interval scale. o The neutral point on an interval scale is considered a:  Point along the continuum; zero (or origin) o Interval scales are used to measure unobservable constructs o Two issues in the use of interval scales:  Whether to include the middle, neutral response option  Whether to use a symmetric or nonsymmetric scale  Ratio scales o True zero origin (point) exists o An actual number of purchases in a certain time period, dollars spent, miles traveled, or years of college education can be measured on an ratio scale. o Ratio characteristic allows us to do what when comparing intervals?  Construct ratios (twice as much, travel one third as far)  Anchored scale  Unanchored scale  Reliability and validity o Reliable measures-obtain identical or very similar responses from the same respondent o Validity-truthfulness of responses to a measure o **when a respondent says on 2 different questions that he makes over $100k whens he’s only makes $20, the data is RELIABLE but not VALID.  Operational definition  Workhorse o Workhorse scales do the bulk of the measurement work in marketing research  Likert scale o Measures intensity of agreement or disagreement on a symmetrical scale  Life-style inventory o Measures a personas activities, interests, and opinion with a Likert scale o Ex: “I shop a lot for specials “and “I prefer to pay for purchases with my debit card” are examples of lifestyle  Semantic differential scale o Contains a series of bipolar adjectives for the properties of the object under study o Respondents indicate their impressions of each by indicating locations along its continuum o Focus of the semantic differential scale is on the measurement of the meaning of an object, concept, person, or experience o The semantic differential scale is a good way to measure a brand, company, or store image o Examples of the properties on a semantic differential scale:  “hot---cold”; “friendly----unfriendly”; “high quality---- low quality”  Other kinds of scales  Survey terminology o Item o Scale o Summation o Reverse-scoring  Questionnaires o Vehicle used to present the questions the researcher desires respondents to answer o 6 key functions of a questionnaire: (TSFSSC)  Translate the research objectives into specific questions  Standardize questions and response categories  Fosters cooperation and keeps respondents motivated (by its wording and flow)  Serves as an enduring record of the research  Can speed up the process of data collection mode used  Contains information on which reliability and validity assessments may be made  Questionnaire design o Systematic process that requires researcher to go through a series of considerations  Questionnaire bias o Ability of a questions wording or format to influence respondents answers  Question development o Practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording question o Question development words questions that are (3 Us)  Understandable  Unambiguous  Unbiased o Marketing researchers take great care in developing research questions that measure (ABBD)  Attitude  Beliefs  Behaviors  Demographics o Question evaluation  Scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure question bias is minimized o A question should be (4 things FBGC)  Focused on a single issue or topic  Brief  Grammatically simple  Crystal clear o 4 don’ts of question wording (LLDO)  Leading  Loading  Double-barreled  Overstated  Leading question o Gives a strong cue or expectation as to what answer to provide o Ex: “don’t you see problems with using your credit card for an online purchase?” is an example of a leading question  Loaded question o Sneaky wording, makes references to universe beliefs or rules of behavior o Emotional overtones o Ex: “should people be allowed to protect themselves from harm by using a Taser for self-defense?”  Double-barreled question o Two different questions posed in one o Difficult to answer either one correctly o Ex: “were you satisfied with the restaurants food and service?”  Overstated question o Place undue emphasis on some aspect of the topic o Ex: “how much do you think you would pay for a pair of sunglasses that will protect your eyes from the suns harmful ultraviolet rays, which are known to cause blindness?”  Face validity o If the questions “look right”  Questionnaire organization o Sequence of statements and questions that make up a questionnaire o Questionnaire organization pertains to the introduction and actual flow of questions on the questionnaire -2 options with respect to sponsor identity (undisguised and disguised)  Undisguised survey o the sponsoring company is identified  Disguised survey o Sponsors name is not told to respondents -2 methods to reduce anxieties concerning privacy (anonymity and confidentiality)  Anonymity o The respondent is not known, and therefore, may not be identified  Confidentiality o Respondents identity is not to be divulged to a client or any other third party  Screening questions o Used to identify respondents who do not meet qualifications necessary to take part in the research study  Question flow o Sequencing of questions on the questionnaire  Warm up questions o Used near the beginning o Shows the respondent the survey is easy to complete  Transitions o Statements made to let the respondent know that the subject or format of the following questions will change o True or False: it is good practice to “bury” complicated and difficult to answer questions deep in the questionnaire: TRUE  Skip question (logic) o Skip Logic- Lets the questionnaire designer direct the only survey to ask questions based on previous answered o Skip Question- determines which question will be answered next  Incentives (and other ways to encourage participation) o Offers to do something for the respondent to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey  Classification questions o The final section of a questionnaire is typically reserved for o Classification questions almost always include demographic questions o Used to classify respondents into various groups for the purpose of analysis o Ex: the researcher may want to classify respondents into categories based on age, gender, and income level  Coding o Using numbers associated with question responses to facilitate data entry and analysis  Reverse coding  Median split o A method used to check measuring instruments where half of the data is computed and is then correlated against the other half of data o A correlation coefficient of .9 would ensure an acceptable level of reliability in measurement  Item  Scale  Summated scale


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.