Biology 10 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Biology 10 Midterm 2 Study Guide Biol 10
California State University, Fresno
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Serena on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 10 at California State University, Fresno taught by Stephanie Coffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Life Science in Biology at California State University, Fresno.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
Midterm #2 Study Guide Nutrition Unit: Weeks 4-7 Wednesday, October 5, 2016 • From a biological perspective why do humans need to eat? We need the fuel from food. Digestion breaks down food into molecules we can use. • What biologicalmolecules provide fuel for humans? Carbohydrates: 4cal per gram Fats: 9cal per gram Proteins: 4cal per gram • Which biological molecules are necessary for the human body to build raw materials? • Describethe processof cellular respiration. Sugar & Oxygen go in Cellular respiration breaks bonds to release energy Creates ATP, carbon dioxide & water • List the different types of carbohydrates andthe rate that each is broken down by the human body. Simple Sugars -Glucose, fructose -Releases energy quickly Digestible Complex Sugars -Sucrose (table sugar), glycogen, starch -Releases energy slowly Fiber Fiber -Cellulose (forms structural parts of plants) -NO energy • Explain how carbohydrateintake can lead to obesity and type II diabetes. Excess fat can mess up the insulin signaling chain at cells which can lead to insulin resistance. • Why does all of the extra energy consumed by humans get stored as fat? It is the most space saving method to store energy. If fats where stored as glycogen our weight would significantly increase. • List the different types of fats and how each of them are broken down differentlyby the human body. Saturated -more likely to be stored -less reactive chemically Unsaturated -more likely to be burned -more reactive chemically Trans Fats -increase your chance of heart disease • How can fat intake lead to obesity and heart disease? Fat intake can lead to obesity if more fats are stored than are necessary for energy use. Cardiovascular disease generally begins with fatty deposits developing on the inner walls of arteries. Over decades of build-up atherosclerosis plaque can develop which may lead to heart attack. • What are the roles of proteins inan organism’s diet? Explain. Proteins are essential nutrients for humans because we cannot produce all of the essential amino acids. Whereas plants can produce all of the essential amino acids they need. Each of the 20 amino acids have a different side chain. The order of amino acids within a protein and structure of the protein determines their function. • Why is photosynthesis essential toall life on earth? It is essential for plants to create carbohydrates. • How do we know the amount of carbon in the average American’s body comes from Corn? We know this because most US food is derived from corn. Another reason is that corn is a C4 plant and we can tell if the carbon came from C3 plants or that corn is a C4 plant and we can tell if the carbon came from C3 plants or C4 plants by a hair analysis. • What is BMI? Why is it not always the best indicatorof health? Basal Metabolic Rate. It was NOT created to and should not indicate fatness in an individual. It is scientifically nonsensical, physiologically wrong (does not consider muscle mass or physical build), logically unsound, and lies by scientific authority. It takes an average of everyone, does not apply to individuals. It suggests distinct categories with sharp boundaries that hinge on a decimal place. • What are the current obesity trends in adults and children in America? For children aged 6-11yrs old: risen from about 7-8% in 1990 to 20% in 2008 For children aged 12-19yrs old: risen from 5% in 1990 to about 17-18% in 2008 For adults: In 1990 the US map had states ranging from <10% to 10%-14%, with the majority being in the higher category. In 2008 the US map included 4 more percentage ranges with the highest being >30%. On this map not a single state was within the two lowest categories and only one state was within the lower category of 15-19%. • How can we analyze health food claims and determine if they are legit? -Is the health claim meaningful or is it so vague that it is true of all foods? -Could the ingredients possibly cause the claimed health benefit(s)? -Does the claim imply scientific studies or data can back it up? Does the data exist? -Does opposing or supporting data exist? Is this data collected by unbiased third-party sources? • What do we know about nutrientson Earth being cycled? Chemicals that are necessary for life are constantly cycled through the food chain. New energy continually comes from the sun but everything else we need is already here. Plants and other autotrophs take up the inorganic forms of elements from abiotic reservoirs and incorporate them into organic molecules. Decomposers consume the dead bodies and organic wastes, releasing inorganic forms of the elements from their biotic reservoirs back into the environment. • Describethe Carbon Cycle Found in 4 compartments: the oceans, the atmosphere, terrestrial organisms, and fossil deposits. Process: Photosynthetic organisms obtain most of their carbon from the atmosphere, which then moves through the food chain as organisms eat the plants and then are eaten themselves. CO is2exhaled. When organisms die the carbon accumulates in the ground. The organic remains are transformed into coil, oil, and natural gas. When these are burned large amounts of CO is released 2 into the atmosphere • Describethe Nitrogen Cycle It is necessary to build amino acids. Largest reservoir is the atmosphere. More than 78% of the atmosphere is Nitrogen Gas (N 2, though most of it is completely unusable Nitrogen-fixers have to transform nitrogen (by attaching it to other atoms, producing ammonia and related compounds) so it can enter the food chain through plants. Process: Nitrogen gas is fixed by soil-dwelling bacteria, producing ammonia & other compounds contains nitrogen. Nitrogen compounds are modified by other bacteria. Nitrogen moved through the food chain and is used by each organism to build new proteins. Animal wastes & dead animals are broken down by soil bacteria that converts nitrogen back into nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas returns to atmosphere.
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