Bio 1020 Study Guide -- Exam 2
Bio 1020 Study Guide -- Exam 2 BIOL 1020 (Dr. Overturf)
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittney Champagne on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 (Dr. Overturf) at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Overturf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology (Dr. Overturf) in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 10/02/16
What does light microscopy allow that Viewing of processes within cells electron microscopy does not? What is the cause of the major difference Electron beams have a much shorter between a modern transmission electron wavelength than light. microscope and a super resolution light microscope? During cell centrifugation, what is the most Size and weight of the component important factor? What limits cell size? The ratio of the cell’s surface to its volume What are the two prokaryotic domains? Archaea and Bacteria What regulates the movement of proteins into The nuclear pore complex and out of the nucleus? Receives, sorts, and ships products of the ER, Golgi apparatus such as proteins and lysosomes. Large vesicles derived from the endoplasmic Vacuoles reticulum and golgi apparatus Regulates the synthesis of proteins that will Rough endoplasmic reticulum be exported from the cell Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to Transport vesicles another Where would you find DNAin a prokaryotic The nucleoid cell? List the 7 parts of the endomembrane system. Nuclear envelope, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, vacuoles Involved in the process of detoxification of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum harmful toxins Modifies and produces polysaccharides that Golgi apparatus will be secreted Primary site ofATP synthesis in eukaryotic Mitochondrion cells What three places can DNAbe found in a Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts plant cell? Motor proteins interact with the ______. Cytoskeleton Why do cilia and flagella bend? Because of movements of the water during osmosis. Communicates information to and from the Integrins outside of the cell to the inside. Plasmodesmata are most like ______ in Gap junctions animal cells. Twisted chain built from proteins called actin; Microfilaments bears tension, resists pulling Microtubules assemble in a ______. Centrosome Allows ions to jump from one animal cell to Gap junctions another. Regulates animal cell behavior by Extracellular matrix communicating information through integrins. Where are ribosomes found? In the cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Standard light microscopy would be most Answer: B appropriate to observe… a) shapes of organelles b) movements of condensed chromosomes c) characteristics of atomic particles What is not part of a prokaryotic cell? Answer: D a) a cell wall b) cytoplasm c) ribosomes d) an endoplasmic reticulum Eukaryotic cells have more _____ than Answer: B prokaryotes. a) volume b) intracellular organelles c) cell processes d) surface area Plant and animal cells both have… Answer:A a) mitochondrion b) chloroplast c) cell walls d) centrioles Ribosomes produce what molecules? Answer: B a) nucleic acids b) proteins c) lipids d) glucose The smooth endoplasmic reticulum Answer: C produces… a) nucleic acids b) proteins c) lipids d) glucose This organelle is the site of photosynthesis. Answer:A a) chloroplasts b) chlorophyll c) mitochondria d) nucleus Which is not part of the cytoskeleton? Answer:A a) peroxisomes b) microtubules c) microfilaments d) intermediate filaments Which one of the following does not produce Answer: C proteins? a) ribosomes free in the cytosol b) ribosomes attached to the ER c) mitochondria d) nucleolus Which part of a cell forms cilia and flagella? Answer: B a) actin b) tubulin c) ER d) nucleus Chapter 12: At this phase, centrioles are beginning to Prophase move apart. At this phase, chromosomes align on the Metaphase equator. At this phase, the kinetochore begins to Prometaphase develop. At this phase, chromatids become Telophase chromosomes. At this phase, sister chromatids separate. Anaphase What indicates the beginning of anaphase? Cohesion is cleaved. At this phase, chromatids become Anaphase chromosomes. Agroove in the plasma membrane between Cleavage furrow daughter nuclei What are chromosomes composed of? DNAand proteins If there are 20 duplicated chromosomes, how 20 many centromeres are there? The microtubule-organizing center of animal centrosome cells; present during entire cell cycle. This gap of the cell cycle checks for growth G1 and function What is the final result of mitosis in a human? identical 2n somatic cells Responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells but Golgi-derived vesicles not in animal cells. When does cytokinesis begin? Late anaphase Involved in both binary fissionAND Actin and tubulin eukaryotic mitotic division If there are 20 centromeres, how many 10 chromosomes will there be in each daughter cell after cytokinesis? An enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) other proteins What happens to MPF during mitosis? The cyclin component is degraded. Which does not happen during mitosis? Answer: D a) condensation of chromosomes b) separation of sister chromatids c) Spindle breaks down d) replication of DNA Which is not true of the Cell Cycle Control Answer: D System? a) It is driven by specific chemical signals in the cytoplasm b) It directs sequential events c) It is regulated by both internal and external controls and checkpoints d) It is necessary for a cell’s survival. What is required as an energy source to movAnswer:A chromosomes towards the poles of the spindle? a) ATP b) Intact centromeres c) Cyclin and tubular d) Agrowth factor Which enzyme is released by platelets durinAnswer: D injury? a) MPF b) cyclin c) Cdk d) PDGF The cyclin component of MPF is destroyed Answer: B during which phase? a) G1 b) M c) S d) G2 This protein is maintained at steady levelsAnswer: D throughout the cell cycle. a) MPGF b) MPF c) cyclin d) Cdk This protein is synthesized at specific timAnswer: C during the cell cycle. a) MPGF b) MPF c) cyclin d) Cdk Which of the following triggers the cell’s Answer: B passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis? a) PDGF b) MPF c) cyclin d) Cdk Is PDGF external or internal? External Triggers the cell’s passage past G2. MPF These cells continue to divide even when they Cancer cells are tightly packed together. The process of a normal cell being converted Transformation to a cancerous cell. Atumor of abnormal cells that stay at the Benign tumor original site. Atumor of abnormal cells that invade Malignant tumor surrounding tissue and metastasize Chapter 8 Consists of all the energy transformation Metabolism reactions in an organism The study of energy transformations Thermodynamics The total kinetic energy of a system Enthalpy Energy possessed because of its location Potential energy An organism must _____ all of its energy obtain from its environment. Second Law of Thermodynamics Whenever energy is transformed, it must increase the entropy of the universe. Every chemical reaction increases the _____. entropy of the universe Energy that can do work when temperature Free energy and pressure are uniform Cellular process of breaking down large Catabolism molecules into smaller ones These pathways consume energy to build up Anabolic pathways polymers from monomers First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed Whenever energy is transformed, there is Entropy of the universe always an increase in… The smallest closed system. Earth Metabolism consists of all the _____. energy transformation reactions in an organism. What does ∆G stand for? Change in free energy Achemical system in equilibrium… cannot do work These reactions proceed with a net release of Exergonic reactions free energy. The region that is involved in the catalytic Active site reaction of the enzyme? The reactant that an enzyme acts on Substrate How do enzymes catalyze reactions? By lowering theActivation Energy barrier Achemical reaction that has a positive change Endergonic reaction in free energy. The heat content of a chemical system Enthalpy An enzyme’s activity is affected by what two temperature and pH things? There is no difference between the structure RNAnucleotide ofATP and the structure of an ______ The use of an exergonic process to drive an Energy coupling endergonic one Reactions in an ______ never reach Open system equilibrium. Any energy transferred to heat is… lost to the environment The region of an enzyme involved in the Active site catalytic reaction of the enzyme The mechanism in which the end product of a feedback inhibition metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step Happens when a substrate molecule bound to enzyme cooperactivity an active site of one subunit promotes substrate binding to the active site of other subunits Regulation associated with an enzyme with Allosteric Regulation one or more subunit These inhibitors bind to the active site of an Competitive inhibitors enzyme to compete with the substrate These inhibitors change the shame of the Noncompetitive inhibitors enzyme’s active site Only processes with a _____ change in free negative energy are spontaneous What will happen if an enzyme is added to a Answer:A reaction in equilibrium? a) nothing b) it will speed the reaction c) it will inhibit the reaction d) it will cause the reaction to start over Mutations in an enzyme may affect… Answer: D a) temperature b) pH c) volume d) A & B e) None of the above Which of the following would decrease Answer:A entropy? a) anabolic reactions b) respiration c) catabolic reactions d) all of the above Which of the following is true about catabolic Answer: B pathways? a) They combine molecules to have more energy b) They supply energy (mainly asATP) for work to be done c) They are endergonic d) None of the above Which of these is true about enzymes? Answer: B a) They decrease the rate of a reaction by increasing the activation energy b) They increase the rate of a reaction by lowing the activation energy c) They change the equilibrium point reactions d) None of the above How does a noncompetitive inhibitor Answer:A decrease the rate of a reaction? a) by changing the shape of the active site b) by lowering the activation energy c) by binding at the active site d) none of the above Allosteric processes are usually associated Answer: C with… a) cooperactivity b) enzymes with one subunit c) enzymes with more than one subunit d) feedback inhibition Catabolism is to anabolism as exergonic is to endergonic. ___. ▯ a. activation energy needed for the enzyme-catalyzed reverse reaction b. activation energy needed for the enzyme-catalyzed forward reaction c. activation energy needed for a noncatalyzed forward reaction d. change in free energy e. activation energy needed for a noncatalyzed reverse reaction Chapter 9: The molecule that functions as the reducing electrons agent in a redox reaction gains _____. The molecule that functions as the reducing potential energy agent in a redox reaction loses _____. Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs when? in glycolysis & citric acid cycle When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen oxidized atom, the molecule becomes _____. Oxygen consumed during cellular respiration Electron transport chain is involved with this. Most of the carbon dioxide produced from the citric acid cycle glucose is released during ____. Functions in the citric acid cycle? NADH and FADH2 What stage of cellular respiration releases oxidation of pyruvate and the citric acid cycle CO2? An organism that requires organic molecules chemoheterotroph for both energy and carbon The production ofATP using energy derived oxidative phosphorylation from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain The complete or partial loss of electrons from Oxidation a substance involved in a redox reaction. The 3rd major stage of respiration oxidative phosphorylation This is formed by the removal of a carbon Acetyl CoA from a molecule of pyruvate Where does the extraction of energy from Electron transport chain high-energy electrons happen? The electron transport chain is a series of Redox reactions ____. Ametabolic sequence that breaks down fatty Beta oxidation acids to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle asAcetyl CoA. Proteins of the electron transport chain are Inner membrane of mitochondria located in the…. In cellular respiration, ______ is an acceptor oxygen for electrons and hydrogen, forming water. This results when hydrogen ions are pumped Creation of a proton-motive force from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the inter membrane space. How many molecules ofATP are produced 30-32 from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose in aerobic respiration? Where does chemiosmoticATP synthesis All respiring cells occur? This occurs regardless of whether or not Glycolysis oxygen is present. Where does glycolysis take place? Cytosol Where does fermentation take place? Cytosol The electron acceptor in a redox reaction OxidizingAgent Beta oxidation involves the breakdown of… Fatty acids Which of the following is true of NAD+? Answer:A a) it is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle. b) It donates electrons c) Glycolysis can function without it d) None of the above This explains howATP is synthesized from a Chemiosmotic hypothesis proton motive force. When a molecule of NAD+ gains a hydrogen reduced atom, the molecule becomes… a) oxidized b) reduced Where does the oxygen atom for the Answer:A formation of the water come from? a) molecular oxygen b) glucose c) carbon d) pyruvate Without oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy Answer: D by fermentation. This produces a) ATP b) CO2 c) Ethanol d) All of the above Throughout this study guide, there were many things not covered fully. This guide was just to test how well you know the material as a whole. To study, I suggest you… 1. Be familiar with all of the vocabulary 2. Know the enzymes involved with each process 3. Thoroughly know the cycles (citric acid cycle, krebbs cycle, etc) 4. Know the functions of the organelles 5. Review the quizzes 6. Thoroughly know the cell cycle (it was a whole chapter… know it well!) 7. Google videos on any concepts you don’t understand 8. Don’t memorize… think through concepts logically so you understand them! If you need any assistance, feel free to email me at email@example.com. I will be happy to explain anything to you or send you links to helpful videos! I can also send you the answers to any quiz questions you got wrong. GOOD LUCK! Brittney Champagne
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