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Bio Studyguide Materials for Unit 2

by: rayparkerjr

Bio Studyguide Materials for Unit 2 BIOL 1050

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This study guide cover whats going to be on exam.
Introduction to Biology
Anne Bunnel
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1050 at East Carolina University taught by Anne Bunnel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
Review for Exam 2 – List of Topics  Chapter 2 ­ Macromolecules o Lipids: forms are (saturated fats are at room temperature such as butter  and cheese) and unsaturated (healthier but they are liquid are room  temperature.   Fatty acids, long term energylong hydrocarbon chain of carbon  molecules. Head is made of glycose and the ends is fatty acids.  o Proteins: Form and function are made up amino acids which are building  blocks)  Chapter 3 Cells o Osmosis­ passive diffusion of water across a membrane. direction depends on the higher concentration.   o A gradient is when a difference exists between two locations.    Concentration gradients= Difference in concentration  o Hypotonic­ solute concentrations are lower than extracellular fluids. Water diffuses into cells moving against ex) bath tub example. o Hypertonic­ solute concentrations are higher than extracellular fluids.  Water diffuses out of cells. moving down o Isotonic­ solute concentrations are balanced. no movement (no gradient)  ex) contact lenses  Passive (no energy is required) it’s the movement of molecules across a  membrane *high to low*  Active transport (energy is required) it’s the movement of molecules across a  channel or carrier *low to high*  Cell membrane (structure)­ outer layer that surrounds the cell and closes its  contents.   Prokaryote cells: (does not have a nucleus) DNA is circular  Eukaryote cells: have a nucleus that contains linear DNA inside  Mitochondria (all plants and animals this organelle)­ energy converted produces  (ATP) inside in the inner membrane. Krebs cycle and the Electron transport  happens in the mito.  Chloroplasts (only plants have this organelle)­    Chapter 4 Energy  Potential­ Energy is stored in bonds between atoms  kinetic energy­ Bonds are broken.   A(T)P­ potential energy and ADP­kinetic energy  Aerobic cellular respiration is slow controlled ATP energy release o  Input: is glucose and oxygen and Output is Water, Carbon Dioxide and  Energy (ATP), Equation: C H 12O6 + O2 CO 2 H 20+ ATP   Plants use cellular respiration to make their own food. Humans use this too but  can’t do photosynthesis.   Big idea – Chemiosmosis in electron transport chain, locations o 3 Steps:  o Glycolysis  o Krebs Cycles  o Electron Transport   Photosynthesis –  o Input is carbon dioxide, water, sun  output glucose and oxygen,  Equation: CO 2 +H20  C 6H12O 6 + O2,Sunlight rip apart hydrogen  o Takes place in the Chlorophyll   Thylakoid – photo light energy converted to chemical energy.  (Calvin cycle)   Stroma­ synethesis   location where chemical energy frm photo  is used to synthesize sugars   Plants use photosynthesis to make and produce their own food they also can use  cellular respiration.  Visible light – electromagnetic spectrum – how plants use light don’t use green, ever color but green. mainly uses red, blue for distinction.   Anaerobic respiration everything the same as aerobic cellular respiration but  without the presence of oxygen,   Chapter 5­ DNA & Biotechnology  DNA base pairing rules, A & T , G & C  DNA structure­ double helix/two sugar  phosphate strand. 4 bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. A & T are  equal to each other and G & C are equal to each other.  DNA made up of nucleotide: phosphate group, a sugar, and a base. Bases are  bonded through hydrogen bonds  One gene (contain instruction of how to make a protein)­ one protein  Protein synthesis­ the process by which amino acids are linearly arranged into  proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger  RNA, and various enzymes.   Transcription­ in which a copy of a gene’s base sequence is made  Translation­ in which that copy is used to direct the production of a polypeptide. o Used to build organism. Done wherever DNA is found   mRNA – function they convey genetic information frm DNA to ribosome,  differences from DNA  mutations­  the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of  an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.  o Types: Substitution, Insertion, and Deletion *last two causes frameshifts,   Some examples of biotechnology­  is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. o Ex) cloning, human gene therapy, genetically modifying plants  Short Answer: It’ll probably be remembering how to draw the fish diagrams she  wrote on the power points. Remember the different types of Gradients and that  water always move.  Biology Book Notes Chapter 3 Cells  The cell is the smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all functions of life.  Unicellular is one cell and Multicellular is made up of many cells (plants, animals) o Also the most basic unit of an organism. Microbes are the simplest, but most successful organisms on earth. Microbes is living bacteria antibiotics kills bacteria. However, not all bacteria are harmful.  Gutflora help with digestion. st o Normal Flora (bacteria)- its benign bacteria that’s the 1 line of defense against infection by harmful bacteria. o Probiotic therapy- is the method of treating infections made by bacteria. o Viruses are non-living!  All plants and animals are made from cells. Question: Where do cells come from? Cells come from other cells  Cell theory- all living organisms are made up of one or more cells and (2) all cells arise from other, preexisting living cells. (2) Cells  A eukaryotic cell- has a central control structure called a nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA.  A prokaryotic cell- does not have a nucleus; its DNA simply resides in the cytoplasm. o 1 cells on earth, Archea!  Structure of Prokaryotic Cells o Plasma Membrane/Cell membrane- Encloses cell contents: DNA, Ribosomes, and Cytoplasm o Cytoplasm- jelly like fluid called, cystol o Ribosomes- where proteins are made. o DNA- has one or more circular loops or linear strands, in cytoplasm o Additional Functions are:  Cell wall- protects and gives shape to the cell  Flagellum- a long, thin, whip-like projection of the plasma membrane that rotates like a propeller and moves the cell through the medium in which it lives.  Pili- much thinner, hair-like projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces and can serve as “tubes” through which they exchange DNA. o Somethings cant live without oxygen such as Archaea which are found in anaerobic (without oxygen) environment. On earth they are found in places such as rocks, top of mountains, bttm of the oceans, swamp and some bodies of water.  Venus, past Mars, Jupiter, and the moon lo. o Don’t have organelles, some examples of bacteria are domain bacteria, eukarya, archael (halo bacteria)  Structure of a Eukaryotic Cells o Every organism we can see are Eukaryotic organism. o DNA contained in nucleus o Larger than Prokaryotic cells o Cytoplasm’s, contains organelles- are enclosed separately by their own lipid membranes. o Photosynthesis- (the process by which plant cells capture light energy from the sun and transform it into the chemical energy stored in food molecules) Passive Transport (no energy required) Question: Is it better to drink salt water or no water at all if you are stranded on the ocean? You will survive longer if you don’t drink any water at all this is due to osmosis. Question (2) Is it possible to drink too much water? Yes, you will die due to water intoxication.  Is diffusion of molecules across a membrane.  2 types: o (1) Simple Diffusion- molecules pass directly thru plasma membrane w/o assistance of another molecule. o Facilitated diffusion- molecules move across membrane with the assistance of a channel or carrier molecule. o (2) Osmosis- passive diffusion of water across a membrane. Direction of Osmosis depends on total concentration of all molecules dissolved in water.  Tonicity- relative concentration of solutes outside the cells to inside the cells  Isotonic solution- solute concentrations are balanced. Water movement is balanced (no gradient) ex) contact lenses  Hypotonic solution- solute concentrations are lower than extracellular fluids. Water diffuses into cells moving against ex) bath tub example.  Hypertonic solution- solute concentrations are higher than extracellular fluids. Water diffuses out of cells. moving down o Difference in concentration = concentration of gradient Primary Active Transport (energy required)  Occurs when energy of in or out of cells require energy input. Increases ability to digest food in your stomach. Secondary Active Transport-  Transport proteins against concentration gradient while letting another flow down concentration gradient. Other Organelles-  Mitochondria- acts as a energy converter, and harvest all energy to be used for cellular functions o If they are non-functioning, we can have trouble producing enough energy for our cells.  Chloroplast- is the plants cells power plant. o Site of photosynthesis take place  conversion of light energy into chemical energy  Endosymbiosis theory, provides the best explanation for the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes: chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals  According to theory, two different types of prokaryotic cells have set up partnerships w/ each other’s.  Ancestor and Prokaryote merge and form a mitochondria (plant)  Ancestor folds itself and forms a nucleus (animal)  Chloroplasts enable plants and algae to convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy. Mitochondria help plants and animals harness the energy stored in food molecules. Chapter 4 Energy Book Notes  Kinetic energy is energy of motion lights, fire, sun o When bonds are broken the energy is released as kinetic energy  Potential energy  top of ski jumps or water behind the dam when it flows over it comes kinetic though, candy bar or food o Energy is stored in (potential) bonds between atoms  Food is a form of chemical energy also potential energy Question: What happens to the other 99% of energy from the sun if the plans only 1% converted by plants?  Second Law of Thermodynamics o Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat o Heat is almost useless to living organism o With every energy transfer, energy become less useful  Percentage of energy available becomes less available each time  Glucose/Sugar= C 6H12O 6  A(T)P and A(D)P breaking bonds kinetic energy  ATP has more energy. Can be used and recycled thousands of times What is an example of Potential Energy? Candy bar and ATP  Gradient is differences in concentration across a membrane.  Photosynthesis- plants capture energy from the sun and store it in chemical bonds of sugars and food molecules. o Building/Storing energy  Cellular Respiration- release energy stored in chemical bonds of food molecules they eat and use it as fuel o Break down- producing Kinetic energy  Plants do both, but Animals only do Cellular Respiration Question: What do plants need to live? H2O,Light, Carbon Dioxide CO 2,and Nutrients. Question: Where does mass come from? Comes from the gas. Process of Photosynthesis: Input is sun, water and carbon dioxide  output oxygen and glucose CO2, H20 O2 + C 6H12O 6 Water is ripped apart by sunlight and that’s how it produces oxygen. Taking hydrogens & the carbon dioxide and that’s how the glucose is produce.  Chloroplast: o Thylakoid- Photo is happening (input) and o Stroma- Synethis is happening (output) What color is being use in the photosynthesis? Not green! If, we see the color the color is being reflected. Plants use red blue violent. Why do leaves of some plants change color in autumn? Trees break down chlorophyll. That’s what you see. Tree goes dormant so the tree sleep to save energy. Why do human need oxygen to live? Oxygen helps us to get energy out of our food (glucose)  Aerobic cellular respiration – 02--- slow, controlled ATP release. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor.  O2 and C 6H 12O 6 H20, CO2, Energy  3 steps: o Glycolysis (break down sugar)ATP broken down o The Krebs cycles rest of C02 is released, hydrogen is being removed. o Electron Transport – chemiosmosis- movemt of protons  Steps 3 happen in the mitochondria. Located in the inner membrane.  (ETC) Hydrogen is removed from glucose and carried to this chain.  Active and Passive Transport and Chemiosmosis


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