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Exam #2 Study Guide

by: Patricia Valeria Velasco

Exam #2 Study Guide KIN 212

Marketplace > University of Miami > KIN 212 > Exam 2 Study Guide
Patricia Valeria Velasco
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Ch 5 6 7 10
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Patricia Valeria Velasco on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 212 at University of Miami taught by Brian Arwari in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study guide for exam 2 Chapter 5, 6, 7 >Definitions of competition and cooperation • Competition: A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event. • Cooperation: A social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal. > Studies on competition and cooperation (triplett’s cyclist, Duetsch’s puzzles, summer camp study, the prisoner’s dilemma). • Triplett’s cyclists: Cyclists were faster in competition than alone racing against the clock. • Deutsch’s puzzles: Competition-group students were self- centered, directed efforts at beating others, had closed communication, and exhibited group conflict and distrust; cooperation-group students communicated openly, shared information, developed friendships, and solved more puzzles. *depends on complexity of task: more difficult -> cooperation; simple -> competition • Prisoner’s dilemma: Competitors draw cooperators into competition • Sherif and Sherif (1969) summer camp studies: Competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve superordinate goals. • Rigged so 1 team won; creates animosity; competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve subordinate goals > Common attributes between competition and cooperation •    Side notes: • Competition is not good or bad; it is neutral. • Whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way the performers view competition. • Cooperation as opposed to competition produces superior performance, although results may depend on the nature of the task. • Competition can serve as a positive source of motivation to improve and refine skills. •    Studies of competitive sports life: • Athletes in educational programs have higher educational aspirations than nonathletes. • Athletes have no more or less career success than nonathletes. • Athletes are no more or less deviant than nonathletes. • Competition and cooperation are not polar opposites. • The dynamics of how competition and cooperation complement one another should be taught. • Top performers employ a blend of competition and cooperation strategies. Competition and Cooperation attributes: • A sense of mission • Strong work ethic • Use of resources • A strong preparation ethic • A love of challenge and change • Great teamwork > Component structure of games • Competitive means—competitive ends: For example, King of the Mountain, 100-yard dash • Cooperative means—competitive ends: For example, soccer, basketball • Individual means—individual ends: For example, calisthenics, cross-country skiing • Cooperative means—individual ends: For example, helping each other individually improve • Cooperative means—cooperative ends: For example, keeping a volleyball from hitting ground •    Side notes: • Cooperative games emphasize both cooperative means and cooperative ends. • Cooperation can be taught through cooperative games. • Cooperative games can be devised by changing the rules of traditional games. • Most skills can be learned better through cooperative games •    Principles of cooperative games: • Maximize participation. • Maximize opportunities to learn sport and movement skills. • Do not keep score. • Maximize opportunities for success. • Give positive feedback. • Provide opportunities for youngsters to play different positions. •    Balancing Competition and Cooperation: • When competition leads to fierce rivalry, use superordinate goals to get the groups together. • Provide positive feedback and encouragement to students and athletes regardless of the outcomes of the competition. > Two principles of reinforcement (also called feedback or behavioral theory) • Reinforcement is the use of rewards and punishment, which increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future. • If doing something results in a good consequence (such as being rewarded), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement. • If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (such as being punished), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences. > Difficulties in applying reinforcement • Why principles of reinforcement are complex: – People react differently to the same reinforcement. – People are unable to repeat desirable behaviors. – People receive different reinforcers in different situations. > Positive / negative reinforcement ratio • Positive approach focuses on rewarding appropriate behavior, which increases the likelihood of desirable responses occurring in the future. • Negative approach focuses on punishing undesirable behaviors, which should lead to future redirection of these inappropriate behaviors. • Most coaches and instructors combine positive and negative approaches. • Sport psychologists agree that the predominant approach with physical activity and sport participants should be positive because the negative approach often instills fear in participants. •    Positive Reinforcement: • Choose effective reinforcers (e.g., social, material, activity, special outings, intrinsic and extrinsic). • Choose timing or schedule of reinforcement. • Early learning—continuous and immediate reinforcement desirable • Learned skill—intermittent and immediate reinforcement desirable • Reward appropriate behaviors—choose the proper behaviors to reward. • Shape or reinforce successful approximations of difficult behaviors. • Reward performance as well as outcome. • Reward effort. • Reward emotional and social skill. > Problems with punishment • Punishment can control and change behavior, but 80% to 90% of reinforcement should be positive. • Support of punishment: – Punishment can serve a useful educational purpose (i.e., maintain stability, order, mastery). – Punishment can deter future cheating or wrongdoing. – Quickest reaction is to punishment – Pain hurts the same; pleasure we get used to • Drawbacks of punishment: – Punishment can arouse fear of failure. – Punishment can act as a reinforcer. – Punishment can create an unpleasant, aversive learning environment. • Be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment for breaking similar rules. • Punish the behavior, not the person— convey to the person that it’s his or her behavior that needs to change. • Allow athlete’s input in making up punishments for breaking rules. • Do not use physical activity as a punishment. • Make sure the punishment is not perceived as a reward or simply as attention. • Impose punishment impersonally—do not berate the person or yell. Simply inform the person of the punishment. • Do not punish athletes for making errors while playing. • Do not embarrass individuals in front of teammates or classmates. • Use punishment sparingly, but enforce it when you use it. > Shaping • Behavior modification – Systematic application of the principles of reinforcement to change behavior – Contingency management = behavioral coaching = behavior modification • Behavioral techniques have been used to modify behaviors in sport and physical education. – Feedback reinforcement in football – Behavioral coaching in golf – Recording and shaping in basketball – Improving attendance in swimming – Addressing inappropriate behaviors in tennis • Target the behaviors you want to change. • Define targeted behaviors. • Record the behaviors. • Provide meaningful feedback. • State outcomes clearly. • Tailor reward systems. • Shaping: • Any behavior can be broken down into a sequence of simpler actions. • Autism bicycle training. • All behaviors we know have been shaped. • For example something as complex as heart transplant surgery is in reality a very long sequence on simple tasks. • One of the central ideas behind shaping theory is that once the behavior is mastered, there is no difference between people who learned it quickly or had “natural talent” and people who had more difficulty learning the skill. • For example by watching somebody walk down the hallway, you cannot tell at what age he or she started walking. • The same concept applies to bike riding, writing, reading, tying shoelaces, etc. • The book Bounce argues that there is no such thing as natural talent in sports, since all sports consist of unnatural behaviors. Otherwise people would be able to throw a perfect spiral on their first try or throw shot-put. • Andre Agassi was the world’s top tennis player for a decade. In his autobiography, Agassi says that he’s always hated tennis and never enjoyed it. He feels that he had no natural disposition towards tennis. He became number 1 because of the thousands of hours of training. • Ways to choose/monitor target behavior: • Direct observation of single behaviors • Behavioral checklists for recording multiple behaviors • Athlete self-monitoring • Videotape of practice, pre-competition, and competition • Post-performance videotape reconstruction of verbal behavior > Exposure • The more an action is repeated, the better it will be performed. • “practice makes perfect, or at least better.” > Backwards chaining • Backwards Chaining – begin the performance of a skill with the last step, then add the second-to-last, and so forth, until we arrive at the first step of a skill. • Overshaping – going above and beyond what is necessary to perform a skill, so that competition will later seem easier, by comparison. (swing baseball bat with weights) > Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation • People who have intrinsic motivation strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master the task at hand. • They do things for internal rewards and to avoid internal punishments. • Internal reward example: the satisfaction of restoring an old car. • Internal punishment example: shame. • People who have extrinsic motivation do something for the reward and not the task itself. • The main objective is to earn an outside reward or to avoid an outside punishment. That’s why extrinsic motivation is used when the task is unsatisfying. For example, people get money to go to their jobs. • Outside reward example: money, star sticker. • Outside punishment: getting grounded. • Regardless of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, people are always searching for a reward. • What reward do you get from charity? > Motivation process > Factors that influence motivation • Social factors – Success and failure – Focus of competition – Coaches’ behavior • Psychological factors – Need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness > How intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate to one another (lepper and greene study) • Basic question: Do extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation? • Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation for the activity. • Lepper and Greene (1975): Nursery school, expected and unexpected rewards • Kids given a reward later asked how much of a reward -> took away enjoyment of task > Cognitive evaluation theory • Cognitive evaluation theory: How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases. • Depends on the person > Informational and controlling aspects of rewards • Controlling aspects: Rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation. • Informational aspects: Rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation. • Functional significance of the event: How a reward affects intrinsic motivation depends on whether the recipient perceives it to be more controlling or more informational. • Scholarships • Athletic scholarships can either decrease or increase athletes’ levels of intrinsic motivation. • Effects depend on which is more emphasized by the coach—the controlling or information aspects. • Competitive success and failure • Success tends to increase intrinsic motivation. • Failure tends to decrease intrinsic motivation. • Feedback: Positive feedback increases intrinsic motivation. • Higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to the following: • Playing for an autonomous (democratic) versus a controlling coach • Participating in a recreational versus competitive league • High versus low perceived competence • High versus low perceived control > Difference between group and team • Team: Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other and share the following characteristics: – A collective sense of identity – Distinctive roles – Structured modes of communication – Group norms > Three theories of team development • The linear perspective • Forming: Familiarization, formation of interpersonal relationships, development of team structure • Storming: Rebellion, resistance to the leader and to control by the group, interpersonal conflict • Norming: Development of solidarity and cooperation; team conflicts resolved • Performing: Channeling of energies for team success • Examples (TV series Lost) • The cyclical (life cycle) perspective • Development of teams is similar to the life cycle—birth, growth, and death. • Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the team’s existence. • As the team develops, it psychologically prepares for its own breakup. • This model is especially relevant for groups and teams that last 10 to 15 weeks. • The pendular perspective • Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of teams. • Teams do not progress through linear phases. • Stages of team development • Orientation • Differentiation and conflict • Resolution and cohesion • Differentiation and conflict • Termination > Group roles, group norms • Group roles involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position. • Formal roles (e.g., coach, instructor, captain) are dictated by the nature and structure of the organization. • Informal roles (e.g., enforcer, mediator) evolve from the group’s dynamics or interactions among team members. Team Structure: • Both role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success. • Role conflict exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability, motivation, time, or understanding to achieve goal. • Team norms • A norm is a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief. • Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards (especially standards or norms of productivity). • Positive norms are important to establish. > Modifying group norms • Modifying team norms – The source of the communication is critical in modifying norms—more credible, better liked, similar, attractive, high-status, and powerful individuals are more effective persuaders. – foreign speaker experiment – Writings, books, encyclopedia. – Celebrities – Formal and informal team leaders > Types of support • Social support: Mutual respect and support enhance team climate. • Social support provides appraisal information, reassurance, and cooperation. It reduces uncertainty in times of stress, aids in mental and physical recovery, and improves communication. • Proximity: Closer contact between members promotes team interaction. • Distinctiveness: The more distinctive the team feels, the better the climate. • Fairness—or a lack of it—can bring a team closer together. (marines) • Greater similarity = closer climate. • Social support: An exchange of resources between at least two people perceived by the provider and the recipient as intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient. •    Functions: • Provides appraisal, information, reassurance, and companionship • Reduces uncertainty during times of stress • Aids in mental and physical recovery • Improves communication •    7 types of social support: • Listening support • Emotional support • Emotional-challenge support • Reality-confirmation support • Task-appreciation support • Task-challenge support • Personal-assistance support > Steiner’s model of productivity • While individual ability is important, the individual abilities of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform. • Steiner’s model – Actual productivity = potential productivity: Losses are due to faulty group processes. – Losses result from motivation and coordination. Implications of Steiner’s model: Role of the coach – Increase relevant resources (through training, instruction, and recruiting). – Reduce process losses (through enhancing cohesion and emphasizing individual contributions to the team). • The greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and the importance of team productivity increases. • Teams of equal ability tend to play best. > Ringlemann effect/social loafing • Ringelmann effect is the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the team increases • Social loafing is when individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation. > Conditions that increase social loafing • An individual’s output cannot be independently evaluated. • The task is perceived to be low in meaningfulness. • An individual’s personal involvement in the task is low. • A comparison against group standards is not possible. • Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers. • Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability. • Individual team members perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant. • The individual is competing against what he or she believes to be a weaker opponent. > How to eliminate social loafing • Emphasize the importance of individual pride and unique contributions. • Increase identifiability of individual performances. • Determine specific situations in which social loafing occurs. • Divide the team into smaller units. • The desire for team success is a team-oriented motive or goal, the basis of which is the team members’ desire to derive pride and satisfaction from the team if it is successful in accomplishing its goals. • Strategies for developing the desire for group success • Emphasize a pride-in-team approach with a unifying team goal. • Ensure that each member’s contribution is valued and recognized by coach and teammates. • Place strong emphasis on good leadership from the coach and captains. > Task cohesion/social cohesion – Actively work to develop both task and social cohesion. – Encourage unified commitment to the team effort—reward the pursuit of excellence. – Use effective communication to keep all members feeling part of the team.


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