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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: beckmeister

Exam 1 Study Guide HLED 320


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About this Document

This study guide includes information from the sections on Introduction to Health and Wellness, An Overview of Risk Behaviors Among America's Children, Comprehensive School Health Programs, and Hea...
Health Education in the Elementary Grades
Jean Foster
Study Guide
health, Education, In, The, classroom
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by beckmeister on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLED 320 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Jean Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 10/03/16
HLED 320 Health Education in the Elementary Grades Exam 1 Health is not just the absence of disease but rather the complete physical, mental, and social well-being of an individual. There are 6 dimensions of health. They include . . . 1) Physical – includes our family history of illness; our age; our exposure to infectious pathogens, inoculations, cholesterol levels, diet; our alcohol/drug consumption or tobacco use; our levels of physical activity; and sleep patterns. 2) Mental/Intellectual – includes ones openness to new ideas and thoughts, *capacity to question and think critically*, motivation to master a new skill(s), creativity, our ability to problem solve, and relish in new experiences. This is also a big one!! 3) Social – includes our interpersonal skills, relationships with others, availability and use of social supports, how we tolerate and respect differences, and our ability to develop and maintain intimacy skills. This is the most important thing we as teachers can teach in the lower grades. 4) Psychological/Emotional – includes appropriate expression of emotions, controlling stress, optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, and self-confidence. This is also very important. 5) Environmental – includes water safety and quality, solid waste management, air quality, ozone depletion, natural disasters, radon, toxic chemicals, and architecture. 6) Spiritual – These are our set of guiding beliefs, principles, values, that give meaning and purpose to life; our capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, and fulfillment; and our basic sense of purpose in life. This is more about the student’s purpose in life rather than their religion. There are 3 factors affecting health and wellness behavior 1) Predisposing factors such as knowledge, beliefs, values, attitude, and demographic variables (race, age, sex, etc.) These are the things that our students walk into our classroom with on the first day of school and can be either good or bad. 2) Enabling factors are the skills and ability, the availability of resources, the community/government priority and commitment to health, and the physical, emotional, and mental capabilities. 3) Reinforcing factors are whether or not the students family, peers, or teacher support and encourage the student. Risky behaviors are based on the choices an individual makes and are voluntary actions that threaten self-esteem, harm health, and likelihood of illness, injury, and premature death. These are usually established during youth and are interrelated; contribute to poor health, education, and social outcomes; and are completely preventable. The top 10 leading causes of death in 2000, among children ages 1 – 4 are: 1 – 4 years old 5 – 14 years old 15 – 24 years old Accidents Accidents Accidents Congenital Anomalies Cancer Assault (homicide) Cancer Congenital Anomalies Suicide Assault (homicide) Assault (homicide) Malignant Neoplasm Suicide Suicide Heart Disease Heart Disease Heart Disease Congenital Anomalies Septicemia Lower Respiratory Disease Cerebrovascular Disease Conditions originating during Benign Neoplasms Influenza/Pneumonia the prenatal period Neoplasms Influenza/Pneumonia Lower Respiratory Disease Cerebrovascular Disease Cerebrovascular Disease HIV The categories of risk behavior are behaviors that result in the intentional and intentional injuries to the individual performing these risk behaviors. 1) Unintentional injuries occur when there is an unforeseen accident such as a car crash, fire, drowning, etc. whereas intentional injury is considered to be interpersonal violence, homicide, and self-directed suicide. Intentional injuries can include domestic violence, child abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual), bullying, fighting, guns, homicide, and/or suicide. These categories of risk behavior include: 2) Tobacco Use – cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. The earlier someone begins the less likely it is for them to quit, advertisements are generally aimed at younger audiences, peer pressure, and it makes them feel more grown-up. 3) Alcohol and other drug use – the average age of an individual’s first drink is between the ages of 12 and 13 years old. Inhalants are the drug of choice for young children and are oftentimes the first type of drug to be abused. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug and the average age of first use is about 13 years old. 4) Sexual behaviors – 25% of adolescents around the age of 15 have had sex at least once. 75% of adolescents that are the age of 17 have had sex at least once and 3 out of 10 pregnancies occur before the age of 20. HIV is the 4 leading cause of death among people between the ages of 25 and 34. STDs are reaching epidemic proportions among teenagers (+50% of all new cases) 5) Dietary patterns that contribute to disease – obesity (epidemic). 7/10 leading causes of death are related to diet and over 60% of 5 grade girls have dieted at some point in time. 2/3 of school-aged children do not eat breakfast. 6) Insufficient physical activity – physical activity equals increased energy, weight management, stress management, and decreases the risk of chronic disease. 1/3 of school-aged children to not get an adequate amount of physical activity. There are 8 components of the Comprehensive School Health Program (CSHP) – each area is extremely important to our school systems and our students. These 8 components have changed to “whole child, whole school, whole community” (WSC model) 1) Parental/community 2) Health education 3) Physical education 4) School health services 5) Nutrition services 6) Counseling/psychological services – we never want this area to be cut form the budget ever. 7) Healthy school environment 8) Health promotion for staff (includes a lot of training) Factors that influence health and well-being include a person’s lack of health knowledge, risk behaviors; risk situations; destructive relationships; irresponsible decision-making; and a lack of resistance skills, protective factors, and health literacy. What is Comprehensive School Health Education?  A documented, planned, and sequential program of health instruction for students in grades K – 12.  A curriculum that addresses and integrates education over a range of categorical health programs and issues at developmentally appropriate ages.  Activities that help young people develop the skills they need to avoid: tobacco; sedentary lifestyles, dietary patterns that contribute to disease; sexual behavior; and unintentional and intentional injuries.  We as teachers must focus on the active skills rather than verbal regurgitation. Scope – the depth or difficulty of the material (the “what” to teach) Sequence – the order in which the material is to be covered (the “when” to teach it) Cycle Plan – ensures that necessary topics will be included and will receive appropriate emphasis at each grade level. National Health Education Standards 1) Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention. 2) Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health- promoting products and services. 3) Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks. 4) Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. 5) Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health. 6) Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health. 7) Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health. A Healthy school environment is an environment that attends to the physical and aesthetic surroundings, and psychosocial climate and culture that maximizes the health and safety of students and staff. The classroom size/school size, lighting, temperature and ventilation, noise control, sanitation and cleanliness, accessibility, and safety are all contributors to the student’s physical environment. This environment should be accessible for all students and include safety features. The role of the teacher is to provide students with a positive emotional environment where high expectations are set for students, students show respect for each other, have a sense of humor, model respect, and the teacher enforces classroom rules. Teachers in this environment will also allow students to express their feelings, accept their own limitations and the limitations of their students, and deal with each student as a unique and valuable individual. Students in this type of environment will perform academically if a teacher shows these aspects. Teacher’s Pyramid of Influence overt attempt to teach interacting with students modeling or setting the example Emotional Environment offers emotional security (freedom from anxiety), a sensitivity to differences, and have effective classroom management that includes 1) discipline and 2) positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement should be manageable, easy, realistic, and reasonable. The area of effective classroom management is also the most difficult. Positive Learning Strategies for cooperative learning should include positive interdependence, individual accountability, heterogeneous grouping, shared leadership, task and maintenance emphasized, social skills directly taught, the teacher observes and intervenes in group process, and groups process their effectiveness. Special concerns in today’s school environment: 1) Violence 2) Sexual Harassment 3) Drug use 4) Bloodborne Pathogens Infusion – incorporate into other subjects/bring it into other subjects (integration) Character Education – (soft skills) responsibility, respect, etc. 504/IEP – Individualized education plan or IEP, school psychologist finds disability goals and learning plan. This has to be followed by the law. Mainstream/Inclusion - special education student spends some time in a regular classroom with some accommodations. Cooperative Learning – group work to practice social skills Collaborative Teaching – team teaching/working together with another teacher *All students need to feel welcomed in the classroom*


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