Bio 307 Exam 2 Lecture STUDY GUIDE
Bio 307 Exam 2 Lecture STUDY GUIDE BIO 307
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Walton on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 307 at Winthrop University taught by Dr. Boulware in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at Winthrop University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam Two Study Guide Joints What are joints Joints are articulations between 2 or more bones. How are joints typically namedTypically derived from the bones involved. What are the three structural classifications of joints 1) Fibrous 2) Cartilaginous 3) Synovial. For each one, be able to describe the major components and organization. 1. Fibrous structure: A point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers (regular dense connective tissue). Fibers emerge from one bone across the space between them and penetrate on the other bone. 2. Cartilaginous Structure: Two bones are linked by cartilage. 3. Synovial Structure: Synovial membrane which secretes a synovial fluid. What are the three types of fibrous joints? What are the major differences between them? What are some representative examples of each o Gomphosis: a socket joint: Periodontal ligament Attachment of tooth to its’ socket. o Syndesmosis: Relatively long collagenous fibers, (Length of fibers allow more mobility than other fibrous joints.) Interosseous membrane. o Sutures: Bind the bones of the skull to each other. What are the two types of cartilaginous joints? What are the major differences between them? What are some representative examples of each? o Symphysis: two bones joined by fibrocartilage “pad” (Bone surfaces are lined with hyaline cartilage. Fibrocartilage is sandwiched between.) Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs o Sychondrosis: Two bones are bound by hyaline cartilage. Epiphyseal plate and attachment of first rib and sternum. What are the six fundamental types of synovial joints? Which ones are nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, and multiaxial, and what do these terms mean? o Plane: Nonaxialcarpals & tarsals. (Nonaxial means does not move around an axis; involves a slipping motion) o Hinge: UniaxialElbow & Knee (Uniaxial means flexion and exstension) o Pivot: Uniaxial Atlas/Axis & Radius/Ulna o Condylar: BiaxialFingers ( Biaxial means Flexion and extension, but also Adduction and abduction) o Saddle: Biaxial Thumb o Ball and Socket: MultiaxialHip & Shoulder ( Multiaxial means flexion, exstension, adduction, abduction and rotation) What are the three functional classifications of joints 1) Synarthrosis: No movement. 2) Amphiarthrosis: Slight Movement. 3) Diarthrosis: free movement. What are the major differences between them The amount of movement each one has. Structural classifications and functional classifications usually match up, but not 100%. What are the exceptions to this match up The joint b/w the first rib and the sternum; because the structure of the joint is cartilaginous, the the functional is amphiarthrosis but in reality it is synarthrosis. The distal joint b/w tibia ad fibula; the structure is fibrous, syndesmosis and the function should be synarthosis, but it allows a little movement during dorsal flexion thus making it amparthosis. What are the major components of synovial joints o Articular cartilage o Joint cavity (Contains synovial fluid) o Articular Capsule (Fibrous layers, synovial membrane) o Ligament (Reinforcing) Give functions where appropriate. What are the functions of synovial fluid 1)Compression 2) Reduces friction (lubricant) 3) Nourishment (Cartilage is avascular) 4) Immune function (Phagocytic cells). What are the accessory structures of synovial joints, and what are the functions of each? o Articular fat pads: adipose tissue that protects articular cartilageKnee o Bursa: sac like structure filled with a synovial fluid, that alleviates friction (cushions muscles, helps tendons slide over joints.) o Articular discs: fibrocartilage pads b/w opposing articular sufaces (minimize wear and tear) o Tendons: parallel bundles of collagen fibers (dense regular connective tissue) o Accessory ligaments: fibrous membranes that prevent extreme movements (dense regular connective tissue.) For the planes of movement, be able to identify or explain each motion and give an example. Which movements are opposites of each other? Are all of these movements possible in all joints? o Gliding: sliding back and forth of two bones carpals, tarsals, flat articular surfaces of vertebra o Flexion/extension/hyperextension: angular (crosses one axis) o Adduction/Abduction: Angular move arms up and down. o Rotation: bone spins on its longitudinal axis. (pivots over one axis) c1 and c2 o Circumduction: Proximal end stays put but distal end moves in circle. fingers, wrist, hips, shoulder. o Elevation/depression: raise/lowers a body part vertically in the frontal plane. Mandible, shoulders. o Protraction/Retraction: mandible sticks out chin pull back chin. o Inversion/Eversion: Turn ankle medially (in) turn ankle laterally (out) o Pronation/Supination: Radius and ulna are parallel/ crossedforearm o Dorsal flexion/ Plantar flexion: Toes up, toes down. o Opposition/ reposition: Thumb and any other finger touching return to zero postion. For the three major joints we discussed in more detail, be able to describe the major components. What types of structures help to stabilize these joints? What are some common injuries that occur at these joints? o Shoulder Joint: Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity. Sacrifices stablility for freedom of movement. Stabilizing structures: 4 ligaments 5 tendons. Superior side: Coracohumeral. Anterior side: three glenohumeral o Hip joint: has over 20 ligaments and tendons corkscrewing femur to the os coxa. o Knee joint: largest and most complex joint in the body. (Weight of body on two ball bearings on slick surface.) What are ankylosis and arthrodesis? o Ankylosis: abnormal adhesion and consolidation of two or more bones due to injury or disease. o Arthrodesis: Surgical fixation of a joint to induce bone fusion. Done to relieve uncontrollable pain. Commonly performed in the spine, hand, ankle and foot. What are the differences between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis? Osteoarthritis is the grading of joints. The loss cartilage damage to subchondral bone pain. Pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease systematic inflammation, mainly attacks synovial joint. Muscle Tissue What are the characteristics of muscle tissue 1. Excitability: Can receive and respond to stimuli. 2. Contractility: Can shorten substantially when stimulated 3. Extensibility: Able to stretch between contractions 4. Elasticity: recoil: returns to original shape after stretching. What are the functions of muscle tissue? 1. Movement 2. Maintain posture 3. Heat production 4. Control openings and passages. What are the three characteristics that are used to describe muscle types? 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth What are the main differences between skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle? What are some examples of where each type is found? 1. Skeletal: striated, voluntary, multinucleate (Large body of muscles responsible for movement) 2. Cardiac: Striated, involuntary, single nucleus (only in the heart) 3. Smooth: Non-striated, involuntary, single nucleus. (Walls of hollow contracting organs.) What is the organization of skeletal muscles, from myofilaments to whole muscles? 1. Skeletal Muscle 2. Muscle fascicle 3. Muscle fiber (cell) 4. Myofibril 5. Sarcomere 6. Myofilaments actin (thin) myosin (think)… tilin (elastic) What are the layers of fascia in skeletal muscle, and how do they relate to this organization? What is the function of fascia keeps muscle from over stretching and returns to shape, carries blood vessels and nerves to individual fibers, and connects muscle directly to bone. 1. Epimysium: fascia covering whole muscle 2. Perimysium: Fascia covering fascicles 3. Endomysium: fascia covering muscle fibers. What are the parts of a sarcomere? Why is this called the functional muscle unit? What happens to the different regions of the sarcomere when it contracts? 1. A-Band: Myosin partially, overlapping actin. When contracting A-bands move closer together, but remain the same length. 2. I-Band: actin fibers only, crossing Z-line. When contracting I band shortens 3. H-Zone- myosin only. When contracting shrinks to almost nothing. 4. M-line: transverse protein, center or sarcomere. 5. Z-line: Boundary of sarcomere. When contracting Z-line distance between shortens 6. Functional unit because the sarcomere bands are the ones that are moving the whole muscle. What is a motor unit? What are the different types of muscle contraction? Which ones cause movement and which ones don’t? 1. Motor unit consists of one motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates. One neuron can innervate multiple muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber is only innervated by one anon terminal. 2. Isometric contraction: No movement 3. Isotonic concentric contraction: Movement 4. Isotonic eccentric contraction: Movement Define origin, belly, and insertion. Are all muscles attached to bone via tendons no 1. Belly: thick region of muscle 2. Origin: area where muscle attaches to the bone that does not move: usually more proximal. 3. Insertion: Area where muscle attaches to the bone that moves; usually more distal. What are the shapes of skeletal muscles? Be able to give an example of each. 1. Fusiform: bicep brachi 2. Parallel: rectus abdominus 3. Convergent: pectoralis major 4. Unipennate: palmar interosseous. 5. Bipennate: rectus femoris 6. Multipennate: Deltoid. 7. Circular: orbicularis oculi 8. Parallel: Sartoreous. How does the innervation of smooth muscle differ from the innervation of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscles have multinucleate while smooth muscle has a single nucleus. Do smooth muscles have sarcomeres No, it has dense bodies which are intermediate filaments that act as an anchor similar to Z-line. What do they have? What type of fascia is found in smooth muscle Endomysium What is the general organization of smooth muscle Longitudinal (fibers run parallel) Circular (fibers run around the circomfrence) What is peristalsis and how does it relate to this organization Peristalsis is wave like contractions that move substances through the lumen What are the three layers of the heart wall 1. Epicardium 2. Myocardium 3. Endocardium. Which one contains cardiac muscle Myocardium What types of special cell connections are found in cardiac muscle Desosomes, Gap Junctions. What is the function of each Desmosomes are for cell to cell adhesions (acts as anchor for withstanding contractile force) Gap junctions allow ions to flow quickly from cell to cell thus the depolarizing current can pass quickly over the heart. What are intercalated discs Occurs at the Z-line of sarcomere, supports synchronizes contraction. Axial and Appendicular Skeletal Muscles What is a functional group Action is a movement performed by a muscle. What do we mean by the action of a muscle Skeletal muscles rarely act independently or alone, they almost always act in groups. Define agonist, antagonist, synergist, and fixator. o Agonist: Prime movers: cause a specific movement of the body. o Antagonists: Opposes, reverses, or steadies a movement. o Synergists: Assist prime mmovers by adding extra force and preventing unwanted movement (stabilizers) or modifying movement directions. For each of the muscles given in these two lectures, you should be able to identify the action and the origin and insertion. If no origin and insertion are given, then you are not responsible for that information. You should also be able to recognize muscles that are antagonists or synergists to one another. What muscles make up the rotator cuff? What muscles make up the hamstrings? What muscles make up the quadriceps femoris? Cardiac Muscle What are the general size, shape and orientation of the heart? Where is the heart located? What is the mediastinum? o Orientation: a hollow muscle that pumps blood to the entire body via blood vessels. o Size: Adukt fist o Shape: triangular or cone o Base closes to right shoulder o Apex points to left hip o Location: Thoracic cavity between lungs. o Mediastinum: heart trachea and esophagus. What are the functions of the heart? o Generates blood pressure needed to propel blood through vessels o Separates pulmonary circulation from systemic circulation o Can alter its rate or force of contraction to match metabolic needs of tissue. What are the layers of the pericardial sac 1) Parietal pericardium: Dense fibrous layer, areolar tissue, endothelial tissue (outer layer) 2) Pericardial cavity 3) Visceral pericardium: endothelial tissue and areolar tissue. (Inner layer) What does each layer cover? The pericardial cavity is a space between which two layers Parietal pericardium and Visceral pericardium. What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial cavity? What are the three layers of the heart wall? What kind of tissue is found in each? o Epicardium: endothelial and areolar tissue o Myocardium: cardiac muscle tissue o Endocardium: Epithelial and areolar tissue What are the four chambers of the heart? Which are the receiving chambers, and which are the distributing chambers? What are the auricles and what chamber are they part of? What are the pectinate muscles and where are they located? o Left Atrium: Receiving o Right Atrium: Receiving o Left ventricle: Distributing o Right ventricle:Distributing o Auricles are flap like structures on superior surfaces: Slightly increase atrial filling capacity and they are a part of the receiving chamber. o Pectinate muscles are found in both auricles and they resemble the teeth of a comb. What is the fossa ovalis? What is the foramen ovale? What is the function of this structure in the embryo, and what happens to it when the baby is born? What is the ductus arteriosus, what is its function in the embryo? o Fossa Ovalis: depression on interratial septum, a remnant of the embryotic foramen ovale. o Foramen Ovale: in embryo allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right right atrium. When the baby is born the the flaps fuse and permanently seal leaving the fossa ovalis. o Ductus arteriousus: a passage that shunts the blood directly to the aorta. What are the atrioventricular valves Allows blood to flow from atria to ventricles when open. Where are they located Tricuspid: between right atrium and right ventricle. Bicuspid: between left atrium and left ventricle. What is their function Prevent back flow when closed, during ventricular contraction. What are the papillary muscles and chordae tendinae, where are they found, and what is their function? o Papillary muscle: contracts to prevent inversion or atrioventrical valves. Located in atrioventricular o Chordae Tendinae: Cord like tendons that run between av vavles and papillary muscles (Connect papillary muscles to the av valve) What are the pulmonary and systemic circulations Pulmonary circuit: right side of the heart (carries blood to lungs for gas exchange and back to heart) Systemic circuit: Left side of heart (Supplies oxygenated blood to all tissues of the body and returns it to the heart.) Which one is fed by blood from the right ventricle, and which one is fed by blood from the left ventricle? What are the semilunar valves and where are they located Semilunar valves allow blood to flow out of ventricles into aorta/pulmonary trunk (open); prevent back flow into ventricles when they relax (closed). Which ventricle has higher pressure? Why The left side because it has a longer way to go through the body. Are their physical differences between the ventricles that help to account for this difference in pressure Yes the right side has thinner walls and the left side has thicker walls. Which side of the heart deals with deoxygenated blood and which deals with oxygenated blood The left side deals with oxygenated blood while the right side deals with deoxygenated blood. What vessel takes blood from the right atrium to the lungs Pulmonary arteries. What vessel takes blood from the heart into the systemic circulation Aorta What are the vessels that return blood to the left atrium from the lungs Pulmonary viens. How many of them are there 4 total 2 left and 2 right. What are the vessels that empty into the right atrium, and from what part of the body are they bringing blood Superior vena cava: from regions above diaphragm. Inferior vena cava: region below diaphragm. Coronary Sinus: Heart itself. What is the skeletal muscle pump? What is its function? Why is it necessary The veins in the body are surrounded by and massaged by the muscles. The contractin muscles squeeze the blood our of the compressed part of the vein and the valves ensure that it can only go towards the heart. It is necessary because with out it the blood in our veins would just stay there. What is the flow of blood through the heart? You should be able to trace a drop of blood from the venae cavae (the vessels that empty into the right atrium) through the heart, to the pulmonary circulation, back to the heart, and out to the systemic circulation. Your answer should include any chambers/vessels/valves that the blood passes through. What are the special cell connections found in cardiac muscle, and what is the function of each? o Gap Junctions: allow ions to flow quickly from cell to cell. The depolarizing current can quickly pass over the heart. o Desmosomes: Anchors for withstanding contractile force. What are conductile cells Self-excitable cells that generate their own action potentials. Where does the action potential originate? How does it move through the electrical conduction system? What are the main differences between the circulation of an adult and the circulation of an embryo? Why are these differences necessary? The fetal circulation is systemic and umbilical, no pulmonary. The embryo also has 2 shunts. These differences are necessary because the embryos heart can receive blood faster. What are the major diseases of the circulatory system we discussed Coronary atherosclerosis, cardiac dysthymias, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infartcion. What are the main causes of congestive heart failure Obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, valvulaar heart disease. What is atherosclerosis Coronary heart walls thicken due to an accumulation or fatty materials. What are key risk factors for myocardial infarction Age smoking, obesity, inactivity, stress, diabetes, alcohol abuse. Blood Tissue and Vessels What are the major characteristics of blood Matrix and formed elements. What is the matrix called, and what is its main component Plasma 90% water. What are some of the dissolved solutes that make up the remainder red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. What are the three main categories of plasma proteins, and what is the function of each? o Albumin: Regulates osmotic pressure_ blood volume, flow o Globulins: Some act as antibodies, but act as transport molecules. o Fibrinogen: Contributes to formation of blood clots. What are the formed elements? What are the main types of formed elements? Where are blood cells formed and how does this change during the life span of a person? Where can red bone marrow be found in a child, and where can it be found in an adult? o Enthrocytes: red blood celss. What are the main functions of blood? What is homeostasis? o Homeostasis: Regulation and maintain stable internal conditions o Transport o Immune System functions o Clotting factors. What is the hematocrit Volume percentage of red blood cells What are some factors (natural or unnatural) that can cause it to rise above normal Blood doping (unnatural) Going to high altitudes (Natural) What is the function of red blood cells To transports O2 and Co2What do they look like, and why Biconcave to pass through tiny vessels and increased surface area. Why do mature red blood cells not contain a nucleus or other organelles take up to much space and would use up the oxygen. What is hemoglobin Protein that makes up 97% or rbc volume.What is its function to bind to the oxygen. What are the main differences between adult and fetal hemoglobin and why Fetal Hb has 2 alphas and 2 gammas because the 2 gammas are more attracted to the O2 and adult has 2 alpahas and 2 betas. What part of the hemoglobin does the oxygen molecule actually bind with Iron How many molecules of oxygen can each hemoglobin carry 4 What is the difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes Granulocytes are multilobed nuclie, granules in cytoplasm. Agranulocytes lack visble cytoplasmic granules. Nuclei are kidney or spherical shapped. What are the three types of granulocytes Neutrophil, Basophil, Eosinophil. What is the function of each Neutophil: phagocytize fungi and bacteria. Eosinophil: Target parasitic worm infections and act as anti-histamine to lessen the severity of allergic response. Basophil: increases allergic reactions.What are the two types of agranulocytes Lymphocytes, Monocytes. What is the function of each Lymphocytes produce antibodies and directly attack viruses, infected cells or tumor cells. Monocytes: function as phagocytes. What are platelets? What is their function? Are platelets cells Platlets are thrombocytes and they are responsible for coagulation (blood clotting). They are not cells. What is the order of the types of blood vessels blood will pass through as it moves from the heart, through the systemic circulation and back toward the heart? ArteriesCapilariesVeins What are the three layers of blood vessel walls? What types of tissue are found in each? What is the function of each? o Tunica intima: simple squamous epithelium, basement membrane and loose connective tisueActs as a selectively permeable barrier. o Tunica media: smooth muscle, collagen, elastic tissue strengthens vessel, prevents blood pressure from rupturing them. o Tunica externa: Collagen, loose connective tissue Supply blood to outer half of larger vessels. What are the differences between arteries and veins? What type of vessel contains the majority of blood volume at a given moment? Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and veins bring deoxygenated blood towards the heart. Veins contain the majority. What are the main categories of blood vessels, what are the main differences between them, and what are some examples of each? Which vessels have sensory structures Aorta, carotid artery, What are these structures, and what kind of information do they convey to the brainstem regulates heart rate, vasomotion, and respiration. The arterioles are key to maintaining blood pressure in the extremities. How do they manage this Vasodilate for active and vasoconstrict for inactive. What are metarteriolesm? What is their function Short vessels that link arterioles to capillaries. Forms precapillary sphincters. What happens when the sphincters in the metarterioles are open, and what happens when they are closed When sphincters are closed it diverts blood to other tissues. When they are open the are flowing through the metarteriolesm. What are the main types of capillaries and where are they found o Continuous: occur most tissue. o Fenestrated capillaries: kidneys, endocrine glands, small intestine, choroid plexus of brain. o Discontinuous: liver, bone marrow, spleen. What are portal systems and where are they found Two capillary beds, veins between them. Can be found in kidneys, and between the intestines and liver. What are anastomoses and where might they be found where two blood vessesl merge and can be found in an artery. What are the main branches of the aorta, and where does each one go o Ascending aorta: supply the heart itself o Aoritc Arch: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (head), Left subclavian aftery (shoulder and arm) o Descending aorta: thoracic aorta (above diaphragm), Abdominal aorta (below diaphragm)
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