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FAU / Music Literature / MUL 2010 / Who wrote the age of reason according to encyclopedia?

Who wrote the age of reason according to encyclopedia?

Who wrote the age of reason according to encyclopedia?

Description

Chapter 6: The Classical Period (1750-1809)


Who wrote the age of reason according to encyclopedia?



Classical Period 

● Beginning of classical period was marked by the death of J.S. Bach ● Classical style was a rejection of the old Baroque style

● Ending of classical period was marked by the death of Franz Joseph Hayden ● Classical = simple

● Baroque music began to seem too complicated

● Age of Reason/Enlightenment

○ Encyclopedia

■ Written with the help of Denis Diderot

○ The Wealth of Nations

■ Written by Adam Smith

○ Critique of Pure Reason

■ Written by Emanuel Kant

● Principles of Ancient Greek civilization

○ Emphasized logic and order, grace, symmetry, restraint, repose


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○ Classical period values simplicity

● Pre-classical period

○ Prefigures:

■ Handel (wrote tuneful melodies; homophobic textures)

■ Vivaldi

■ Scarlatti (used two contrasting themes at the same time; contrasting to baroque)

■ Sons of Bach

○ Form of classical period based on two contrasting themes

Characteristics of the Classic Style 

● SIMPLE

● Texture: mostly homophonic

● Harmony: simpler

○ slower changes in harmonies

● Melody: more prominent

○ easier to remember and sing

● Rhythm: less driving, more varied


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● Dynamics: greater use of crescendo and decrescendo

○ remember crescendo=gradually raising sound; decrescendo=gradually lowering sound

● Timbre: new instruments

○ Pianoforte, clarinet, valve trumpet

Sonata-Allegro Form Don't forget about the age old question of How does artificial selection affect the environment?

● Exposition (usually repeated) [Part 1]

○ Theme I, Key I (tonic)

○ Transition

○ Theme II, Key II

○ Closing section in the key of the second theme

● Development [Part 2] We also discuss several other topics like Is the ability to learn from one's experiences acquire knowledge?

○ Theme I&II

○ Various keys

○ New treatment of the themes

● Recapitulation [Part 3]

○ Theme I, Key I

○ Transition

○ Theme II, Key I If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of material culture?

○ *Notice theme I & Theme II are both in tonic key*

● Coda [Similar to a conclusion]

○ Tonic key

The Sonata Cycle 

● Serenade No. 13 for Strings in G major, K. 525 Eine kleine Nachtmusik ○ First movement

■ Sonata form, dramatic

○ Second movement

■ Slow, lyrical, in another key We also discuss several other topics like How do you go from vertex form to standard form?
We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean when the lowest grade is dropped?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of financial assets?

○ Third movement

■ Meneut & Trio (18th century)

■ Scherzo & Trio (19th century)

● AABB CCDD AB

○ Fourth movement

■ Sonata form, rondo, variations

■ Playful or heroic mood

Classical Genres based on the Sonata cycle 

● Symphony

○ Usually has 4 movements

● Concerto

○ Usually in 3 movements

○ Has a cadenza [used to show a soloist’s ability]

● Chamber music

○ String quartet

○ 2 violins, viola, cello ● Piano trio

○ NOT 3 pianos

○ Piano, violin, cello

● Solo instrumental Sonata

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