Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Cells o Diffusion Tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to a low concentration Often goes with the concentration gradient Transport proteins help in a process called facilitated diffusion o Passive transport Along the concentration gradient Requires no energy o Active Transport Requires energy Typically moves against the concentration gradient o Osmosis The passive diffusion of water Osmoregulation The control of water balance o Exergonic Reaction Releases energy in covalent bonds of reaction A good example is cellular respiration Uses released energy for ATP o Endergonic Reaction Requires an input of energy A good example is photosynthesis Yields products rich in energy o Metabolism Total of an organisms chemical reaction Metabolic Pathway Builds a complex molecule Breaks down complex molecules to be simple ATP o Adenosine Triphosphate o Nitrogenous Base Adenine o Five Carbon Sugars Ribose o Three Phosphate Groups o Enzymes Lower activation energy Engage at the active site Can be aided by coenzymes o Feedback Inhibition The product acts as an inhibitor of one of the enzymes in the path it produced Cellular Respiration o Glucose + Oxygen > Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat Glucose loses hydrogen atoms and oxidizes to Carbon Dioxide Most organs prefer to run on glucose o Oxygen Gains Hydrogen atoms Reduces to water o The movement of elctrons from one molecule to another is called a redox reaction The loss of electrons fromone substance is oxidation (Gains charge) The addition of electrons is reduction (Reduces charge) o NAD + Important coenzyme in oxidizing glucose Accepts electrons Reduces to NADH Autotrophs o Make their own food o Archaea; lithotrophs, chemotrophs can use sulfur and other inorganics as an energy source o Do not consume organic molecules derived from other organisms o Photoautotrophs use energy from light to produce organic molecules Heterotrophs o Consumers that feed on plants, animals, or decompose organic matter Photosynthesis in plants o Occurs in chloroplasts, o Converts carbon dioxide and water into organic molecules o Releases oxygen o Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the mesophyll, the green tissue of the inner leaf o Stomata are tiny pores in the leaf that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit o Chlorophyll Light absorbing pigment in chloroplast Found in thylakoid membrane o Light reactions Thylakoid membranes Water is split, giving off oxygen as a byproduct ATP is generated Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll to drive the transfer of electrons in water to the electron acceptor NADP o Calvin Cycle Occurs in stroma Called the dark reactions Light independent Assembles sugar molecules using carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide incorporation into organic compounds is called carbon fixation o Light reactions Visible light is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum (380nm 750nm) The wavelength I the distance between the crests of the waves o Chloroplasts contain different pigments that absorb different light wavelengths o Cell division Is reproduction at cellular level Requires the duplication of chromosomes Sorts new sets of chromosomes into resulting pair of daughter cells Mitosis For reproduction of singe celled organisms Meiosis Sperm and egg production Asexual reproduction Identical offspring to parent cell All genes inherited Sexual reproduction Similar traits to parents but has variations Inheritance of unique sets of genes from both parents Binary Fission Done by prokaryotes Chromosome of prokaryotes are o Singular circle strand of DNA o Much smaller than that of a eukaryote o Occurs in three steps Eukaryotic Chromosomes Made of chromatin Consist of o One long DNA molecule o Proteins help maintain structure and control the activity of its genes Eukaryote cells duplicate all their chromosomes before splitting o These are sister chromatids o Joined by a narrow part called the centromere Cancer o A tumor is an abnormally growing mass of body cells Benign tumors remain at original site Malignant tumors spread to other locations called metastasis Chromosomes o In humans somatic cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes One pair from each parent o The human sex chromosomes X and Y differ in size and genetic composition Life cycle o Stages going from Adults to the next generation Adults to the next Meiosis o Process that converts diploid nuclei to haploid nuclei Diploid Cells Two homologous sets of chromosomes Haploid cells `Have one set of chromosomes o Occurs in the sex organs, producing gametes, sperm and eggs o Fertilization is the union of sperm and egg o The zygote has a diploid chromosome number, one set from each parent o Meiosis is followed by two consecutive cell divisions o Mitosis is followed by one cell division Meiosis by the phases o Prophase 1 Chromosomes coil and compact Homologous chromosomes come together as a pairs by synapsis Four chromatids called tetrad Nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material by crossing over o Meiosis 1 Metaphase 1 Tetrads align at the cell equator o Meiosis 1 Anaphase 1 Homologous pairs separate and move apart o Meiosis 1 Telophase 1 Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles A nuclear envelope reforms around chromosomes in some species Each nucleus has the haploid number of chromosomes o Meiosis II – Prophase II Chromosomes coil and become compact (if uncoiled after telophase I). Nuclear envelope, if reformed, breaks up again. o Meiosis II – Metaphase II – Duplicated chromosomes align at the cell equator. o Meiosis II – Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate and chromosomes move toward opposite poles o Meiosis II – Telophase II Chromosomes have reached the poles of the cell. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. With cytokinesis, four haploid cells are produced
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