Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 ANEQ 305-001
Popular in Large Animal Anatomy and Physiology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Bergmann on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANEQ 305-001 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Hyungchul Han in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Large Animal Anatomy and Physiology in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study Guide #2 Types of Synapses A(n) (electrical/chemical/voltage) synapse signals via direct transfer, or through gap ctions, whereas a(n) (electrical/chemical/voltage) synapse signals via neurotransmitters released in the ______________ cleft. __________________- slower than an electrical synapse, and only goes in one direction. Chemical Synapse Steps: 1. Action potential reaches the ___________ ____________. 2. ________ enters the synaptic knob through ____________ gated channels and stimulates the ______________. 3. __________________ is released by (exocytosis/endocytosis). 4. __________________ binds to receptors on the post-synaptic cleft via _____________ channel 5. Channel opens. Inhibitory Synapse- ____________________________________________________________________ Excitatory Synapse - ___________________________________________________________________ Neurotransmitters are quickly removed from the synaptic cleft through _______________, __________, and ________________. Functions of Acetylcholine 1. 2. 3. 4. Temporal summation is summation from (one/multiple) neuron(s) and spatial summation is from (one/multiple) neuron(s). The ________ _____________ has a high density of Na channels and is where the action potential begins. Presynaptic Inhibition-___________________________________________________________ Presynaptic Facilitation-__________________________________________________________ ________________- many axons coming to one neuron _________________- axon terminals going out to multiple neurons Most _____________ alter synaptic transmission. Nervous Systems Material Energy Hypothesis: 1. Carnivores are __________ brained and have a __________ quality diet with a _________ intestinal tract. 2. Herbivores are __________ brained and have a __________ quality diet with a ___________ intestinal tract. ORGANIZATION The ________________________ is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The _________________________ is made of nerves extending to other parts of body. Afferent neurons send information from the (PNS/CNS) to the (PNS/CNS), whereas the efferent neurons send information from the (PNS/CNS) to the (PNS/CNS). The arasympathetic nervous system originates from the _____________ and _____________ regions, and is in charge of (fight or flight/rest and digest) and has a ______________________ preganglionic nerve fiber where _______________ is released and a _____________________ postganglionic nerve fiber where __________________ is released. The sympathetic nervous system originates from the _____________ and _________________ regions, and is in charge of (fight or flight/rest and digest) and has a ______________________ preganglionic nerve fiber where _______________ is released and a _____________________ postganglionic nerve fiber where __________________ is released. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems work together to coordinate ________________ in mammals. Receptor Types Cholinergic receptors 1. Nicotinic: _________________________________________________________ 2. Adrenergic Receptors: ________________________________________________________ Glial Cells 1. _________________- the most abundant type that supports the neurons. 2. Oligodendrocytes - ___________________________________________________________ 3. 4. Muscle Cells Muscle Cells are specialized to produce ___________ and do ______________. Types (include if striated or unstriated and if it is voluntary/involuntary) 1. 2. 3. Myofibril-____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ They make up (20/60/80/90)% of the muscle cell. The greater the density of the myofibrils in the cell, the ___________ the force. Thick Filaments are made up of _________________ and have _______________ and ______________ binding sites. Thin filaments are made up of __________________, ________________, and _________________. Action potentials begin at the _________ _______________ where there is an abundance of _______ channels. The signal travels down the axons where it is insulated by ________ ________________ and the action potential jumps from one ________ _____ ____________ to another until it reaches the ___________ _____________. Here, _____ ions enter the cell and stimulate the proteins to release ______________________ by ________________. The (voltage/chemically/mechanically) gated channels open and the action potential travels through the muscle cell to a ____-___________ which is attached to the (endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum/golgi body) which releases _____ ions through a ____________ gated channel. This enacts the _____________ ________________ mechanism where ____ ions bind with (troponin/actin/myosin/tropomyosin). When the myosin is attached to the thick filament, it must be aided by ________ and bind to the _______________________ binding site to allow it to slide. When the muscle is ready to be relaxed, ______ must return back to the (endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum/golgi body) through (active transport/diffusion/endocytosis) and 2+ + + through (vesicles/Ca ATPase/Na -K pumps). Uses of ATP in muscle contraction 1. 2. 3. Repetitive Summation Twitch summation-_____________________________________________________________ tetanus - _____________________________________________________________________ Imagine you are in a high-intensity workout, and your muscles require ATP to contract, where is your body most likely to get it’s source of ATP from? (Phosphagens/Oxidative Phosphorylation/Glycolysis). Muscle Structure Tendons attach ______________ to ______________ and ligaments attach _____________ to _____________. Flexors _____________ a limb and extensors ________________ a limb. __________________-signal molecules of the endocrine system 1. _____________________- chains of amino acids and hydrophilic (i.e. insulin) 1. Synthesized by (ribosomes/sarcoplasmic reticulum/preprohormones) 2. Released by (endocytosis/exocytosis). 2. Amines-_____________________________________________________________________ 1. ____________________- hydrophilic (i.e. Epinephrine and NE) 2. ____________________- lipophilic 3. _______________- derived from cholesterol (i.e. testosterone/estrogen) 1. Cholesterol is ______________ by diet and _______________ by enzymatic reactions, allowing them to ____________ across the plasma membrane and cholesterol is modified by the (adrenal glands/pituitary gland/thyroid/pineal gland). 2. Cholesterol is ________ stored by cells and is synthesized by ________-___________ _________________. 4. Prostaglandins-________________________________________________________________ There are __________+ types and have a (local/long distance) effect on other cells. How are hormones regulated? A. Negative Feedback B. Neuroendocrine Reflex C. Biological Rhythms D. All of the Above A ___________ endocrine gland may produce (multiple/one) hormone(s) and a single ____________ may be secreted by (one/multiple) gland(s) and can have (multiple/one) target cell(s). If epinephrine is in the blood and headed to signal another cell, how will it cause a change in the target cell? A. Ion Fluxes B. Second Messengers C. Transcription Factors D. All of the Above ______________- the hormone secreted from the stomach that makes an organism hungry 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The posterior pituitary gland _____________ hormones and does not _______________ hormones. The anterior pituitary gland ______________ hormones and _________________ hormones.
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