Lab Practical 1 Study Guide
Lab Practical 1 Study Guide biol 216
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Date Created: 10/03/16
BIOL 216 – Lab Practical 1 Content Outline Ex. 2024 Ex. 20 – Endocrine System *Note: Terms in bold are names of major hormones (25 total). In general, for each hormone, know the information asked on p. 279281. 1. General Endocrine System a. Similarities + differences between endocrine and nervous systems b. Endocrine (secrete directly into bloodstream) vs Exocrine (secrete via duct) c. Figure 201 (10 organs) 2. Pituitary Gland (“master gland”) a. Relationship to hypothalamus (works with it closely) b. Its hypophyseal portal system c. Two lobes: Anterior lobe vs Posterior lobe d. Fig. 202 (posterior, anterior, infundibulum, & which of the 9 hormones are anterior/posterior) e. Figure 203: All pituitary hormones (in the white lights) and releasing hormones (in the green lights) 3. Adrenal Glands a. Medulla (neuroepithelial cells) i. Autonomically controlled (via nerves, not hormones) ii. Produces Epinephrine iii. Produces Norepinephrine b. Cortex i. Zona glomerulosa (mineralocorticoids) ii. Zona fasciculate (glucocorticoids released in response to ACTH) iii. Zona reticularis (gonocorticoids) 4. Thyroid/Parathyroid a. Is bilobed b. Responds to TSH c. Follicular cells (inside of follicles) produce: i. T3 triiodothyronine (affects target cells) ii. T4 thyroxine (converted to T3) d. Hyperthyroidism vs Hypothyroidism (causes goiters) e. Iodine is a primary component of T3+T4 f. Parafollicular cells (C cells) i. Monitor concentration of calcium (Ca )2+ ii. Produce calcitonin (CT) when calcium is too high g. Parathyroid glands i. Four nodules ii. Produce parathyroid hormone (PTH) when calcium is too low h. Target of CT and PTH are the kidneys 5. Pancreas a. Location – (retroperitoneal) b. Exocrine function – produce digestive enzymes c. Islets of Langerhans p. 1 / 8 i. Alpha cells produce glucagon (causes release of glucose) ii. Beta cells produce insulin (causes absorption of glucose) 6. Pineal Gland a. Produces melatonin (regulates circadian rhythm) b. Production fluctuates in response to light c. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) 7. Other Organs a. Heart (releases hormones when atria are stretched) i. Right atrium produces Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ii. Right ventricle produces Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) iii. Target = the kidney iv. Effect = increasing urine production b. Brain (= Hypothalamus, already discussed) c. Kidneys i. Erythropoietin (EPO), increases blood volume (target is red bone marrow) ii. Renin, stimulates release of ADH + Aldosterone, which cause water retention + thirst iii. Calcitriol, works with calcitonin to increase Ca absorption in the gut d. Intestines i. Stomach produces gastrin ii. Intestines produce cholecytokinin e. Adipose tissue – Produces leptin f. Thymus i. Large in children, shrinks in adults ii. Produces thymosins iii. Affect Tcells g. Gonads i. Ovaries produce estrogen ii. Testes produce testosterone iii. Fig. 209 (5 effects of testosterone, 5 effects of estrogen) p. 2 / 8 Ex. 21 – The Blood 1. Properties & Composition of Blood a. Classification – Connective tissue b. Plasma = extracellular matrix c. Whole blood = blood plasma + formed elements d. Complete blood count (CBC) [end of chapter] 2. Blood Plasma a. 92% water, 8% other b. Fibrinogen – Turns into fibrin to make blood clot c. Serum = blood plasma without fibrinogen 3. Formed Elements (these cells do not ‘swim’) a. Red blood cells (RBCs) i. Most abundant (99.9% of formed elements) ii. Contain hemoglobin (Hb); carries oxygen iii. No nucleus or organelles iv. Shape = biconcave disk v. Lifespan = 120 days b. White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes i. Least abundant (0.1% of formed elements) ii. Lifespan = decades iii. Types of leukocytes (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas) 1. Neutrophils (eat foreign cells, most abundant, result in the yellow coloring of pus) 2. Lymphocytes (produce antibodies, attack foreign cells) 3. Monocytes (eat foreign and infected human cells) 4. Eosinophils (attack large parasites, like worms) 5. Basophils (accumulate at injury sites, release histamine + heparin) iv. Figure 213 (5 cell types) c. Platelets i. No organelles ii. Help with blood clotting 4. Blood Typing a. Based off antigens on RBCs b. Rh Factor ( or +) i. Possess Rh factor = Rhpositive (most people) ii. Do not possess Rh factor = Rhnegative c. AB Antigens (A, B, O) i. Possess A antigen = Type A ii. Possess B antigen = Type B iii. Possess both = Type AB iv. Possess neither = Type O d. Agglutination (occurs when blood types are mixed) 5. Blood Pathologies a. Sickle cell anemia (genetic disease) i. Caused by a hemoglobin gene mutation ii. Causes crescentshaped RBCs iii. Transport O 2poorly & clump together b. Leukemia (cancer) p. 3 / 8 i. Affects leukocytes, lymphatic leukemia specifically affects lymphocytes p. 4 / 8 Ex. 22 – The Heart 1. The Heart: A Double Pump a. Pulmonary circuit vs Systemic circuit 2. Surface Anatomy of the Heart (Fig. 222) a. Right atrium + Left atrium b. Left ventricle + right ventricle (left > right) c. Base vs Apex d. Interventricular sulcus + Coronary sulcus e. Auricles (the top portions of the atria) 3. Internal Features of the Heart a. Trabeculae b. Left atrioventricular (AV) valve, or Bicuspid valve c. Right atrioventricular (AV) valve, or Tricuspid valve d. Chordeae tendinae (heartstrings) e. Papillary muscle f. Aortic semilunar valve (left ventricle) g. Pulmonary semilunar valve (right ventricle) h. Ligamentum arteriosum 4. Blood Flow through the Heart a. Figure 224 (know all 12 locations in order) 5. Cardiac Cycle a. Cause of heart sounds = closing of valves b. Intrinsic conducting system (Fig 225, know these 5 structures in order) i. Sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker) ii. Atrioventricular (AV) node iii. AV Bundle (bundle of His) iv. Bundle branches v. Purkinje fibers c. SA node generates impulses independently d. Fibrous skeleton insulates electrical activity and holds heart together e. Electrocardiogram (ECG) (be somewhat familiar with Fig 226) i. P wave (atrial depolarization) ii. QRS complex (ventricle depolarization) iii. T wave (Ventricle repolarization) f. Fibrillation (cardiac arrhythmia) = irregular heartbeat g. End diastolic volume vs End systolic volume vs Stroke volume 6. Coronary Circuit (Fig. 227) a. Arteries i. Left coronary artery ii. Right coronary artery iii. Circumflex artery iv. Marginal artery v. Anterior interventricular artery vi. Posterior interventricular artery b. Venous structures i. Small cardiac vein ii. Middle cardiac vein p. 5 / 8 iii. Great cardiac vein iv. Coronary sinus 7. Sheep Heart Dissection (Fig. 2210 and 2211) p. 6 / 8 Ex. 23 – Blood Vessels 1. Arteries & Arterioles a. Direction of flow (away from the heart) b. Arteries (tunica externa, tunica media, tunica interna) c. Arterioles (tunica media and tunica interna only) d. Muscular arteries (far from heart) vs Elastic arteries (near heart) e. Circulatory shock (systemic dilation of blood vessels) f. Arterioles monitor and change bloo4 pressure g. Understand the equation p = 1/r h. Figure 232 (all 36 arteries, typically named after a feature they’re near; prioritize ones closer to the heart) 2. Capillaries a. Have a singlecell layer (tunica interna) b. Smooth capillaries (no holes) vs Fenestrated capillaries (have holes) c. Definition of a capillary bed (come from 1 arteriole, and enter 1 venule) d. Vasomotion (not all beds are given blood at the same time) 3. Veins & Venules a. Venules (tunica externa, tunica interna) b. Veins (tunica externa, tunica media, tunica interna) c. Lumen size (vein > artery) d. Have low pressure e. Have valves (prevent backflow, help propel blood) f. Number of veins > number of arteries g. Venous reserve (extra blood residing the dilated veins) h. When body is cold, blood is shunted to deep veins; when body is hot, blood is shunted to superficial veins (role of deep/superficial veins and temperature) i. Figure 23.3 (all 33 veins, typically named after a feature they’re near; prioritize ones closer to the heart) 4. Pulse a. Strength of pulse not dependent on distance from the heart b. Figure 234 (all 11 locations) p. 7 / 8 Ex. 24 – Lymphatic System 1. Tissue Fluid Circulation a. Functions of lymph (circulate interstitial fluid, cleans out debris, waste, and bacteria) b. Source of interstitial fluid (blood plasma) c. Edema (accumulation of body fluid in tissues) d. Lymph (the fluid) e. Lymph Node f. Lymph circulation (Fig. 241) i. Lymphatic capillaries ii. Lymphatic collecting vessels iii. Lymph node iv. Lymphatic ducts v. Right lymphatic duct vi. Thoracic duct vii. Cisterna chili g. Valves (prevent backflow, assist in propelling lymph) h. How lymph is propelled via valves i. Figure 241 (6 lymphatic structures) 2. Lymph Nodes a. Major lymph node locations (Fig. 242) b. Mammary lymph node chains c. Primary purpose of lymph nodes = destroy invading organisms, clean waste/debris d. Lymph node anatomy (Fig. 244) i. Afferent ducts ii. Efferent duct iii. Cortex iv. Medulla v. Follicles e. Possess lymphocytes 3. Lymphatic Organs (know basic description, function, and location) a. Spleen (largest; filters blood, not lymph) b. Tonsils (palatine, lingual, pharyngeal) c. Thymus (T cells) d. Peyer’s patches (increase towards end of intestines) p. 8 / 8
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