ENTO 2223, Exam 2 Study Guide
ENTO 2223, Exam 2 Study Guide ENTO 2223
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Reilly Emerson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTO 2223 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Bruce Noden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Insects in Global Public Health in Entomology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
ENTO 2223 Exam 2 Study Guide Facts: more than 1 million people die every year from diseases carried by mosquitos, flies and other insects out of the top 10 diseases transmitted by insects in the world, 6 are transmitted by mosquitos Aedes agypti mosquitos (carry yellow fever and zika) are usually in cities Arthropods: Arachnids: o 8 legs o 2 body segments Insects: o 6 legs o 3 body segments General arthropod life cycle: o Incomplete Eggs Larvae Nymph Adults o Complete Eggs Larvae Pupae Adults Blood-sucking Arthropods: 4 orders: o Phthiraptera – lice o Hemiptera – true bugs o Siphonaptera – fleas o Diptera – flies Blood = great nutrition o Necessary for reproduction for most blood suckers o Blood is digested and goes into eggs Laying eggs: o They look for places that don’t already have other mosquitos in them so that the eggs will survive Disease Transmission: Blood-feeding = opportunity for disease transmission o First blood meal: insects gets worm, protozoa, bacteria or virus from host o Pathogen develops in the insect o Pathogen gets transmitted to another host the next time the insect feeds Anterior station – through spit injected at the bite Posterior station – through poop About Mosquitos: Order – Diptera Family – Culicidae o Sub-family – either Anophilinae or Culicinae (different larval forms) Go through complete metamorphosis (babies look very different from adults) Eggs can come in many different forms Larva are called wigglers Pupae are called tumblers Female vs. Male o Females take blood meals and have skinnier antennae Mouthparts o Labium – sheath that retracts when they feed o Labrum – food canal o Cibarial pump – pulls up the food o Salivary glands – most pathogens must migrate to this area of the insect in order to be transmitted to a host Terms: Vector specificity – dictates which species of mosquitos will actually be the one to transmit a disease o Factors: insect’s host choice internal biology coevolution virus – kills by overwhelming tissue damage o arbovirus – arthropod-borne virus reservoir – living thing that pathogen can survive in o natural reservoir – doesn’t show symptoms of disease o unnatural reservoir – shows symptoms hematophagy – blood-eating vertical transmission – disease is passed from vector mother to her offspring horizontal transmission – disease is passed from vector to host Diseases Transmitted by Mosquitoes Encephalitis West Nile Equine Encephalitis Filariasis Canine Heartworm Yellow Fever Dengue Fever Chikungunya Zika Virus Malaria Biting Flies Sand Flies Black Flies Tsetse Flies Diseases Transmitted by Biting Flies Leishmaniasis cutaneous visceral Onchocerciasis Trypanosomiasis Lice Pediculus humanus humanus Pediculus humanus capitus Pthirus pubis Diseases Transmitted by Body Lice Epidemic Typhus Louse-borne Relapsing Fever Trench Fever
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