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TTU / mass communications / MCOM 1300 / Who is james franklin?

Who is james franklin?

Who is james franklin?

Description

School: Texas Tech University
Department: mass communications
Course: Foundations of Media and Communication
Professor: Dean
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: mcom, Media, communication, history, News, and mcom1300
Cost: 50
Name: MCOM 1300-002 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: A collection of all lecture notes pertaining to the second exam packaged together for a single purchase.
Uploaded: 10/03/2016
25 Pages 171 Views 12 Unlocks
Reviews


The Colonial Press


Who is james franklin?



Friday, September  23, 2016 9:49 AM

• Early newspapers were just political  organs

• Early editors weren't editors, just knew how to set type

• James Franklin -New England courant 1720

• Ben Franklin - Pennsylvania Gazette

○ Highly successful editor in early life, before revolutionary stuff ○ Championed for the people

○ Started the first chain of newspapers

○ Gave a degree of respectability to journalism

• Newspapers for each of these lines of thinking (they were highly partisan) ○ Tories

▪ Loyal to England We also discuss several other topics like What is the rational choice theory?

▪ Didn't understand the Whigs

○ Whigs


What is the role of the press?



▪ Middle class

▪ Wanted taxation w/out representation

○ Radicals/Patriots

▪ Wanted to overturn social structure completely

The Revolutionary Press If you want to learn more check out What are the properties of probability?

• Role of the press

○ Fan the flame

▪ War wasn't going so well, needed to keep the fight alive

○ Thomas Paine's Common Sensewas reprinted in all the newspapers ▪ Explained why we should fight for independence

○ Issiah Thomas

▪ Had the famous 13 split snake saying "Join or Die"

The Partisan Press 1783-1816

• Whigs become the Federalists


who insisted on accuracy and comprehensive coverage in the new york world?



○ Alexander Hamilton

▪ Believed country should be run by the wealthy

○ Knew the Articles of Confederation would fail

▪ So they dominated the constitution meetings

• Anti-Federalists

○ Thomas Jefferson

   If you want to learn more check out What is the effect of coriolis?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two types of muscle?

▪ Believed country should be run by the wealthy ○ Knew the Articles of Confederation would fail ▪ So they dominated the constitution meetings • Anti-Federalists

○ Thomas Jefferson

Said there needed to be guarantees of rights, else we would have  

gov't just like before revolution

□ Spawned the Bill  of Rights

▪ Campaigned against the Alien and Sedition laws

• Frontier papers

○ Thought the British were giving ammunition to native Americans ▪ This led to War of 1812

□ Didn't go so well, the capital was burned down

• Magazines

○ Didn't catch initially because too expensive

○ 1880's finally started to catch on

The Penny Press

• Ben Day - New York Sun 1833

○ Lowered price of the paper to a penny

Did this to sell more papers, and get a larger audience for  

advertisers

▪ 15-20 papers followed suit

• James Gordon Bennett - New York Herald 1835

Changed the content of papers from partisan content, to more of what  

○ Don't forget about the age old question of Who is thucydides?

we see today

▪ Because of increased competition with the 15-20 other papers

• Horace Greeley - New York Tribune 1841

○ Whig, but didn't agree with all Whig views

○ Started to editorialize a lot of controversial topics If you want to learn more check out What is rayleigh scattering?

▪ Allowed Karl Marx to write about his views of communism ▪ Thought women should have right to vote

▪ In short, very unpopular views

○ Gave independent voice to editorial page

Famous for getting tons of poor people out of the city and into other  

states to make a better life for themselves

• Henry J. Raymond -New York Times 1851

○ At the time, the NYT not the great newspaper we think of today

The Personal Press

• At the time, newspapers were seen a products of the editors ○ "Period of the Personal Editor" (1840s)

Today, we see newspapers as separate from the writers and editors - not  ○

              

The Personal Press

• At the time, newspapers were seen a products of the editors ○ "Period of the Personal Editor" (1840s)

Today, we see newspapers as separate from the writers and editors - not  

the case back then

• The abolitionist press

○ Abolitionists wanted to abolish slavery

○ John Brown decides to raid a place to save slaves

▪ Immediately captured and hung

□ Seen as a martyr

○ Slavery a huge topic in papers

• Partisianism returns

• Press associations

• The Associated Press of New York, 1848

○ Big story was Texas' annexation

○ Several reporters sent out to report on the story

▪ AP says let's just send two guys for everybody

• The Civil War

○ Lots of first hand accounts of the war, since reporters are everywhere ○ Military leaders didn't like this

▪ So reporters and their stories had to be approved beforehand □ This continued all the way to WWIII

□ Censorship

• Inverted Pyramid style of writing

○ In the lead, tell  read what happened

○ 2nd part - details

○ 3rd part -smaller details

○ So either way, the reader gets the story

New Journalism 1865-1900

• Joseph Pulitzer

○ Insisted on accuracy and comprehensive coverage in the New York World ▪ Introduced photos, color, comics

▪ Made the World probably the best paper of the time

○ The symbol of "New Journalism"

• E.W. Scripps

○ Started papers in industrial cities

○ The Scripps' family's newspapers are still in existence today

• William R. Hearst

○ Had reputation of being sensationalist

○ Created "Gee Whiz Journalism"

○ Had strong formula

      

○ The Scripps' family's newspapers are still in existence today • William R. Hearst

○ Had reputation of being sensationalist

○ Created "Gee Whiz Journalism"

○ Had strong formula

▪ Bought off great journalists

□ (Hearst family had lots of money)

○ Bought the New York Journal

▪ Tried to sell as many newspapers as possible, regardless of accuracy □ Yellow Journalism

◆ Inaccurate stories, facts, sensationalized stories, etc

◆ Pulitzer also joined in on this

• The Spanish-American War

○ Newspapers reported fake stories about Spain

○ A battleship at one point blew up mysteriously

▪ Newspaper falsely report it was Spain

□ This led us to declare war on Spain

War was caused was by wild sensationalism of Yellow  

Journalism

To Pulitzer's credit, he did back off of YJ around  

this time

The 20th Century

Monday, September  26, 2016 10:00 AM

• Further development of press associations

○ Associated press birthed

○ United Press - 1903

○ Internal News Service - 1909

• Muckraking

○ Unchecked growth

▪ Monopolies developed after Democratic party was disenfranchised

○ Early 1900's - magazines probe into this (newspapers join in later, but primarily m▪ Birth of muckraking - revealing the "filth"

□ Ida Tarbell started this movement w/ a piece on Rockefeller's oil mon◆ Rockefeller became a personification of greed and corruption

○ Lincoln Steffens reported on living conditions of poor immigrants

▪ Terrible working conditions

▪ How all this was manipulated by corrupt political machines

○ David Graham Phillips wrote about bribes going on in Senate

▪ Also wrote about Adacall (water w/ alcohol) an apparent cure-all

□ Didn't cure anything, just killed people

○ Upton Sinclair

▪ Detailed the unsanitary conditions in the meat industry

▪ How a worker fell in a vat and was ground up w/ no one really trying to stop▪ Led to Anti-Trust act and Food & Drug act - big wave of reform

○ Magazine writers brought this to light, not gov't

• Adolph Ochs and the New York Times

○ He insisted on comprehensive coverage

▪ Great writing, fairness, accuracy

○ Made the newspaper what it is today

• 1920 -return to normalcy

○ After WWI ended in 1919, people wanted to go back to normal

○ Elected president Hardy

○ Teapot Dome Scandal

○ Prohibition

▪ Gave rise to organized crime

• Jazz Journalism

○ Tabloid newspaper started to rise because easier to read than broad sheet newsp○ Ruth Synder sentenced to be executed  by election

gazines) poly

it

pers

    

○ Prohibition

▪ Gave rise to organized crime

• Jazz Journalism

○ Tabloid newspaper started to rise because easier to read than broad sheet newsp○ Ruth Synder sentenced to be executed  by election

▪ NY Daily News

□ Reporter smuggled in camera to the execution and a picture of this hit○ NY Daily Mirror

○ NY Daily Graphic

○ Rise of the columnist

○ Time Magazine started by Henry Luce (1923)

• Stock market crash of 1929

• Roosevelt's New Deal

Creates a bunch of gov't organization to try and create new jobs to get people bac

market crash

• The New Deal & WWII

○ People want to know why? In publications

○ Newspapers then have to hire people who know finance, banking, etc ▪ Introduces specialization - not enough to just write well

○ WWII coverage impressive

▪ Beginning of radio coverage

○ Cronkite - Pyle - Murrow

○ Unpopular wars

▪ Korea - a police action by the US

□ Dangerous to cover, many journalists died

▪ Vietnam - divisive war

□ First televised war

◆ Very little censorship

□ Created anti-war movement

□ Journalism suffered great credibility loss because public was so divisiv ▪ Changes in Grenada, the Mid-East War, Iraq

□ President didn't allow coverage in Cuba

□ Mid-East war: journalists not allowed to go to front lines, everything h◆ Result of Vietnam

□ Iraq did a 180 against Mid-East war - journalists covered the war first ◆ Reporters embedded with troops

• The New Journalism (1960s and 1970s)

○ New non-fiction

▪ Writer tries to put reader in their minds

▪ Describes things with great detail to give reader impression they were there ▪ This spills over to journalism

○ The advocate style of reporting

▪ Reporter says he's against war

pers

 front page

 to work after stock  

d to be pre-screened and

Gave tabloid newspapers a bad name

  -

▪ Writer tries to put reader in their minds

▪ Describes things with great detail to give reader impression they were there ▪ This spills over to journalism

○ The advocate style of reporting

▪ Reporter says he's against war

□ So everything written is slanted against trying to get people against th◆ Even if scummy behavior is necessary

▪ Very controversial (obviously)

○ Investigative reporting emerges

○ The Underground Press

▪ Said traditional newspaper didn't deal w/ issues that affected the country ▪ Rejected traditional standards and expose things that might make people m▪ Often libelous

▪ Intentionally crude

▪ Couldn't be sued because you couldn't track the publication down ▪ Had huge impact

□ started hiring and covering minorities

• Characteristics of great newspapers

○ Comprehensive coverage

○ Great writing

○ Progressive leadership

▪ Need to stand up for what they think is right and oppose what they think is • Recent History

○ See a shake out - lots of mergers and consolidations of newspapers ○ Afternoon newspapers gave way to TV news

▪ Morning newspapers become dominant

○ The coming of chains - a golden age

○ The Sullivan ruling in 1964

○ The Watergate story of the 70s

▪ Resulted in the only resignation of a US president

▪ Brought about by two rookie reporters

○ Circulation, revenue, and profits go well into 90s

○ Digital networks and the internet undermine business models of newspapers ▪ Newspapers cut costs, diversify, and embrace the tech

▪ Cutbacks on foreign and investigate reporting

▪ All newspapers go online

▪ Concern about the future as the stocks fall

○ 2010 - 2013 NP revenue continued to decline

▪ 1k to 1.5k jobs lost

▪ Newspapers are 30% smaller today than in 2009

▪ Many newspapers have closed

 war also d

rong

  -      

▪ 1k to 1.5k jobs lost

▪ Newspapers are 30% smaller today than in 2009 ▪ Many newspapers have closed

Newspapers

Wednesday,  September  28, 2016 9:56 AM• The last stand for traditional journalism

Newspapers offer a longer form of content, allowing for a better reporting  

of news

• TV news vs. Print

○ TV is more of an entertainment media

▪ Therefor, show business elements seep into TV news

▪ Advocate style of reporting returning (taking a stance on issue) ○ Little change since WWII in daily newspapers (1387 still around) ▪ Less than 1/2 of newspapers have circulation above 20k □ Less than 1/5 above 100k

▪ WSJ has highest circulation around

• Circulation of newspapers is declining in relation to population growth ○ Death of newspapers in many cities

▪ Due to…

□ Rising costs

□ TV competition

□ Internet

□ Loss of ad revenue

• Local ownership is rare in media properties

Even for local newspapers and stations - decisions being made in a  

corporate office elsewhere

• Group ownership

○ 120 groups that own 75% of all daily newspapers ○ Group is defined as two or more

○ Gannet is largest group w/ 99 newspapers

○ Today only 3% of cities have competing newspapers ▪ Compared to 60% in 1920

▪ Critics say this defeats watchdog concept

However not always the case - if you have two newspapers,  advertisers could threaten to move ads to other paper if a  story is run

◆ If only one newspaper present, this can't happen ◊ Argues that one newspaper provides..

???? Economic stability

Conscientious editors - can go and make  ????

            story is run

◆ If only one newspaper present, this can't happen ◊ Argues that one newspaper provides..

???? Economic stability

Conscientious editors - can go and make  

????

unpopular stances

Still have competition in other forms of  

????

media - like in local TV

• Bell Helicopter and the Ft. Worth Star-Telegram

○ Story run about a faulty helicopter made that killed a group of people

Dallas people outraged that Star-Telegram ran a story that was negative  

about Ft. Worth

▪ Didn't want the truth to get out

• U of Kentucky and the Lexington Herald-Leader

○ Story run about cheating in the basketball team

○ People mad the truth got out

• Newspaper preservation act -1970

○ Allowed two newspapers to combine all operations except the newsroom • Inheritance taxes

○ Taxes over inheriting a newspaper

Often leads to families having to sell the newspaper to pay for the  

taxes

• Newspaper circulation began to decline in the 60s and 70s by almost 2mil ○ Publishers commissioned studies on this

▪ Two groups shown to not read

□ Low income minorities

□ Young people

• People shown to not like press due to…

○ Political bias

○ Favoring one side over the other

○ Covering up mistakes

○ Influence and pressure from groups

○ Bad news - no good, positive news

○ Invasion of privacy

• Changes were then made to appeal to audiences…

○ Wider columns/graphics and color

○ Daily living conditions, summaries, enlarging special sections ▪ More emphasis on entertainment to appeal to young people

Circulation did increase because of this, but not fast enough in relation to  

population growth

• Other factors…

○ Lifestyles/time poverty/working women ▪ Don't have time to read newspapers

          Circulation did increase because of this, but not fast enough in relation to  

population growth

• Other factors…

○ Lifestyles/time poverty/working women

▪ Don't have time to read newspapers

○ Disaffection/illiteracy

▪ Simply don't care, or can't read

□ Functional illiteracy exists in 20-30% of our population ○ Today's readers want things quickly

▪ Want more coverage of personal topics

▪ Want health, finance, consumer news

▪ Want more special interest sections

▪ 47% get news on tablets, etc

• USA Today, 1982

○ Aimed at a national audience

○ Contents sent by satellite to regional plants

○ Heavy losses: 2.35mil circulation goal by 1988

▪ Didn't happen until 92'

Started idea of shorter stories, summaries, detailed sports, full-color  

weather

○ Paper has been imitated quite a bit

• Role

○ Primary role is to inform

▪ To comment and interpret

▪ To serve the reader

○ Secondary role is to campaign for interest in issues ▪ To entertain

▪ To counsel and provide information

• Categories

○ Small dailies  (below 25k cir.)

○ Large dailies (25k to 150k)

○ Metropolitan dailies (over 150k)

○ Editorial

○ Advertising

○ Circulation  

○ Production and business

• Reporting

○ Characteristics of reporters

▪ 60% men

▪ 12.07 minorities

▪ College degree

▪ 25% journalism

○ Not a very glamourous job

   

▪ 60% men

▪ 12.07 minorities

▪ College degree

▪ 25% journalism

○ Not a very glamourous job

▪ Pretty routine

○ Hopefully reporters improve w/ experience

• What is news?

○ Timeliness

○ Importance

▪ But who is it important to?

□ Not every story is important to everyone

○ Interest

▪ Who is actually interested?

□ People could be interested, but it isn't important

○ Factors influencing selection

▪ Time

□ Deadlines

▪ Competition  

▪ Convenience  

□ Need to fill space, etc

○ 50% of content comes from press releases

▪ With fewer staff to cover things, PR releases become important ○ Investigative reporting reporters should have…

▪ Background

▪ Experience

▪ Skill

□ Because public is cynical of these stories

• Metropolitan dailies

○ Not much reader identification

○ High degree of specialization in the staff

○ City editors

○ General assignments

▪ Cover breaking news

○ Beat reporters

▪ Cover specific things, like city council

○ Rewrite person

▪ Polish stories that are sent in

○ Usually find a lot of speed an complexity

▪ NY Times employs 6k people

○ Use state of the art technology

▪ Not always this way

□ Used to be only smaller newspapers used new technologies

      

○ Usually find a lot of speed an complexity

▪ NY Times employs 6k people

○ Use state of the art technology

▪ Not always this way

□ Used to be only smaller newspapers used new technologies ○ Sunday edition

▪ Has news, sports, features, inserts, comics

□ The whole package

▪ The biggest publication of the week

• Weekly newspapers

○ Intimacy with the community

○ Represents core of community life

○ Small staff

▪ Maybe, say, 6 staff members

□ Each staff member will work in variety of areas

○ Thursday publication typically

○ News sources

▪ Talk amongst community

Not going to get news from sources like AP due to money  

constraints

▪ Often a lot of news from the high schools

□ High schools often a source of pride in small towns

○ Used new technology before anyone else

○ Very conservative

▪ Small towns are typically the most conservative

□ (newspapers reflect the people they serve)

○ Distribution

▪ On front porch, mailbox

□ You don't go and buy it at a newsstand

○ Chain ownership

• The field today

○ Weekly circulation is increasing

○ Many given away because of shoppers

○ 1/3 free

▪ Others sold, some voluntary

○ State press associations

○ Desktop revolution

▪ If you have a PC, printer, and software, you can make a paper • Small dailies

○ Timeliness difference between small daily and weekly

▪ Often due to location

○ Reporters have good training

▪ Do a lot of different things every day

     , ,  ,      • Small dailies

○ Timeliness difference between small daily and weekly

▪ Often due to location

○ Reporters have good training

▪ Do a lot of different things every day

○ Costs higher

○ Advertising 50-50/65-35 preferred

○ New tech is used before others in the field

○ News sources about like weeklies

• Large dailies

○ Larger staffs

▪ Good place to be for many reporters

○ Found in…

▪ Isolated cities

□ Like Lubbock

□ Gives a wide circulation area

▪ Suburbs

○ News sources

▪ Full range

▪ Wire services (like AP)

○ Distribution

▪ Found in newsstands and delivered to homes

• Organization

○ Editorial conference

▪ Editors prepare budgets of what the important stories will be ○ Copy editors look over stories to check for proper writing style • Technology

○ VDT (video display terminal)

▪ Just a PC

○ Computerized offset printing

▪ Looks better than old forms of printing

○ Pagination

▪ Newspapers laid out on a grid on computer

• Convergence

○ Most newspapers online

○ News and information free

Most now require a subscription to access information beyond basic  

headlines

○ Classified advertising

○ Papers are hiring people to generate news ○ Cross-training

You don't just write for newspapers, but also for broadcast and  

online

 

○ Classified advertising

○ Papers are hiring people to generate news

○ Cross-training

You don't just write for newspapers, but also for broadcast and  

online

Minorities and Ethnic Press

• Minorities have generally been underrepresented in media • 12.79% minorities work in newspapers

• Freedom's Journal (1827) was the first black newspapers ○ Since then, 5539 black newspapers have come about

○ Only 400 left today

○ Only 11 w/ founding dates prior to 1900

• Hispanic Press

○ Fastest growing: $35mil now, 50 by 2060

○ 53% Hispanics say they're loyal to Spanish media

○ 43% loyal to those that advertise

○ Roots in Texas from the 1810s

• Native American Press

○ Undocumented history

○ 120 reservation newspapers

○ Authoritarian control

• Asian American Press

○ Fastest growing minority

○ Underrepresented in media

• In general…

○ Loss of readers

○ Difficulty in recruiting journalists

○ Difficulty in attracting advertising w/ dwindling numbers ○ Competition from radio and TV

▪ Especially in Hispanic population

□ They listen to radio more than any other demographic

• Jason Blair

○ Reporter for NYT for three years

○ 50% of stories he wrote were fraudulent

○ NYT had plenty of warning

○ NYT accused of not firing him for so long because he's black

Newspaper Video Notes

Friday, September  30, 2016 10:01 AM

• Two main areas of newspaper

○ Editorial: all non advertising content

○ Advertising

• Journalists write stories

• Editors oversee the journalist's text

○ Words, grammar, layout

• Newspaper sizes

○ Broadsheet: much larger

○ Tabloid: smaller in size

• Masthead: refers to name of paper on front-page

• Banner: the section label  (world news, sports, etc)

• Style guides dictate style of writing and layout of newspaper (like AP style) • 90% of pages are in color (at The Age newspaper)

○ Color used more in recent times than in past

• Layout gives newspaper its signature look

○ Most important stories go on the right hand side

• Style of writing often depends on the section the text is in ○ A column may have more leeway in writing style, than in news

Magazines

Monday, October 3, 2016 10:13 AM

• Role

○ To inform

○ To entertain

○ To influence

▪ Often because of more specialized magazines (like a golf magazine) ○ To interpret

• 27000 periodicals (600 general interest)

• Andrew Bradford (1741) started first magazine

• By 1830, 300 magazines

• National advertising develops

• 1880s mass circulations develop

• Muckraking  

○ Exposing the grit

• Mass circulation magazines develop like…  

○ New Yorker

○ Reader's Digest

○ National Geographic

○ Etc

• TV comes on the scene - lost ad revenue

○ So magazines lower prices

• Big magazines die

○ Changing tastes

○ Different marketing conditions

○ Loss of ads to TV and internet

• So began the emergence of specialized magazines and niche magazines • Magazine leaders

○ Ones with the largest circulations

▪ Modern Maturity - 22.7mil

□ Largest circulation magazine in country

▪ Better Homes and Gardens - 7.6mil

▪ Readers Digest - 4.5mil

▪ Game Informer - 7.6mil

▪ National Geographic - 4mil

▪ TV Guide

• Photojournalism magazines

     - . ▪ Readers Digest - 4.5mil

▪ Game Informer - 7.6mil

▪ National Geographic - 4mil

▪ TV Guide

• Photojournalism magazines

○ National Geographic - 4mil

○ People Magazine - 3.5mil

○ Smithsonian - 2mil

○ Ebony - 1.2mil

• News Magazines

○ Time - 3.2mil

○ Newsweek - 1.5mil

▪ Not really in print anymore

○ US News and World Report - 1.5mil ○ National Review - 110k

○ New Republic - 75 to 80k

• Business Magazines

○ Fortune - 857,431

○ Business Week - 980k

• Literary Quality

○ Emphasize fine arts, public affairs, politics ○ Harper's - 300k

○ Atlantic - 337k

○ New Yorker - 632k

○ New York - 400k

○ Esquire - 735k

• Women's Interest

○ Better Homes and Gardens

○ McCall's  

○ Good Housekeeping

○ Woman's Day

○ TV-Movie magazines

○ Age group categories

○ Supermarket categories

• Men's interest

○ Sports

▪ Sports Illustrated - 3mil

○ Sex

▪ Playboy - 1.2mil

○ Hobby

• Others

○ Religious - 1300

○ Geography  

○ Sex

▪ Playboy - 1.2mil

○ Hobby

• Others

○ Religious - 1300

○ Geography  

○ Gender/ethnic/age

○ Lifestyles/occupation/hobby

○ Socioeconomic background

○ Application/ideology

○ Alumni magazines

○ Research magazines

○ Sunday supplement

○ Company publications

○ Retail store magazines

• Marketing

○ Revenue: subscriptions and circulation and advertising ▪ Publishers want subscribers

□ Will actually lose money just to gain subscriptions □ So they can brag to advertisers

▪ Today…

□ 52% subs

□ Advertising 48%

○ General magazines had to change

▪ Helen G Brown and Cosmopolitan

Signed agreement w/ Burt Reynolds to appear nude in the  magazine

Done in an effort to bring attention and sales to the  

magazine

◆ Saved the newspaper

○ New magazines emerge each year - 250 to 350

▪ Only one in ten will be successful

○ Hugh Hefner and Playboy

▪ Hefner made Playboy after leaving Esquire

▪ Included a foldout of Marilyn Monroe

□ Kept doing these and the rest is history

○ Newsstand sales v. subscriptions

▪ A newsstand sale will be more likely to be read

▪ Subscription sales may or may not be read

○ The cover

▪ Vital to sales at newsstand

▪ Need quality paper stock for graphics and color

○ Mass circulation magazines use split run editions using regional printing ▪ To allow for secialized local advertisin in national ublications

▪ Subscription sales may or may not be read

○ The cover

▪ Vital to sales at newsstand

▪ Need quality paper stock for graphics and color

○ Mass circulation magazines use split run editions using regional printing ▪ To allow for specialized local advertising in national publications ○ Most publishers don't own their own printing plants anymore • Content of all magazines..

○ 75% nonfiction

○ Small staffs

○ Most issues planned far in advance

○ Staff organization

▪ Editor in chief

▪ Managing editor

▪ Department editors

▪ Art and photography leads

○ The editorial  conference

▪ Decide exactly what will go into the magazine

□ The formula

□ Editorial material

□ Artwork and photography

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