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Nutrition Exam 2 Study Guide- Ch. 4 - 6

by: Mashel Jones

Nutrition Exam 2 Study Guide- Ch. 4 - 6 NUTR 100

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Nutrition > NUTR 100 > Nutrition Exam 2 Study Guide Ch 4 6
Mashel Jones
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Contains everything that will be on exam 2. The most important information is highlighted.
Introductory Nutrition
Lee Murphy
Study Guide
nutrition, carbohydrated, Lipids, Proteins
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mashel Jones on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 100 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Lee Murphy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Nutrition at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4  Carbohydrates­ our most important energy source, in grains, fruits, dairy (milk and  yogurt), starchy vegetables, and sweets o Provides 4 kcal per gram  Glycogen­ short term storage form of glucose in humans o Synthesized and stored in the liver and muscles  Monosaccharides­ simple sugar units o Glucose­ 6 carbon, in table sugar (bonded to fructose), also known as dextrose, in  blood stream called blood sugar, source of fuel for cells o Fructose (fruit sugar)­ component of disaccharide sucrose; in fruit, honey, and  high fructose corn syrup; converted into glucose in the liver o Galactose­ component of lactose, converted to glucose in the liver  Disaccharides­ class of sugars formed by chemical bonding of 2 monosaccharides,  “simple sugars” o Sucrose = glucose + fructose  Sugar o Lactose = glucose + galactose  Milk products o Maltose = glucose + glucose  Fermentation, alcohol production  Polysaccharides­ complex carbs; starch and glycogen, carbs containing many glucose  units (from 10 to 1000 or more) o Starch­ 3000 or more monosaccharides  Amylose­ digestible straight chain type of starch composed of glucose  units  Amylopectin­ digestible branched chain type of starch  Dietary Fiber­ indigestible starch, body can’t break the bonds, high intake  can decrease colon cancer  Insoluble (non­fermentable) Fiber­ cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin; not fermented by the bacteria in the colon  Soluble (viscous) Fiber­ gum, pectin, mucilage; fruit , vegetable,  rice bran, psyllium seed, slows glucose absorption  Functional Fiber­ fiber added to food, provides health benefits o Prebiotics­ stimulate growth or activity of beneficial  bacteria in the large intestine, Oligosaccharides o Glycogen­ highly branched polysaccharide, stored form of carbs for animals and  humans, more sites of enzyme action  Carbs in Food o Grains­ 15 grams per serving   Whole grains­ Dietary Guidelines recommend we consume at least half of  all grains as whole grains o Vegetables­ 5 grams per serving  Valuable source of starch and fiber, usually rich in vitamins and minerals,  naturally low in fat and calories; fiber in vegetables may reduce risk of  heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes o Fruits­ 18 grams per serving  Provide carbs primarily in form of natural sugar and fiber, juices contain  little fiber, choose whole or cut u over fruit juices o Dairy­ 12 grams per serving  Provide carbs in form of lactose, choose no or low fat options o Protein­ 4 to 10 grams per serving  Nutritive Sweeteners­ provide calories, monosaccharides and disaccharides,  recommendation of 8 tsp of sugar per day  High­ Fructose Corn Syrup­ 55% fructose, cornstarch mixed with acid and enzymes,  starch is broken down to glucose, some glucose is converted to fructose  Sugar Alcohols­ 2.6 kcals/gram, Sorbitol and Xylitol, excess consumption may have a  laxative effect  Alternative Sweeteners­ yield little or no calories determined by FDA and indicated by  Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) guideline o Saccharin­ Sweet ‘N Low, first produced in 1879, 180­ 200 times sweeter than  sucrose o Aspartame­ Equal and NutraSweet, 180­ 200 times sweeter than sucrose, 4  kcal/gram, warning label for Phenylketonuria (PKU), not heat stable o Sucralose­ Splenda, 600 times sweeter than sucrose, substitutes chlorines for  hydroxyl groups on sucrose, heat stable o Neotame­similar structure to Aspartame, not broken down in the body, 7000­  13000 times sweeter than sucrose, heat stable o Acesulfame­K­ Sunette, 200 times sweeter than sucrose, not digested in the body,  heat stable o Tagatose­ Naturlose, altered form of fructose, 1.5 kcals/gram, doesn’t increase  glucose level, fermented by large intestine o Stevia­ Sweet Leaf, 100­ 300 times sweeter than sucrose, provides no energy,  can’t be used as additive in food products o Luo han guo­ extract of the monk fruit, 150­ 300 times sweeter than sucrose o Advantame­ chemically similar to aspartame but much sweeter  Starch and Sugar Digestion­ enzymes made by mouth, pancreas, and small intestine  participates in the process of digestion o Salivary amylase­ breaks starch to shorter saccharides, prolonged chewing  Digestion of Carbs in Stomach­ acidic environment, no further starch digestion  Digestion of Carbs in the Small Intestine­ pancreas releases enzymes (pancreatic  amylase), absorptive cells release (maltase, sucrose, lactase), monosaccharides are  absorbed  Carb Digestion Enzymes o Amylase­ starch­ digestion, in saliva, made by pancreas o Maltase­ acts on maltose, made by absorptive cells of small intestine, digests to  two glucoses o Sucrose­ acts on sucrose, made by absorptive cells of small intestine, digests  sucrose to glucose and fructose o Lactase­ acts on lactose, made by absorptive cells of small intestine, digests  lactose to glucose and galactose  Lactose Maldigestion­ caused by reduction in lactase enzyme, severe causes are called  lactose intolerance o Primary Lactose Maldigestion­ lactase reduction for no reason, occurs when  overload system with dairy o Secondary­ reduction due to specific case, like diarrhea  Celiac Disease­ genetic disorder affecting carb digestion, damage to villi when gluten is  eaten, relation to GI Cancer  Carb Absorption o Glucose and Galactose­ generally flor active absorption process, requires specific  carrier and energy input o Fructose­ facilitated diffusion, carrier is used, no energy input needed o Liver metabolizes monosaccharides galactose and fructose into glucose  Path of Glucose­ portal vein to liver  Function of Carbs­ supplies energy, “Protein Sparing”, prevents Ketosis (inefficient  breakdown of fat)  Blood Glucose Control o Liver­ regulates glucose that enters bloodstream o Pancreas­ release of insulin, release of glucagon  Function of Insulin­ promotes glycogen synthesis, increase glucose uptake by cells, reduces gluconeogenesis, lowers blood glucose  Function of Glucagon­ breakdown glycogen, enhances gluconeogenesis,  raises blood glucose  Normal Fasting Blood Glucose Level­ 70 to 99 mg/dL  Regulating Blood Glucose­ lack of glucose control can produce 2 conditions o Hyperglycemia­ high glucose, above 125 mg/dL o Hypoglycemia­ low blood glucose, below 40 to 50 mg/dL  Reactive­ occurs 2 to 4 hours after eating a meal, possibly due to over­ secretion of insulin  Fasting­ leads to overproduction of insulin  Hemorrhoids­ pronounced swelling of a large vein (usually in anal region), often caused  by excessive straining during bowel movement  Cholesterol and Soluble Fiber­ bile acid absorption reduced, risk for cardiovascular  disease and gallstones reduced, insulin release decreased, blood cholesterol lowered  Fiber Needed: o 25 grams/day for women o 38 grams/day for men Chapter 5  Lipids­ diverse group of chemical compounds, don’t readily dissolve in water, 9  kcal/gram, should comprise 20% to 35% of an adult’s calorie intake o Triglycerides­ most common form of fats and oils, found in our body and foods,  composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol; saturated higher in animal fats,  unsaturated higher in plant foods, fats in foods are composed of both o Phospholipids­ built on a glycerol backbone, contains phosphorus compounds,  found in body, component of cell membranes  Functions­ emulsifier o Sterols (cholesterol)­ multi ringed structure, don’t have a glycerol backbone,  ONLY found in animal foods  Functions­ essential component of cell membrane, produced by the liver,  forms important hormones (estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D), precursor  to bile acids  Fats (solid) and oils (liquid)­ 9 kcal/gram o Saturated Fatty Acid Structure­ single carbon bond o Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Structure­ #1 double bond o Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Structure­ #2 double bonds or more  Essential Fatty Acids­ provides energy, efficient storage of energy, insulates and protects  the body, transport fat­soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K o Omega 3 fatty acid (alpha­linolenic acid)­ in nuts, seeds, fish oil, and flax seed  oil; recommended intake of 2 servings of fish per week; 1  double bond is located rd on the 3  carbon from the omega end  DHA, EPA­ decrease blood clotting, reduce heart attack, decrease  inflammation, excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke o Omega 6 fatty acid (linoleic acid)­ found in vegetable oils; need 2 to 4 tbsp. a day; 1  double bond is located on the 6  carbon from the omega end  Archidonic Acid­ increase blood clotting, increase inflammatory responses  Sources of Fat o Grains­ 0 to 18 grams per serving o Vegetables­ 0 to 27 grams per serving o Fruits­ 0 to 11 grams per serving o Dairy­ 0 to 10 grams per serving o Protein­ 7 to 17 grams per serving  Fat in Food­ provides satiety (feeling of fullness), flavor, and texture  Fat Rancidity­ when a fat goes bad, contains products of decomposed oils,  polyunsaturated fatty acid more susceptible o Prevention­ hydrogenation (forcing hydrogen in a liquid), addition of vitamin E,  addition of Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) and Butylated hydroxytolune (BHT)  Hydrogenation of Fatty Acids­ process to solidify an oil, formation of trans fatty acid  Fat Digestion o Lipase enzyme­ fat digesting enzyme produced by salivary glands, stomach, and  pancreas; acts on triglycerides containing short and medium chain fatty acids o In Small Intestine­ primary site of fat digestion, hormone cholecystokinin (CCK),  bile acid released, fat is broken down o Phospholipids­ enzymes released from pancreas and from cells of small intestine,  broken down to glycerol, fatty acids, and remaining parts o Cholesterol­ enzymes released from pancreas, cholesterol in absorbed o 95% of dietary fat is absorbed, diffused into the absorptive cells  Short and medium chain fatty acids­ water soluble, enter the portal system  Long chain fatty acids­ reform into triglycerides, not water soluble, enter  the lymphatic system  Dietary fats are carried by Chylomicrons­ fatty acids reformed into triglycerides,  packaged into chylomicrons, lipoprotein lipase breaks down triglycerides in the  chylomicron, chylomicron remnant delivered to the liver  High­Density Lipoprotein (HDL)­ good, primary component is protein, synthesized by  liver and intestine, picks up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources, transfers  cholesterol to other lipoproteins, transfers cholesterol directly back to the liver o Benefits­ removes cholesterol from the bloodstream, reduces risk of  cardiovascular disease  Low­Density Lipoprotein (LDL)­ bad, primary component is cholesterol carries  cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells  Recommended Fat Intake­ 20% to 35% of calories, fat intake can be higher as long as  saturated and trans fatty acid are minimal  Cardiovascular Disease­ leading cause of death in North America o Myocardial infarction­ death of part of heart muscle (heart attack) o Cerebrovascular accident­ death of part of brain tissue due to a blood clot (stroke) o Development: plaque­ cholesterol rich substance deposited in blood vessels o Risk Factors: total blood cholesterol greater than 200 mg/dL, smoking,  hypertension (greater than 139/89), diabetes, low HDL, family history, blood  triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dL, obesity, inactivity   Healthy Blood Cholesterol = at or below 200 mg/dL  Healthy Blood Pressure = at or below 120/80 Chapter 6  Protein­ 4 kcal/gram, only macronutrient with nitrogen; contains carbon, hydrogen, and  oxygen; regulates and maintains body functions, provides essential form of nitrogen in  the form of amino acids o Functions­ building blocks of body components, fluid balance maintenance, acid/  base balance, forming glucose, energy yielding, contributing to satiety o 20 different amino acids make up all proteins o 9 essential amino acids­ can’t be synthesized by humans in sufficient amounts or  at all o 11 nonessential amino acids  Peptide Bonds­ proteins linked together by chemical bonds  Denaturation­ alteration of a protein’s 3 dimensional structure because of treatment by  heat, enzymes, acid, alkaline solutions, and agitation  Protein in Foods­ beef, poultry, milk, white bread, and cheese o Grains­ 2 to 3 grams per serving o Vegetables­ 2 to 3 grams per serving o Fruits­ less than 1 gram per serving o Dairy­ 8 to 10 grams per serving o Protein­ 7 grams per serving o Plant proteins in grains are low in 1 or more essential amino acids o Animal protein contains all 9 essential amino acids  Dietary Protein­ high quality (complete) proteins, lower quality (incomplete) proteins o Complementary Proteins­ 2 food protein sources that make up for each other’s  inadequate supply of specific essential amino acids, provide high quality protein  for the diet o Limiting Amino Acids  Digestion o Denatured­ by cooking and acid in the stomach o Hormone Gastrin­ thinking of and chewing food cause release into stomach,  stimulates the release of acid and pepsin o Pepsin­ enzyme produced by the stomach, breaks polypeptide into shorter chains  of amino acids o In Small Intestine­ release of CCK, pancreatic enzymes, peptides into amino  acids, small peptides and amino acids ready for absorption  Absorption­ in microvilli surface and within absorptive cells lining small intestine, active  absorption, amino acids are sent to the liver via portal vein  Protein Needs­ promotes protein equilibrium, estimated at .8 grams of protein per kg of  healthy body weight  Protein­Energy Malnutrition o Marasmus­ starvation and insufficient protein and calories o Kwashiorkor­ marginal amount of calories and insufficient protein


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