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ECOL 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Carina Sauter

ECOL 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Ecology 1000

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Ecology > Ecology 1000 > ECOL 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide
Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

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This comprehensive study guide defines all terms covered thus far for the next exam. All energy resources are explained regarding formation, advantages, and disadvantages. Best of luck on this ex...
Introduction to Environmental Issues
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ecology 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Connelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Issues in Ecology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
ECOL 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Terms: 1. Ozone • (trioxygen) molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen • ozone in lower atmosphere (troposphere)is a pollutant causing respiratory problems • ozone in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) is beneficial as a buffer – blocks radiation 2. CFC • Invention of chlorofluorocarbons in the 20’s as a safer alternative to the sulfer dioxide and ammonia refrigerants used at the time • Coolants in refrigeration systems, air conditions, solvents to clean electronic components, blowing agents in the production of Styrofoam, aerosol cans • CFC’s escape from leaking/disposed objects and escape into the atmosphere • (mostly a first world problem) • Because CFC’s are extremely light, they float into the stratosphere and react with ozone molecules à binds with free oxygen and UV breaks through • Ozone layer has been depleted • Potential effects of UV light: cataracts causing blurred vision and blindness; skin cancer; reduced immune system; interference with photosynthesis; radiation affects the growth of phytoplankton 3. Smog • Power plants and tail pipe emissions • Many cities (Atlanta, Beijing, NYC) • Smog dies down at night when no one is working/driving • Measurable and clear evidence 4. Forms of hydrocarbons • Crude oil (liquid fossil fuel) • Natural gas (gas fossil fuel) • Coal (solid fossil fuel) 5. Oil • Formation: • Photosynthesizing oceans (takes millions of years) • Dead marine organic matter sinks • Sediments bury organic matter full of energy • Needs pressure, heat and time to become oil • Costs: • Varying costs of extraction • $2/barrel in the Middle East • $15/barrel in the US • deeper, more expensive labor • Advantages • Disadvantages 6. Peak global production • When we hit half of all available oil resources 7. Hubbert Curve • 1950’s: M. King Hubbert said that oil exploitation in the US would follow a bell- shaped curve • predicted peak production in the US would be 1970 • ~1970: US hit peak production 8. OPEC • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries • Group of 14 nations which collaboratively are largely responsible for global oil prices • Mostly countries whose economies depend on oil production • Agreed on rules and set collaborate prices • Formed in Baghdad, Iraq in September 1960 • 1970 – OPEC restrained production in order to get higher prices: supply went down, demand and prices went up • Oil Embargo • Cut production to 5% per month • Political: banned exports to the US because we had strong allies with their enemies • Effects: • License plate restrictions • Lines around the block • Pumps closed on Sundays • Pumps completelyshut down • Plans for the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline • Strategic Petroleum Reserve created in 1975 • Department of Energy – 1977 • National speed limit of 55 mph • Cars were to average 27.5 mph by 1985 9. Great Pacific Garbage Patch • Estimated 3.5 million tons • Caught in gyres and concentrated • Sunlight and salt water reduce particle size • Does not biodegrate • Ecological effects: • Amount of plastics in ocean increasing • Entering food webs • Ocean birds ingest plastic – feed to young à starvation 10. Extensions • Our national oil demand is as high, but world demand is rapidly increasing • Ex. Beijing, once reliant on bicycles and walking, has turned into a major city wither over 170 million private cars 11. Sand Strip Mines • Oil trapped in solid form processed for energy • Dig a pit and take rock out • Hauled by heated dump trucks • Wash it with water and solvent • Cook bitumen to 900°F • Used waste dumped into tailing ponds • Canada makes up 60-70% of and mining • Extremely impractical 12. Deepwater Oil Drilling • Huge risk to spills • Have barges over oil reserves on the ocean floor 13. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill • Gulf of Mexico – flowed for three months in 2010 and may be still seeping into the ocean • Largest marine oil spill in history • Explosion killed 11 men working on the platform in April • The well was capped in July, after 4.9 milllion barrels of crude oil were released into the ocean • Harsh effects on sea life still 14. Coal • Formation • Peat à lignite à bitumen à anthracite • Needs time, pressure and heat • Advantages • Jobs • Relatively easy to produce • Easy to find • Cheap resource • Disadvantages • Greenhouse gasses • Acid rain • Acid mine (rock) drainage • particulates 15. Acid Rain • Any form of precipitation that is unusually acidic • Harmful effects on organisms and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition • Caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids • Concentrated near coal mines 16. Acid Mine Drainage • Outflow of acidic water from mines 17. Particulates • Air pollution 18. Natural Gas • Formation - fracking • Advantages • Readily available • Less harmful than coal or oil • Burns cleanly • Cheap to get • Disadvantages • Fracking allows toxic chemicals and methane gas to seep into drinking water • Radioactive radium 226 in gas development waste 19. Fracking • Hydraulic fracture is formed by pumping the fracturing fluid into the wellbore at a pressure that exceeds the strength of the rock • The rock cracks and the fracture fluid continues further into the rock, extending the crack still further, etc. • Natural gas flows into the pipe and is collected 20. Marcellus Formation • Marine sedimentary rock found in eastern north America • Shale contains largely untapped natural gas reserves • Enough natural gas to supply all the US gas needs for 14 years 21. Nuclear Energy • Formation: • Decay of uranium isotop 235 • Split nuclearus of Uranium by slamming another into it • Releases neutrons • Generates heat • Chain reaction • Very controlled reactions – if it weren’t controlled: nuclear weapon • France is the leading international power • Advantages • Low cost after production of plants • No CO2 other than the production of plants • Current plants being produced in Georgia • Jobs • Less reliance on foreign resources • Cheaper than most resources • Disadvantages • Disturbed landscape • Acidified run off • Heat alteration of streams and lakes because of heat produced 22. Safe disposal/ storage of spent fuel • Store it underground in concrete blocks • Keep it at the facility in barrels • Recycle and use again • Create geologic nuclear repository 23. Chernobyl • Ukraine 1986 • Explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into atmosphere • > 30 people died immediately • power output surge occurred during a systems test – spike in power lead to reactor vessel to rupture and a series of explosions – fire sent a plum of highly radioactive smoke into the atmosphere and over a huge area • nearly 400,000 people were evacuated in the next 15 years • still affecting thousands of people and causing cancer today and for the next 100 years • hurt environment as well: “Red Forrest” • radioactive contamination of water 24. Fukushima • Japan 2011 • Series of equipment failures, radioactive meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials • Sea water contamination of cesium 137 along Japan’s coast • 573 disaster related deaths 25. Biomass fuels • bioenergy: energy contained in firewood and other plant mater derived from solar energy • traditional fuels: wood, charcoal, animal dung • when burned, biomass does not increase the net amount of CO2 in the air because it is taking the CO2 from the air • Advantages • Does not add CO2 to the atmosphere that wasn’t already there • Disadvantages 26. Corn fuels • Advantages • Great source of energy when you burn it • Disadvantages • Why waste food for our cars and machinery • Needs land and fertilizer 27. Kudzu fuels • Weedy, fast growing plant originally used to stop roadside erosion that we can now turn into Kudzunol for fuel • Advantages • Gets rid of this epidemic of a weed • Disadvantages • Takes a lot of work for not that much fuel 28. Switchgrass fuels • Advantages • Native to US • No CO2 • Needs little fertilizer/water • Comes back every year • Disadvantages • Not produce don a large scale – slow • No government subsidy available • Enzymes are expensive – chemicals that help to break it down 29. Algae fuels • Advantages • Forms on any sitting water (oceans, lakes, etc) • Helps to absorb CO2 – place near power plants • Disadvantages • Not incredibly self-sufficient – constant upkeep 30. Biofuel Advantages • Can recycle sewage as fertilizer • Carbon neutral – not pumping more CO2 into atmosphere (no additional from burning fuel) • Lower NOx and Sox • Abundant • Widely distributed in world • Domestic 31. Biofuel Disadvantages • Is it really carbon neutral? • Observe from cradle to grave • Are you suing energy to produce it before you burn it? • Costs • transportation, processing, fertilizers, water, etc. • Net gain is not much • No single biofuel is appropriate everywhere 32. Wind power • Windmill à wind turbine • Blake works like an airplane wing and turns a generator using gears to produce energy • Uneven heating on earth makes cool air move to warmer air à winds from high to low pressure • Potential: high altitude, deserts near mountains, prairies, oceans • Denmark = work power of wind energy • 20% of nations power with a goal of 50% by 2030 • Advantages • No fuel needed – no drilling, waste, etc – very clean • No pollutants released • Domestic energy source • Not subject to disruptions of single energy plants – if one breaks, the other 19 still work • Disadvantages • Bird/bad deaths from migration – follow the easiest path of wind • Aesthetics • Intermittent wind – not very predictable • Windy areas usually not near urban areas where we need energy 33. Hydropower • Capturing the energy of water moving under the force of gravity • Advantages • Fossil fuel no needed • No pollutants emitted • Energy cheap to produce • Power produced can be matched to demand • Dams also used for flood control • Water retention (recreation and water supply) • Disadvantages • Effect on environment and human communities (Three Gorges Dam) • Ecosystem alternation and flow changes • Peak flows no longer seasonal • Sediment accumulation and transport altered • Temperature and oxygen in stream changed • Natural disaster/ flood risk 34. Impoundment plants • Ex. Buford Dam and Lake Lanier • Build walls, dams and reservoirs 35. Run-of-river plants • No walls, less costly, less ecologically disruptive BUT dependent on sustained and predictable flow • Insert steel pipe from natural water sources to hydroelectric plants 36. Solar power • Solar powered plane • Advantages • Free/ renewable • No emissions • Roof installations/space options • Jobs and increasing resource • Disadvantages • High startup costs • High cost of electricity • Daylight requirements • Geographical limitations • Hazardous materials used in construction 37. Photovoltaic PV Cell • Sandwich of materials collecting sun, allowing electrons to jump around and produce electricity 38. CSP Systems • Concentrating solar power • Focus sunlight into water pipes, producing steam that is used to turn generator turbines 39. Solar Race Cars • Competitive races of electric vehicles which are powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the surface of the car • The first solar car race was the Tour de Sol in 1985 which led to several similar races in Europe, the US, and Australia • Often entered by universities to develop their student’s engineering and technological skills; many business corporations have entered competitions as well 40. Geothermal Electricity • Heat energy generated and stored in the earth – energy not originating from the sun • In a dry-steam power plant, underground hot water and steam are used to generate electricity • Leading superpower = Iceland • Advantages • Reliable and inexpensive • Pollution free • GSHP uses 30-70% less energy than conventional methods • Disadvantages • Ecosystem disturbance • Replenishment rates of ground heat – we can’t use it too fast or it won’t be sustainable • High startup costs • Geographic limitations 41. Ground Source Heat Pumps • Heating and cooling • Take advantage of the stable temperatures below the surface of the earth • Hard to do on non-permeable surfaces (like bedrock in GA) 42. Ocean Energy • Uses kinetic energy of tides and waves • Advantages • Renewable and pollution free • Low cost of production • reliable • Disadvantages • Ecosystem disturbances • Tidal barrage systems need high tide amplitude • Geographic limitations 43. Onshore Wave Energy • Waves entering the lower chamber of the system drive a stream of air past a generator turbine 44. Tidal barrage • Each day, the tide rises 40 feet at the barrage in La Rance, France • The turbines spin and generate electricity as water moves in and out of the bay 45. Tidal turbine • Once fully operational, tidal turbines on the coast of norther Ireland will generate 1.2 megawatts of renewable energy to the equivalent of 1,000 homes 46. Buoys • Bounce on the water’s surface as water and air move through them to power generators


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