Psychology 100 Exam 2
Psychology 100 Exam 2 PSYCH 100
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Pooja Patel on Wednesday April 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Jeff Love in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 318 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/15
EXAM 2 NOTES Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception Sensation activation of receptors in various sense organs Perception method by which sensations are organized and interpreted Difference Thresholds Subliminal Stimuli stimuli just below level of conscious awareness 0 Where it started Vicary s Experiment 0 Primarily found to be visual when supported 0 Absolute threshold least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of time 0 Vision seeing a candle 30 miles away 0 Hearing a watch at 20 feet 0 Touch example SVT testing symptom validity test 0 Just Noticeable Difference JWD smallest different in stimulus that can be detected 50 of the time Weber s Law always a constant change 0 Habituation the brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli cognitive Sensory Adaptation sensory receptors become less responsive with time when exposed to constant stimuli biological Perceiving Sensory Stimuli Paying Attention Selective Attention focusing on speci c aspects and ignoring others inattentive bias or change blindness 0 When we are looking at the world around us how much are we really seeing Stroop Task amp Inhibition cognitive exibility or shifting attention Structure of the Eye The Back Retina Back if the eye where light is focused Contains 3 layers 0 Photo receptor layer rods and cones o Bipolar cells 0 Ganglier cells axons 0 Blind spot exists at the optic nerve Closer Look at the Retina Rods vs Cones 0 Number there are more rods than cones 0 Location rods are in the peripheral while cones are more centrally located 0 Function rods are made for scotopic night vision cones are for photopic day vision 0 Function differences in acuity and color vision better with cones o Mythbusters the pirate eye patch helps them see in the dark Visual Information Processing Parallel Processing 0 Ventral Stream contains a ow of visual information about what we re looking at in our visual eld 0 Dorsal Stream contains a ow of visual information about where it is located Theories of Color Vision Basic Properties of Light 0 Brightness amplitude 0 Dim light 0 Bright light 0 Color wavelength 0 Distance between peaks 0 Red waves of light longer 0 Blue waves of light closer together faster Processing Color Vision Subtractive Coloring removing wavelengths of light being re ected such as when you mix colored paints o Additive Coloring increasing wavelengths of light being re ected from the surface with mixing colored lights 0 Young and Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory 0 They found when you mix colors they could replicate any color they wanted 0 There must be something biologically in our visual system that is really sensitive to the three colors red green and blue 0 Color vision is based on three photo pigmentsZ red green and blue 0 Describes processing at the retina level but not cortical 0 Karl Hering s opponent processing theory 0 Colors arranged in speci c antagonistic pairs Explains central processing Chapter 4 Sleep and Dreaming Sleep Deprivation 0 Peter Tripp stayed awake for 201 hours in 1959 0 Was unable to go to bathroom by self documented body temperature hallucinations after he slept the whole day the event changed his personality 0 Randy Gardner 1965 stayed awake for 11 days 0 Day 2 unable to keep eyes open for extended amount of time 0 Day 3 moodiness slurred speech 0 Day 4 anger misperceptions hallucinations memory lapses 0 Day 9 unable to form sentences eyes independently drifted attention span short 0 No long term effect 0 Fatal Familial Insomnia disruption in protein production that hits in the 505 people start having trouble falling asleep which evolves to total insomnia 0 Most die within a year Why We Sleep 0 Preservation Adaptive Theory 0 Preservation and Protection animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators o Maturation Theory 0 Development approach 0 When you get older you usually need less sleep to feel fully rested Other Theories o Restorative Theory sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage 0 Memory Storage Theory allows us time to consolidate and organize our memories Sleep Rhythms Circadian Rhythm 24 hour bodily rhythm 8 hours of sleep and 16 hours of being awake Zeitgebers cues to help entrain our rhythm o Daylight sounds noise levels temperature 0 Free Running Cycle without the presence of any zeitgebers Suprachiasmatic Nucleus internal clock tells people wake upfall asleep How We Measure Sleep 0 Measuring Sleep Activity 0 EMG muscle tension 0 EEG brain waves 0 Stages of Sleep PreSleep 0 Beta waves smallerfaster person is wide awake and mentally active 0 Alpha waves largerslower person is relaxed or lightly sleeping Stages of Sleep NonREM 0 N1 Stage 1 theta waves light sleep lasting roughly 1015 minutes 0 N2 Stage 2 temperature breathing and heart rate decrease sleep spindle and K complex 0 N3 Stages 3 and 4 delta waves deepest points of sleep with delta waves present 0 Sleep is BATD beta alpha theta delta 0 Stages of Sleep REM 0 REM Rapid Eye Movement active stage when dreaming occurs 0 EEG patterns resembles a wakeful state paradoxical sleep Sleep Disorders 0 Two Main Categories 0 Dysomnias difficulty with initating or obtaining o Parasonmias Dysomnias Insomnia difficulties with initiating andor maintain sleep 0 May be caused by a number of factors from anxiety to behavioral patterns 0 Treatments is based on cause but drug treatments are usually GABA agonists Sleep Apnea intermittent periods of suffocation during sleep leading to continual interruptions of deep sleep 0 Nighttime and daytime symptoms Nighttime snoring Daytime in the morning headaches cutting off blood ow overtime in night fall asleep during day on the couch not meaning to 0 Treatment can include change in diet surgery or use of CPAP Diet lose weight tend to be overweight Surgery removing excessive tissue CPAP mask you wear at night pumping air in to keep airway open 0 Can be hereditary Narcolepsy excessive daytime sleepiness that leads to strong uncontrollable urges to take brief naps 0 General symptoms also include cataplexy hallucinations and sleep paralysis o Narcoleptics also struggle with getting a restful night of sleep 0 Cause is not known but possibly genetic in some cases 0 Treatments generally include stimulants Parasomnias o Nightmares vs Night Terrors 0 Night Terrors 0 Within four hours of bedtime 0 When waking disorientated confused 0 Response to caregivers unaware of presence not consolable 0 Memory of events none unless fully awakened 0 Return to sleep usually rapid unless fully awakened 0 Sleep stage during which event occurs partial arousal from deep NREM SWS sleep Nightmares 0 Late in sleep cycle When waking upset scared Response to caregivers comforted Memory of events vivid recall of dream Return to sleep often delayed by fear 0 Sleep state during which event occurs REM sleep 0 Sleep Talking light stages of sleep earlier 0 Exception Dion McGregor sleep talked during REM sleep Narrated dreams as he was going through them 0 Sleep Walking somnambulism 0 Generally occurs during deeper stages of sleep 0 Also appears to be developmentally linked REM Behavior Disorder 0 Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep leads the person to act out their dreams 0 More common in old age 0 Treatment includes GABA agonists Why We Dream Psychoanalytic Approach dreams are a mechanism for wish OOOO ful llment o Manifest content re ects the dream itself and what happens 0 Latent content underlying true meaning of the dream EX Teeth falling but means fear of losing power Aspects of Dreaming Other Theories 0 Cognitive Theory dreams can be used to analyze and potentially solve problems 0 Activation Information Mode Model dreams are relatively random but tend to involve daytime experiences Chapter 5 Conditioning Classical Conditioning De nition a type of learning where an organism comes to create associations between multiple stimuli o EX a scary movie Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through his study of salivary re exes with dogs Terms 0 Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that elicits an automatic re exive response in the absence of learning 0 Unconditioned Response a re exive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning 0 Conditioned Stimulus an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned Response a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus Principles of Classical Conditioning Generalization a new stimulus resembling the original elicits a response similar to the conditioned response Extinction weaking of the relationship between the conditioned response and the conditioned stimulus by continual presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone 0 Hard to keep contained Spontaneous Recovery conditioned response recurring after a time delay Higher order conditioning a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus Classical Conditioning Applied Conditioning Fear John Watson s experiment on 11 month old quotLittle Albertquot 0 Each time he reached for the rat Watson made a loud clanging noise right behind Albert 0 Little Albert s fear generalized to just about anything white and furry Conditioned Taste Aversion when an organism becomes nauseated sometime after eating a certain food which ten becomes aversive to the organism 0 Original Study John Garcia and his radiated rats Exposed to radiation whenever drinking sweetened water No longer wanted it after getting nauseous every time Learned Helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures 0 Classic Study play tone shock dog dog learns that tone means a shock is coming 0 RealLife Applications someone tries multiple ways to get out of depression eventually gives up on other coping strategies because they feel like nothing will work Someone feels like they suck at relationships steers away from other person because they feel like it won t work Operant Conditioning Thorndike o Operant conditioning changes in voluntary behavior based on experienced consequences 0 Thorndike s Law ofEffect responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated If you do something and the consequence is good you re probably going to do it again Cat learned if it took certain steps it got food Practices Taste Aversion You go out to eat at your favorite Mexican restaurant and have a big Mexican breakfast Within 6 hours of leaving you are violently ill and appear to have some type of food poisoning After that you cannot even imagine eating Mexican food again Six months later your stomach still turns when you think of going to eat at that restaurant 0 Unconditioned Stimulus Essentially bacteria Advertising McDonald s displays delicious food and hopes people like you and me will automatically feel hungry and salivate when we see their hold arches insignia o Unconditioned Stimulus food Unconditioned Response feeling hungrysalivation Conditioned Stimulus golden arches Conditioned Response feeling hungryarches Conditioned response is to hope that by seeing their golden arches you ll feel hungry Storms When thunderstorms occur the lightning comes before the thunder Since thunder can be quite loud and frightening we jump when the thunder booms Eventually when we learned that lightning predicts the thunder we become tense when we see the lightning o Unconditioned Stimulus Thunder 0 Response jump startled response 0 o 0000 Conditioned Stimulus lightning Response tensing up 0 Therapy Prescribe a drug to alcoholics when on this drug you ll become nauseous and sick whenever you drink an alcoholic beverage at this point even thinking about alcohol makes their stomach turn and feel unsettled o Unconditioned Stimulus the drug 0 Response sickness and nauseous o Conditioned Stimulus alcohol 0 Response stomach turn and feel unsettled Operant Conditioning Skinner o The Skinner Box a controlled environment for training Reinforcement whatever we did in response leads to an increased likelihood of that behavior happening again Punishment leads to a decrease in likelihood of seeing that behavior 0 Positive Reinforcement addition of pleasurable stimulus to increase the behavior 0 Studying and get good grade increases likelihood that you ll study again 0 Negative Reinforcement removal escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus to increase the behavior 0 Binging noise until you fasten your seatbelt l fasten seatbelt more 0 Positive Punishment if you engage in the behavior you ll receive something you don t like l decreases bad behavior 0 Addition of unpleasant stimulus to decrease the behavior o If you re studying and someone calls you a nerd decrease likelihood of studying Negative Punishment removal of pleasurable stimulus to decrease the behavior 0 Taking away something enjoyable grounding a kid and taking away their video games Operant Conditioning Schedules Fixed ratio same number of desired responses required 0 After a set number of engaging in a certain behavior you get a reward Variable ratio number of responses required varies for each event 0 Rat presses bar 3 times and gets a pellet next time 8 times and gets a pellet 0 Gambling 0 Fixed interval always same time before reinforcement opportunity 0 Always have to wait 5 minutes before pellet received 0 Variable interval reinforcement possibilities after varying amounts of time Observational Learning Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 0 Two Conditions Group 1 viewed aggressive model interacting with the Bobo doll Group 2 viewed nonaggressive model playing with toys in the room Results Latent Learning learning isn t always the same as performance 0 Tolman s study on rats and maze learning Chapter 6 Memory Nature of Memory 0 Encoding converting environmental and mental stimuli into memorable brain codes 0 Turning something we understand into action potential 0 Storage quotHolding onquot to encoded information o Retrieval pulling information from storage AtkinsonShiffrin Model 0 1 Sensory memory hold information in its original form only for an instant 0 Capacity Sperling s experiment suggested a capacity of 9 12 items 0 Duration is very brief with most gone in less than 1 second 0 2 Short Term Memory memory system in which info is held for brief periods of time while being used 0 Capacity the digit span test suggests the average capacity is between 59 items 0 Duration only lasts at best for 30 seconds 0 Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information o Chunking grouping units into higher order units that can be remembered Levelsofprocessing model assumes information that is more quotdeeply processedquot or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time o In the experiment we remembered more of the words when asked to rate its pleasantness rather than when asked how many letters were in the word 0 Shallow what does it look like Deep what does it mean 0 3 Long Term Memory permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time 0 Storage and duration are thought to be unlimited 73pes of Memories Declarative memory explicit conscious recollection of information such as speci c facts or events 0 Very easy to verbally explain 0 Semantic memory involves general knowledge Ex knowing capitals of cities or presidents major events etc Game shows ask questions based on semantic memory 0 Episodic memory retention of autobiographical information Personal memories 0 Nondeclarative memory implicit behavior is affected by prior experience without that experience being consciously recollected remembered 0 Procedural memory memory for skills that often don t require direct attention and continual conscious awareness to learn and improve 0 Incidental memory memorizing something because it repeats a lot to us Nike not because we actually sit there and try to memorize Priming a type of incidental learning where exposure to events that in uence future behavioral emotional andor cognitive responses which are generally unintentional
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