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soci 101 study guide ch 1-3

by: lex

soci 101 study guide ch 1-3 soci 101

Cal State Fullerton

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ch 1-3
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by lex on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soci 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by jessica coronel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
CH 1 UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY why study sociology • Knowledgeà better decisions • Create preventative measures (like taking birth control etc) • It happens often • Interesting • Learn about the “normal” by learning about the “odd” Sociology • Scientific study of social behavior and human groups • Different societies= different customs • Focuses: o How relationships= influence ppl’s attitudes and behavior § Society= helps mold a person o How society develops and changes overtime • In attempt to understand social behaviors, socialists rely on unique types of creative thinking • C. Wright Mills= describe such thinkings as the sociological imagination Sociological imagination- C wright mills • Awareness of the relation between an indiv and the wider society • Ability to view society as an outsider would • Looks beyond limited understanding of human behavior • Personal issuesà social issues Sociology and the social sciences • Science= body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation • Natural science= study physical features of nature and how they interact and change o Chem, bio, geology, physics • Social science= study social features of humans and how they interact and change o Anthro, psych, political science, economics Why study the influence society has on people’s attitude and behavior • Seek to understand ways people interact and shape society • Examine social relations scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recession impact on education Early thinkers Augute Conte = father of sociology • Systematic investigation of behavior • Coined term “sociology” Harriet Martineau • Study social behavior in Britain and US • Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems (want to bring awareness) • Translated lots of comte’s work into English/ helped get his work out Herbert Spencer • Studied evolutionary change in society (look @ change overtime) Emile Durheim • Did not limit interests to 1 aspect • Behavior must be understood within the larger social context • Developed fundamental theses to help explain all forms of society • Religion and SUICIDE • “anomic” = loss of direction felt in a society when social control of indiv behavior becomes ineffective o total institutions (jails, military etc) à no control over what you’re doing o can be when you try to transition from total institution back into societyà have a hard time fitting in bc you’re use to being told what to do Max Weber • understand behaviorà learn the subjective meaning ppl attach to actions • understand what it means to them and why they did what they did • diff things= diff meaning to diff people • verstenen= understanding, insight • ideal type: construct for evaluating specific cases (like a model/ outline) objective= quantative= #’s, proven facts/ data- grounded/ no change subjective= qualitative= opinion based, can change (emotions, values, myths, etc) Karl Marx • society divided into classes that class in pursuit of different interests (owners vs working class) • worked w/ engles • Communist manifesto o working class= should overthrow existing class system • emphasize group identification and associations that influence 1’s place in society • à act different based on who’s around Modern Developments WEB DuBois • Black socialist assisted struggle for racially equal society • Knowledge= essential in combating prejudice • Focused on religion @ community level • “Double consciousness” o division of indiv’s identity into 2+ social realities o (what it’s like to be black in white Americaà need to be different person/ have diff behaviors etc (slang at home, professional outside home) Robert Merren • combined theory + research • developed explanation of deviant behavior • MACRO sociology= large scale phenomena or entire civilizations o Student SAT scores • MICRO sociology= stresses study of small groups often through experimental means o Teacher interactions w/ students • Micro influences macro Pierre Boudreu • Capital= $, wealth, powerà sustains indivs and fams from 1 gen to the next • Cultural capital o Noneconomic good reflected in knowledge of language and arts o Being aware/ knowing that ___ painted this • Social capital o Collective benefit of social networks o Who you know, how you articulate • Ppl w/ capital= edu on all levelsà go further in life 20 cent developments Charles Horton Cooley • used sociological perspective to examine face to face groups (when ppl actually interact in their presence) Jane Adams • combined intellectually inquiry + social service work + political activist • cofounded HULL HOUSE (for working women, poverty, like refuge place) major theoretical perspectives/ theories/ paradigms 1. functionalist--------à MACRO 2. conflict -----------à MACRO 3. symbolic interactionist --à MICRO socialist perspective= all 3 functionalist perspective • everything works together • emphasize way how society structures= maintains stability • Talcott Parsons o View society as vast network of connected parts o Each helps maintain the system as a whole o (like a bike; need all parts to function properly) • manifest functions o open, stated, conscious functions o intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society o school intended to teach you à you learn • latent functions o unconscious/ unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes o bullying, stress, meeting spouse • dysfunctions o elements/processes of society that may disrupt a social system of reduce it’s stability/ credibility conflict perspective • assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • conflict= essential for society or else you wouldn’t be where you are now • the Marxist view o conflict= part of everyday life in all societies o conflict theorists= interested in how institutions may melt maintain privileges of some groups and keeps others subservient o (those w/ more edu= go further, while those w/o edu= stuck) o need conflict so society can run smoothly • the feminist perspective o inequality in gender= central to all behavior and organization o often allied w/ conflict theory o proponents= tend to focus on MACRO level o broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view interactionalist perspective • generalized about everyday forms of social interactions to explain society as a whole • humans= viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects • nonverbal communications: gestures, facials, postures • manipulation of symbols= seen in dress code • George Herbert mead o Founder of interactionalist perspective • Erving Geoffman o Dramaturgical approach= ppl are seen as theatrical performers o Ppl= constantly acting o Front stage= ready to perform (like a speech) o Back stage= what do to get to front stage (research, writing speech, etc) Sociological approach • Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap/diverge • Each perspective= offers unique insights into the same issue • Researchers work= always guided by his/her theoretical view point Applied and clinical sociology • Applied sociology o Use soci w/ intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization o Try to see outcome, hands on • Clinical sociology o Facilitating change by altering social relations or restructuring social institutions • Basic sociology o Seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena Developing a sociological imagination • Theory in practice • Research today • Thinking globally o Globalization § Worldwide integration of govt policies, cultures and social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas • Significant of social inequality o Social inequality § Conditions where members of society= differ in amount of wealth, prestige or power • Speaking across race, gender and religious boundaries • Social policy throughout the world Ch  2  RESEARCH  METHODS     Scientific  method     • Systematic  organized  series  of  steps  that  ensures  maximum  objectivity  and   constancy  in  researching  a  prob     5  STEPS     1. Define  prob   2. Review  literature   3. Form  testable  hypothesis     4. Select  research  design,  collect  and  analyze  data   5. Develop  conclusion       Define  prob   • Operational  definition     o Abstract  concept  explained  specific  enough  to  let  researchers  assess   the  concept     Review  lit     • Refines  prob  under  study     o See  kinks  did  see/  anticipate  before     o Decide  if  want  to  continue  w/  topic  or  not     Form  hypothesis   • Hypothesis   o Speculative  statement  about  relation  between  2+  variables     • Variable   o Measurable  trait  that’s  subject  to  change  under  diff  conditions     o Independent  variable=  causes/  influences  another  variable   o Dependent  variable=  depends  on  influence  of  independent  variable     o IV  (time  spent  studying)  à  DV  (performance  on  exam)     Collecting  and  analyzing  data   • Selecting  the  sample   • Sample   o Selection  of  larger  population  that’s  statistically  typical  of  that   population     o Representative  of  population  going  to  study     • Random  sample   o Every  member  of  population=  same  chance  of  selection     • Snowball/  convenience  sample   o Ppl  recruited  via  word  to  mouth,  posting  notices  on  internet,  etc     o Convenient     • Ensure  validity  and  reliability     o Validity=  degree  the  measure  reflects  the  phenomenon  being  studied   o Reliability=  extent  measure  gives  constant  results   Developing  conclusion     • Supporting  the  hypothesis     o Sociological  studies  don’t  always  generate  date  that  support  original   hypothesis     • Controlling  other  factors     o Control  variable  =  constant  variable.  Test  impact  of  independent   variable     Research     • QUANTative  research   o Collect  and  report  data  in  #  form     o Quick     • QUALitative  reseatch   o Relies  on  whats  observed  and  naturalistic  setting     o Focus  on  small  groups  and  communities     Research  designs     • Detailed  plan/method  for  obtaining  scientific  data     • Survey,  observation,  experiments,  existing  sources       Surveys=  provide  info  how  ppl  act/  think     • Interview=  face  to  face,  phone,  webcam     • Questionnaire=  printed/  written  q’s  to  get  info     • Can  be  expensive  and  time  consuming       Ethnography     • Collect  info  via  direct  participation  and/or  closely  watching  a  group     • Being  involved     • Detailed  info  about  specific  groups     • Try  to  describe  and  entire  social  setting  via  extended  systematic  observation     • Observation:  socialists  joins  groups  to  get  accurate  sense  of  how  it  operates     Experiments   • Artificially  created  situations-­‐  can  manipulate  variables     • Experimental  group=  exposed  to  IV     • Control  group=  not  exposed  to  IV     • Hawthorne  effect       o Unintended  influence  of  observers  of  experiments  on  subjects     o Observers  presentà  Ppl  act  differently     Using  existing  sources     • Cost  efficient,  limited  to  data     • Secondary  analysis   o Research  techniques-­‐  use  previously  collected  and  publically   accessible  info  and  data     • Content  analysis   o Systematic  coding  and  objective  recording  of  data,  guided  by  some   rational       Ethnics  of  research     • Maintain  objectivity  and  integrity  of  research   • Respect  subjects  right  to  privacy  and  dignity     • Protect  subjects  from  personal  harm     • Preserve  confidentiality     • Get  informed  consent     • Acknowledge  collaboration  and  assistance     • Disclose  sources  of  financial  support     • Confidentially     • Conflict  of  interest     • Value  neutrality     o Investigators=  ethical  obligation  to  accept  research  findings  even  if   the  data  is  opposite  of  their  personal  views  to  theoretically  based   explanations  or  to  widely  accepted  beliefs     o (cant  let  values  get  in  the  way  of  the  job  even  if  the  job  and  your   personal  beliefs  conflict)       reading  graphs     o tables  and  figures=  display  data  and  makes  it  easier  to  develop  conclusions     o cross  tabulation=  show  relation  between  2+  variables     o graphs=  easier  for  public  to  understand       writing  research  report     o finding  info     o textbook,  library  catalog,  computerized  periodical  index,  newspaper,   govt  documents,  instructor,  ask  ppl,  orgs  and  agencies     o writing  report   o focus  on  topic   o make  outline     o work  ahead  of  deadline   o read  paper  aloud     o include  citations  and  references         CH  3  CULTURE     What  Is  Culture?   • Culture:     o Totality  of  learned,  socially  transmitted  customs,  knowledge,  material   objects,  and  behavior   o Ideas,  values,  customs,  and  artifacts  of     groups  of  people   Culture   • Beliefs,  values,  behavior,  and  material  objects  that,  together,  form  a   people’s  way  of  life.   • Culture  is  a  shared  way  of  life.   • Culture  becomes  the  lens  through  which  we  perceive  and  evaluate   what  is  going  on  around  us.     What  is  the  purpose  of  culture?   • Our  major  mode  of  adaptation     • Sets  limits  on  behavior  and  guides  us  along  predictable  paths   • Becomes  internalized     Society   • A  fairly  large  number  of  people  are  said  to  constitute  a  society  when  they  live   in  the  same  territory.   • Members  of  a  society  are  relatively  independent  of  people  outside  their  area,   and  participate  in  a  common  culture.   • Society  is  the  largest  form  of  human  group.   • Members  of  a  society  learn  culture  and  transmit  it  from  one  generation  to  the   next.   • Language  is  a  critical  element  of  culture  that  sets  humans  apart  from  other   species.       Culture  Universals   • Cultural  Universals-­‐  certain  common  practices  and  beliefs  that  all  societies   have  developed   • general  practices  found  in  every  culture  including  courtship,  family,   language,  medicine,  religion,  and  sex  restrictions    -­‐  Many  are  adaptations  to     meet  essential  human  needs     Cultural  Relativism   • Cultural  relativism:  People’s  behaviors  from  the  perspective  of  their  own   culture   • Different  social  contexts  give     rise  to  different  norms  and  values     Sociology  in  the  Global  Community   • Cultural  Genocide   • How  would  you  react  if  you  were  taken  from  your  parents’  home  by  a   government  agent  and  moved  to  a  different  family  with  a  different   culture?   • What  might  be  the  long-­‐term  consequences  of  American  Indian  children’s   removal  from  their  families,  besides  the  destruction  of  their  culture?   • Basically  killing  off  a  culture  (like  hitler  did)     Ethnocentrism   • Ethnocentrism:  Tendency  to  assume  that  one’s  own  culture  and  way  of  life  =   norm  or  is  superior  to  others   o Conflict  theorists:  ethnocentric  value  judgments  serve  to  devalue   groups  and  to  deny  equal  opportunities  (tear  ppl  apart)   o Functionalists:  ethnocentrism  maintains  sense  of  solidarity  (bring  ppl   together  bc  they  have  something  in  common  )     Globalization,  Diffusion,     and  Technology   • Diffusion:  Process  by  which  cultural  item  spreads  from  group  to  group   • McDonaldization:     o Process  through  which  principles  of  fast-­‐food  industry  dominate   certain  sectors  of  society   • Technology:  Information  about  how  to  use  material  resources  of  the   environment  to  satisfy  human  needs  and  desires  (Nolan  and  Lenski)   • Culture  lag:  Period  of  maladjustment  when  nonmaterial  culture  struggles  to   adapt  to  new  material  conditions       Material  Culture   • physical  or  technological  aspects  of  our  daily  lives.     • Including  food,  houses,  factories,  and  raw  materials,  jewelry,  art,   buildings,  hair  styles,  and  clothing.   • That  is,  it  is  no  more  natural  or  (unnatural)  to  wear  gowns  on  the   street  than  it  is  to  wear  jeans.   Nonmaterial  Culture   • the  ways  in  which  we  use  nonmaterial  objects,  such  as  customs,  values,   beliefs,  philosophies,  governments,  and  patterns  of  communication.     • A  groups  way  of  thinking  (beliefs,  values,  and  other  assumptions   about  the  world)  and  doing  (its  common  patterns  of  behavior  and   interaction.       Cultural  Variation   • Subculture:  Is  a  segment  of  society  that  shares  a  distinctive  pattern  of   customs,  rules,  and  traditions  that  differ  from  the  pattern  of  the  larger   society.     • Counterculture:  Subculture  that  conspicuously  and  deliberately  opposes   certain  aspects  of  the  larger  culture   • Culture  shock:  Feeling  disoriented,  uncertain,  out  of  place,  or  fearful   when  immersed  in  an  unfamiliar  culture     Language:  Written  and  Spoken   • Language:  Abstract  system     of  word  meanings  and     symbols  for  all  aspects  of  culture   o Sapir-­‐Whorf  Hypothesis   § Language  precedes  thought   § Language  is  not  a  given   § Language  is  culturally  determined   § Language  may  color     how  we  see  the  world     Nonverbal  Communication   • Nonverbal  communication:  Use  of  gestures,  facial  expressions,  and  other   visual  images  to  communicate   • Learned   • Differs  by  cultures   • Symbols:  gestures,  objects,  and  words  that  form  basis  of  human   communication     Norms   • Norms:  Established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society   o Formal  norms:  Generally  written;  specify  strict  punishments   § Law:  government  social  control   o Informal  norms:  Generally  understood  but  not  precisely  recorded   Types  of  Norms   • Mores:  Norms  deemed  highly  necessary  to  the  welfare  of  a  society   • Folkways:  Norms  governing  everyday  behavior   o In  many  societies,  folkways  exist  to  reinforce  patterns  of  male   dominance       Sanctions   • Sanctions:  Penalties  and  rewards  for  conduct  concerning  social  norm   o Positive  sanctions:  Pay  raises,  medals,  and  words  of  gratitude   o Negative  sanctions:  Fines,  threats,  imprisonment,  and  stares  of   contempt   Values   • Cultural  values:  Collective  conceptions  of  what  is  good,  desirable,  and   proper  –    or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper   • Influence  people’s  behavior   • Criteria  for  evaluating  actions  of  others   • Values  may  change     Norms  and  Values   • Norms  are  the  established  standards  of  behavior  maintained  by  a  society.     • These  are  the  expectations    (or  rules  of  behavior)  that  develop  out  of  a   groups  values.     Values  are  these  collective  conceptions  of  what  is  considered  good,  desirable,  and   proper-­‐or  bad,  undesirable,  and  improper-­‐  in  a  culture  


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