Sociology 101 Exam # 1
Sociology 101 Exam # 1 101-001
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Popular in Sociology 101
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101-001 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Timothy O'brien in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology 101 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study Guide Exam # 1 What is sociology? Sociology is the scientific study of human life, groups, and societies. Shift from Traditional to Modern society. Traditional Society : ● rural = grew and made what you needed ● conservative = economic power was much longer to change ( Among a few people) ● uneducated ● isolated ● families ● agrarian ● ● feudalism /monarchy Modern Society : ● urban = we counted on each other / we depend on other for food, clothes,etc…. ● liberal ● educated ● connected = since we are interdependent from each other we can be isolated from each other ● state ● industrial ● democracy We also had this idea of working for a wage rather than making what you needed. You couldn’t take home what you made because you worked for a company that would then sell that item that you made Society as a whole hasn’t changed very much over the last 100 years New Social Problems With Modern Society: ● Atomization = hyper individualization ( No protection for the individual back in traditional society) ● Alienation = disconnect from individual and the capability ( No control in productive capability) ● Anomie = normlessnes, how to behave =depends on how you grew up and where, doesn’t match ( Durkheim) ● Social Disorganization = population doesn’t know how to make sense of society ( creates stress) ● Secularization = the form of different norms within different organizations or institutions ● ClassConflict = You were isolated back in traditional Peter Berger “ An Invitation to Sociology “ Roles of Sociologist: ● Social Reformers ● Social workers ● Scientists C. Wright Mills “The Promise of Sociology" The sociological imagination: ● Individual “troubles"——> social “issues" ● specific occurrences ——> general patterns ● Hidden Relationships & Rules Familiar ———> Strange Ex divorce, poverty, & student debt( Increased 500% in the past decade) Structuration The twoway process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reside by society. Social Theory Abstract propositions that explain the social world and predict future events. Functionalism A theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a society. Assumptions: ● Society comprised of structures ● Structures contribute to system order ● Common values Limitations: ● Circular logic ● Dysfunctional structures ● Social change ● It works like a moving circle Manifest Functions: ● Education ● Networking ● Social norm ● Train world leaders ● Knowledge for knowledge Latent Functions: ● Community ● Friends ● Build Opinions ● Trade of ideas from different cultures ● Reproduces class & class conflict ● Socialization in community ● Social change Davis & Moore,” Some Principles of Stratification" Individuals —> Postitions( ranked) Functions: To distribute soiety’s member in social psotitons To induce them to perform the duties of these postions Creates social inequality Conflict Theory Argument that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature. Assumptions: ● Conflict underlines social relations ● Social change is desirable, especially toward greater equality (praxis) Praxis the combination of theory & practice = the route of social change ● Order results when one group imposes their system of beliefs over others (ideology) Ideology ideas,values,and their practices ● its a normative way to claim society Limitations: ● Stability ● Utopia = no more private structures = never come ● Materialism about material resources ● Revolution empirically wrong never came Marx and Engels “The Manifesto of the Communist" Main Findings/ Conclussions: ● Illustrates materialist theory of history ● Exploitation ———> Revolution Materialism Base of society = superstructure = Culture,etc... Symbolic Interactionism Shared meaning among individuals. Feminist Theory A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the experiences of women. Post Modern Theory: Postmodernists claim that the very foundation upon which classic social thought is based has collapsed. Postmodernism The belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress. Research Methods: Tools to collect information about the social world Empiricism Gathering information/ evidence based on sensory experience. Quantitative: Data can be converted into #’s Examples Surveys & Experiments Strengths: ● Score/ Magnitude/ Breadth ● Change ● Large Population ● Generalizability Weaknesses: ● Hard to answer “why" ● Interpretation of questions ● Response Bias Qualitative: Data cannot be converted into #”s Examples: Ethnography & Interviews Strengths: ● Meanings ● Marginalized groups ● Validity Weaknesses: ● Generalizability ● Replicability Types of Research Questions: ● Factual Questions = What Happened? ● Comparative Questions = Did this happen everywhere? ● Developmental Question = Has this happened over time? ● Theoretical Questions = What underlies this phenomenon? Steps in the Research Process: 1. Denise the problem 2. Review the evidence 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Select a research topic 5. Carry out the research 6. Interpret the results 7. Report the research findings Types of Research methods: 1. Ethnography = The first hand study of people using participant observation or interviewing 2. Participant Observation/ Fieldwork = The researcher takes part in the activities of the group or also community being studied. 3. Survey = Questionnaires are administered to the population being studied. 4. Experiments = Variables an be analyzed in a controlled or systematic way. 5. Comparative Research = Research comparing one set of findings with another one with the same type of finding. Ethical considerations in social research (The Belmont Report) 1978 : Institutional Review Board 1. Respect for persons(informed consent) 2. Beneficence do no harm 3. Justice for distributions of casts / benefits Best “ Telling the truth about Damned Lies and Statistics" ● Using statistics can be beneficial to social research if used in the correct manner ● Can be used in many different ways ● Helps to validate the research that we found before Emerson et al, “ Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes" ● Get to fully immerse yourself in the culture of that you are researching ● Get a better understanding because you get to live the lives of those people ● Can use personal experience as another source of research because it was firsthand MicroSociology: Study of facetoface & small group interactions & their effects on individuals in society ● Thomas Theorem ● Definition of Situation ● Impression management ● Dramaturgical perspective Goffman, “ The Presentation of Self in the Everyday Life" Situation An agreement of whats going on in social circumstance Impression Mangament A goaldirected conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of others about a person, object, or event. Dramaturgical Impression Who used a theatrical metaphor of stage, actors, and audience to observe and analyze intricacies of social interaction. Nonverbal Communication Communication between individuals based on facial expression or bodily gestures rater than on language. Focused Vs. Unfocused Interactions: Focused Interactions Interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or in direct conversation with each other. Unfocused Interactions Interaction occurring among people present in a particular setting but not engaged in direct faceto face communication. Audience Segregation The process by which we act and react to those around us. (Goffman) Ethnomethodology ( Harold Garfikel) The study of how people make sense of what others say and do in the course of daytoday social interactions. Breaching Experiments = Intentionally breaking down something down to see the reaction. Conversation Analysis The empirical study of conversations, employing techniques drawn from ethnomethodology. Socialization The Process of social interaction through which people acquire. Types of Socialization: 1. Primary = Occurs without subjects knowledge Ex. Saying thank you 1. Secondary = Purposeful and obvious Ex. Military Training 1. Anticipatory = Prepares for future roles/ statuses Ex. Middle class Agents of Socialization: ● Family Primary, basic needs, teaches skills,& reproduces social position ● School Enlarges children social worlds, Primary& Secondary, first experience with bureaucracy ● Peers First relations without adult supervision, Establish personal identities ● Media Spreads info. on a mass scale, connects people globally, strong influence on individuals ● Work Secondary, acquire new roles/identities Social Reproduction The process whereby societies have structural continuity over time. Resocialization The process of learning new norms, values, and behaviors when one joins a new group or takes on a new social role, or when life circumstances change dramatically. Mead’s theory of socialization Primary socialization “Me” & “I" Language is a primary vehicle for learning Piget’s theory of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor Birth = 2yrs = exploring the environment 2. Pre operational 27yrs = egocentric 3. Concrete Operational 711 yrs = basic abstraction 4. Formal Operational 1115 yrs= further abstraction & hypo theatrical reasoning Social Roles: Fixed patterns of conduct Ex. mother, teacher, doctor , trouble maker Not innate ; constructed through socialization Social Identities: Socialization —> internalization of culture & construction Social Identity —> objective Social Identity —> subjective Lareau “ Concerted Cultivating and the Accomplishment of Natural Growth" Methods used: ● Middle Class concerted cultivation ● Working class Achievement of natural growth Life Course Stages: 1. Childhood Establish identity & values 2. Adolescence Form a consistent identity 3. Adulthood/Old Age Learn new roles & expectations Social Gerontology Study of aging and the elderly. Theories of Aging: Disengagement Theory As people age in retirement they should disengage from society Activity Theory Older american should remain active new identities Continuity Theory Elderly should remain active & involved as long as you can Don’t need to adopt new roles Aging in the U.S. ● Ageism ● Abuse ● Elderly Immigrants ● Poverty ● Social Isolation?
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