ANEQ305 Study Guide for Exam 2
ANEQ305 Study Guide for Exam 2 ANEQ305
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrew Everitt on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANEQ305 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Hyungchul Han in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 2 Study Guide 1. Which part of the sarcomere stays the same width during muscle contraction? 2. Which type of skeletal muscle has high myoglobin content, lots of mitochondria, red color and used oxidative phosphorylation? a. What are the characteristics of the other skeletal muscle types? 3. How are fast-oxidative muscle fibers and slow-oxidative muscle fibers different? 4. What are the roles of ATP in muscle contraction? 5. How many neurons are in the neuron chain of the autonomic nervous system? 6. What is a hormone? 7. What is a neurotransmitter? 8. The buildup of what causes muscle fatigue? 9. What part(s) of the spinal cord does the sympathetic nervous system come from? 10.What part(s) do the parasympathetic nervous system come from? 11.What 3 proteins form the thin filament of skeletal muscle? 12.What protein forms the thick filament? 13.Where is the calcium stored in the muscle? 14.What are steroid hormones formed from? 15.What are the 2 processes for building muscle? 16.What is the process by which skeletal muscles contract? 17.What delimits the sarcomere in muscles? 18.What is the period after action potential where another action potential cannot start called? 19.What are the 3 ways neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft? 20.What are the types of glial cells? (hint: there’s 4) 21.What neurotransmitter is released by preganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers? a. What about Post ganglionic sympathetic fibers? 22.How long does a single action potential last? 23.What are the 3 energy sources for skeletal muscle? 24.What are the 6 hormones from the Anterior Pituitary Gland? a. What are their purposes? 25.What are the 2 hormones secreted from the Posterior Pituitary Gland? a. What are their functions? 26.What are the 3 types of Hormone to Hormone interactions? 27.Which 2 proteins form smooth muscle? Answers 1. The A band 2. Fast-oxidative 3. Fast muscle fibers and slow muscle fibers are different in the speed at which they contract, myosin-ATPase activity and their resistance to fatigue. Fast has a lower resistance to fatigue, higher myosin-ATPase activity and faster contraction time. Slow-oxidative fibers also have a lower glycogen content that fast. 4. Power stroke, Active transport of Ca2+, and Detachment of Myosin and Actin 5. It’s a 2 neuron chain 6. Hormones are signal molecules delivered by circulatory fluids 7. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that communicate information between neurons. 8. The buildup of lactate/lactic acid. 9. Sympathetic – Thoracic and lumbar 10.Parasympathetic – cranial and sacral 11.Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Actin 12.Myosin 13.Sarcoplasmic reticulum 14.Cholesterol 15.Hypertrophy – increase in size of myofibrils Hyperplasia – increase in number of cells 16.First and action potential arrives at the terminal which stimulates the release of Acetylcholine. This diffuses across the cleft and triggers an action potential in the muscle fiber. The action potential moves across the surface membrane and into the fibers interior through the T-tubules. This triggers the release of Calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Next calcium binds to the troponin on the thin filaments. Calcium binding to troponin causes tropomyosin to change shape, moving from its position blocking the binding sites on the actin. Next the myosin cross bridges attach to actin at the now exposed binding sites. The binding triggers the cross bridge to bend, pulling the thin filament over the thick filament toward the center of the sarcomere. This power stroke is powered by energy provided by ATP. After the power stroke the cross bridge detaches from actin. If calcium is still present then the cycle starts again with the power stroke. When the action potentials stop, calcium is taken up into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Without the presence of calcium, tropomyosin moves back over the myosin binding sites on the actin. This causes the contraction to stop and the thin filaments slide back to their relaxed positions. 17.The Z-lines delimit the sarcomere. 18.The refractory period 19.They are inactivated by specific enzymes, diffuse away from the cleft, or are transported back into the axon terminal 20.Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Ependymal cells, and microglia 21.Acetylcholine a. Norepinephrine 22.1-2 msec 23.Oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and phosphagens 24.Growth Hormone – stimulates growth, Thyroid stimulating hormone – stimulates thyroid hormone secretion from thyroid, Adrenocorticotropic hormone – stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal cortex, Follicle- stimulating hormone – regulates gamete production, Luteinizing hormone – regulates sex hormone secretion, Prolactin – stimulates milk production by mammary glands 25.Vasopressin – enhances retention of water by kidneys, Oxytocin – social bonding, contraction of uterine smooth muscle and ejection of milk from mammary glands 26.Permissiveness – 1 hormone is needed for other hormones effect, Synergism – action of several hormones’ combined effect is greater than separate effects, Antagonism – presence of 1 hormone losses the other hormone’s receptor 27.Myosin and Actin
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