Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Match the following types of memory: 1. Short term a. No conscious recollection (how to ride a bike) 2. Long term b. Persons knowledge about the world; facts 3. Implicit c. Stores a limited amount of information for about 20 seconds without rehearsing it 4. Explicit d. When and where of your life happenings; autobiographical 5. Episodic e. Lasts up to several seconds; consists of echoic and iconic 6. Semantic f. Facts or events 7. Sensory g. Stores an unlimited amount of information for perhaps a lifetime 8. What structure in the brain is responsible for memory? a. Hippocampus b. Amygdala c. Cortex d. Cerebellum e. All of the above 9. According to the serial position effect, what section of information are you likely to forget? a. Beginning b. Middle c. End Match the following encoding strategies: 10. Meaning a. Mental images help us remember better (mnemonics) 11. Imagery b. acronyms 12. Chunking c. think of examples that are personally meaningful 13. Hierarchies d. organizing information into a logical pattern with information that is higher, lower and equal to other information 14. Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of memory? a. Retrieval, encoding, storage b. Storage, encoding, retrieval c. Encoding, storage, retrieval 15. What is long term potentiation? a. Increase in synaptic efficiency b. Decrease in synaptic efficiency c. Increase in longterm memory d. Decrease in longterm memory 16. Short term memory decays rapidly over time, and needs rehearsal to become long term. a. True b. False 17. All of the following are retrieval cues except: a. Context (music, odor, temperature, time of day, body kinesthetic, pain) b. Notes c. Mood d. State (drunk or high) Match the following types of forgetting: 18. Proactive interference a. attribution of a wrong source to an event 19. Retroactive interference b. incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event 20. Misinformation c. new information kicks out old 21. Source amnesia d. similar information interferes with each other 22. Which of the following is a stage of neural development? a. Proliferation b. Migration c. Differentiation d. Continued differentiation e. All of the above 23. Myelination is the process by which nerve cells becomes surrounded by fatty tissue that help increase the speed action potentials in the brain. a. True b. False Match the following terms: (26 and 27 are causes and match the results) 24. Teratogens a. SIDS, slowed cognitive development, ADHD 25. Critical period b. any disease, drug, or other noxious agent that causes abnormal prenatal development 26. Tobacco c. hyperactivity, emotional outbursts, poor impulse control, memory deficits, stunted social development 27. Fetal alcohol syndrome d. a period when an organism’s exposure to stimuli or experiences promotes or hinders proper development 28. Newborns are born with all of the following except: a. Rooting reflex b. Ability to smile c. Grasping reflex d. Social responsiveness Match the following stages to their definitions according to Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: 29. Sensorimotor stage a. (712), thinking more logically about concrete events; can now perform conservation and math transformations, can classify objects on several dimensions 30. Preoperational stage b. (27), representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning, lack of conservation, egocentrism 31. Concrete operational stage c. (12 and up), abstract, logical, systematic, and reflective thinking begin 32. Formal operational stage d. (02), experiencing the world through senses and actions; object permanence develops gradually until about 18 months 33. The mean monkey video shown in class showed what? a. Young kids are unable to deceive b. Young kids are gullible c. Young kids don’t care d. Young kids are dumb 34. What did Vygostky contribute to Piaget’s stages in terms of knowledge? a. The idea that children cannot think for themselves b. The concept that adults should act like children around children c. The idea that cognitive development is not real d. The concept that cognitive development is fueled by social interactions and culture influences this development (language acquisition is key to cognitive development) 35. Which of the following are types of attachment and help with social development? a. Body contact b. Familiarity c. Critical period d. Imprinting e. All of the above 36. All of the following are types of attachments made by responsive parenting except: a. secure b. avoidant c. loving d. anxious/ambivalent 37. Avoidant attachments= resilience, competence, selfesteem, leadership, better peer and romantic relationships a. True b. False Match the following: 38. Unconditioned stimulus a. the naturally occurring response to the US 39. Conditioned stimulus b. the learned response to the previously neutral CS 40. Unconditioned response c. a stimulus that naturally triggers a response 41. Conditioned response d. an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with the US, comes to trigger a conditioned response For questions 4244, read the following paragraph and answer accordingly: I am a grad student and I have a study group that I meet in the library every Wednesday night. Recently I have been coming into the library every Wednesday playing Sandstorm, and eating M&Ms. I always give my study partners an M&M when the song finishes. This has gone on for about three months. Today I walked into the library like usual playing Sandstorm, but I had forgotten my M&Ms. When the song stopped playing all my study partners stuck out their hands, why? 42. What is the conditioned stimulus in this situation? a. Receiving an M&M b. The study partners sticking their hands out c. Sandstorm d. The M&Ms in general 43. The passing out of the M&M’s is what? a. US b. CS c. UR d. CR 44. The partners sticking out their hands is what? a. US b. CS c. UR d. CR Match the following terms: 45. Acquisition a. the stage where the CSUS relationship is being learned 46. Extinction b. the diminishing of the CR accomplished by the CS not being followed by the US 47. Generalization c. the tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses 48. Which of the following is vital to the acquisition stage of classical conditioning? a. Temporal contiguity b. Special contiguity c. CS must precede US d. Biology and individual differences are limiting factors e. All of the above Match the following terms: 49. Positive reinforcement a. if the instrumental response is performed, the adverse stimulus is terminated or prevented from occurring 50. Negative reinforcement b. an instrumental response increases in the likelihood as a result of a stimulus being presented following a response and not presented in the absence of a response 51. Punishment c. occurrence of the instrumental response results in the delivery of an aversive stimulus 52. What is shaping? a. Presentation of a US depends on the subject’s behavior; a particular response is required to obtain a specific stimulus or consequence b. Development of a new response through positive reinforcement of successive approximations c. A stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its associations with a primary reinforce d. Innately reinforcing stimulus 53. Observational learning is learning by observing others a. True b. False 54. Which of the following are types of partial reinforcement schedules? a. Fixedratio b. Variableratio c. Fixedinterval d. Variableinterval e. All of the above Answers: 1. C 2. G 3. A 4. F 5. D 6. B 7. E 8. E 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. B 13. D 14. C 15. A 16. A 17. B 18. D 19. C 20. B 21. A 22. E 23. A 24. B 25. D 26. A 27. C 28. B 29. D 30. B 31. A 32. C 33. A 34. D 35. E 36. C 37. B 38. C 39. D 40. A 41. B 42. C 43. A 44. D 45. A 46. B 47. C 48. E 49. B 50. A 51. C 52. B 53. A 54. E
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