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BGSU / Psychology / PSYC 1010 / Characterize observational learning.

Characterize observational learning.

Characterize observational learning.

Description

School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Mary hare
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: learning, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and association
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 6 (pgs 221-250) Notes
Description: Types of learning, Associations, responses, conditioning
Uploaded: 10/03/2016
5 Pages 194 Views 1 Unlocks
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LearningIf you want to learn more check out sin of omission ana maria matute
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If you want to learn more check out What is a newtons force?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the properties of inx?
Don't forget about the age old question of What does semicolon signify in programming?
If you want to learn more check out How can we count outcomes in probabiity?

6.1 How Do We Learn?

  • Leaning: a relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from learning
  • Can help with environmental adaptation and survival skills in animals
  • Allow humans 10 perform basic and complex tasks (walking → flying a plane)
  • Types of learning
  • Nonassociative: responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus, or event
  • Associative: linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together
  • Observational: acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior
  • Types of Nonassociative Learning
  • Habituation: a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus
  • Dishabituation: the increase in a response because of a change in something familiar
  • Sensitization: an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus

6.2 How Do We Learn Predictive Associations?

  • Conditioning: how we learn predictive associations
  • Connects environmental stimuli to behavior
  • Classical conditioning (pavionian): when a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it’s associated with a stimulus that already has a response
  • Pavlov’s Dogs Experiment
  • Neutral stimulus: metronome
  • Unconditioned response (UR): dog salivated with sight of food (Not Learned Response)
  • Unconditioned stimulus (US): the food (caused response without training)
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS): the metronome (causes a response because of training)
  • Conditioned Response (CR): dog salivating with sound of metronome (Learned Response)

*UR and CR are the same in this experiment but that is NOT always the case!*

  • Acquisition: the gradual formation of an association between the CS and US metronome and food
  • Extinction: the weakening of the CR when the CS is repeated without the EUS
  • Spontaneous Recovery: when the extinguished CR reemerges later with the CS

  • Stimulus Generalization: when a SIMILAR stimuli to the CS produces the CR
  • Dog conditioned to salivate at 1000hz, tones close to 1000hz will produce the CR
  • Stimulus Discrimination: knowing the difference in stimuli because only one is consistently associated with the US
  • Animals being able to determine the difference in safe and poisoned plants
  • Evolutionary significance
  • Conditioned taste aversion: when a food causes you to get sick, you typically avoid that food in the future
  • Help humans and animals with survival
  • Biological preparedness: being able to detect threats (snakes, fire, heights) rather than harmless things (flowers, shoes, babies)
  • Brings attention to things to avoid
  • Rescorla - Wagner Model: animals learn an expectation that some predictors are better than others
  • Prediction error: difference in the expected and actual outcomes
  • Positive error: strengthens US and CS association
  • Negative error: weakens US and CS relationship (positive: giving food, Negative: no food)
  • Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of a object of situation
  • Developed through generalization of a fear experience (being stung by a bee → scared of bugs)
  • Little Albert Experiment
  • Associating small furry things to a loud noise, causing fear in an 11 month old baby

6.3 How Does Operant Conditioning Change Behavior?

  • Operant conditioning (instrumental): a behavior leads to a particular outcome
  • Puzzle box experiment: cat placed in box with food placed outside. Cat would have to escape by pressing the lever inside. Cats learned to do it faster with more trails
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