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Chem Test 2 Study Guide

by: Rebecca Sharp

Chem Test 2 Study Guide CH 101

Rebecca Sharp

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our exam
General Chemistry
Dr. Leung
Study Guide
General Chemistry
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Sharp on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Leung in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Chem Ch 4 Dmitri Mendeleev Found 65 elements as well as their relative masses and chemical properties. The Rhymburg Equation 1 1 1 =R( 2− 2) λ nf ¿ Coulomb’s Law q1q2 r ) E=9E9¿ Orbital energy increases by n, meaning 2s has more energy than 1s, and increases across the blocks from s to p to d Orbital Rules and Principals  Pauli Exclusion Principal states that no two electrons can have exactly the same quantum numbers  Aufbau Principal states that electrons fill from the lowest shell available first before filling any other shell ie 1s fills before 2s  Hund’s Rule states that electrons will not double up unless forced to, every orbital will have an electron before any electron doubles up with another electron. VERY IMPORTANT: In the F block, the first row is the lanthanides, and the second, lower, row is the actinides. In the S block, the first column is the alkali metals, and the second column is the alkaline earth metals. Paramagnetic elements are elements with unpaired electrons, they’re slightly attracted to magnetic fields Diamagnetic elements are elements with no unpaired electrons, they’re slightly repelled from magnetic fields Atomic Radius  For nonmetals, is equal to half the distance of the atoms bonded together  For metals, is equal to half the distance of the atoms in the crystal of the metal  It increases top to bottom and right to left on the periodic table (↙) Ionic Radius  Isoelectric ions are not the same size. Isoelectric means same charge. Not same size. Ionization Energy  Increases bottom to top and left to right on the periodic table (↗)  Is defined as the amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from an element.  Think about it critically. Noble gases don’t want to give up an electron because they’re perfectly content with their full octet of 8. Alkali metals are dying to give up an electron because they’re so close to having 8, they just need to lose one more. Electron Affinity  The negative value showing how much an element wants more electrons. The higher the number’s absolute value, the higher the electron affinity.  Defined as the energy released when an electron is added to an element  Increases bottom to top and left to right on the periodic table (↗) Chem Ch 5 Compounds are made of molecules are made of atoms. A compound differs from a mixture in that a mixture can have any ratio of parts, whereas a compound has a highly specific ratio of parts. Chemical Formulas  Molecular Formula; the most specific kind of formula, gives every single atom in the formula, ie C6H12O6  Empirical Formula; the least specific kind of formula, gives the bare- bones ratio. The simplified version of the molecular formula. Instead of C6H12O6, the Empirical Formula gives you CH2O  Structural Formula; shows you all the atoms and how they’re arranged. Lewis Dot Structures show you the positioning of valence electrons and let you see the bonding habits of the elements Molecular compounds form covalent bonds in which the atoms share electrons (non metals only) Ionic compounds form ionic bonds (not actually bonds, one element just takes an electron from the other element) Polyatomic ions are charged molecular compounds (also called molecular ions) Oxyanions are anions ending O, usually following the structural formula x−¿ X O ¿ x x When naming compounds, remember Mono-1 Hexa-6 Di-2 Hepta-7 Tri-3 Octa-8 Tetra-4 Nona -9 Penta-5 Deca-10 Roles of Electrons  Bonding Electrons are the unpaired electrons. Think of them as free agents, able to bond with any other unpaired electrons at will.  Nonbonding Electrons are the electrons already happily settled into their orbital with another electron. They’re not looking to react or bond with anyone else. These are also called ‘lone pairs’.  Single bonds are bonds in which one pair of electrons are shared communally between two elements.  Double bonds are bonds in which two pairs of electrons are shared communally between a pair of elements.  Triply bonds are bonds in which three pairs of electrons are shared communally between two elements. Diatonic elements are elements that have two atoms of the same element. There are only 7 of them. Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen, (O), Fluorine, (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), and Iodine (I). Formulas Formula for naming a molecular compound, (prefix for element one)(name of element one) (prefix for element two) (name of element two) (-ide) Formula Mass (molecular mass) (mass of element one) (number of atoms of element one) + (mass of element two) (number of atoms of element two)


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