PY 101 Test 2 Study Guide
PY 101 Test 2 Study Guide Psychology 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
T est 2 Study Guide: Cognition Language Development Language: a system of communication using sounds and symbols according to grammatical rules Morphemes: smallest language units that have meaning (including suffix and prefix) Phonemes: basic sounds of speech, making them the building blocks of language Syntax: placement of words in a sentence Semantics: meaning of the words (ex. ma’am, coke/soda) About 4,000 languages around the world Broca’s area: production of speech Wernicke’s area: understanding or comprehension of speech Aphasia: a language disorder that results in deficits in language comprehension and production Baby’s first word is about 1 year-old Toddlers start forming sentences at about 2-3 years-old Overgeneralizations: as children begin to use language in more- sophisticated ways, one relatively rare, but telling error they make is to over apply new grammar rules they learn Telegraphic speech: the tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax and convey a wealth of meaning Learning Associative: learning the relationship between 2 pieces of information Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience -Associations develop through learning Classical conditioning: a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response -Ex. a dog knows a can opener is associated with food Ivan Pavlov conducted an experiment where he rang the bell every time he had food in front of the dog, so then they expected food when a bell rang. Unconditioned stimulus (US): stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning Unconditioned response (UR): response that doesn’t have to be learned Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits a response only after learning takes place Conditioned response (CR): response that has been learned Baby Albert: he was put in a room with a white rat and they would ring a loud bell. He associated the rat with something that scared him (loud bell) and became afraid of the rat. Eventually they used other white objects and he became scared of the color white. Biological preparedness: natural instinct Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning): a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future -Has to do with our behavior (consequence/reward). If I do this __, then this __ will happen. Law of effect: if you perform a behavior and feel good, you will likely do it again; vice versa Reinforcement increases the likelihood of behavior -Positive: the administration of a stimulus to increase probability of a behavior’s being repeated Giving child a compliment or candy for a good job Getting paid to complete a task Watching a favorite TV show after finishing homework Dog gets a treat for sitting/laying -Negative: removal of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated (bribery) Scratching an insect bite because the pain goes away when itched (reinforces scratching behavior by removing itch) Daydreaming in a boring class (reinforces daydreaming behavior by removing boredom) Studying when you worry about a test (reinforces a study behavior by reducing worry) Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will recur -Positive: the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring Yelling “no” at a dog jumping up on a person (adds scold to reduce behavior) Spanking a child for coloring on the wall A speeding ticket Burning your hand when you touch a hot stove -Negative: the removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring Child has a toy taken away for fighting with sister Teen is grounded for misbehavior Observational: learning by watching how others behave Vicarious learning: learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the same action Bobo doll: presented to people to see if they become aggressive. They show kids a woman who hit/kick the doll. When the kids went in, they repeated the behavior they witnessed. Modeling: the imitation of behavior through observational learning -Modeling is only effective if the observer is physically capable of imitating the behavior Modeling is effective because of the individual attention. Memory Memory: the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge Encoding: the processing of information so that it can be stored Consolidation: the retention of encoded representations over time Retrieval: the act of recalling or remembering stored information when it is needed Reconsolidation: neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval Sensory memory: a memory system that very briefly stores information in close to its original sensory form -Persists for about 1/3 of a second and then progressively fades Material is passed from sensory memory to short-term memory Short-term memory: a memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of information in awareness Working memory: an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use Chunking: organizing information into meaningful units Long-term memory is divided into implicit and explicit memory. Explicit memory: requires conscious effort and often can be verbally described… -Episodic: personally experienced events -Semantic: facts and knowledge Implicit memory: doesn’t require conscious effort and often cannot be verbally described… -Classical conditioning: associating 2 stimuli elicits a response -Procedural memory: motor skills and habits Memory Distortion Flash Bulb Memory: vivid recollection of big/catastrophic events Memory bias: recalling past beliefs and past attitudes as being consistent with current ones Source misattribution: memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, or circumstance involved with memory False fame effect: hear a name and know you’ve heard it before, so you assume they are famous Sleeper effect: hear information for the first time and don’t believe it. As you hear it more and more from different sources, you get more persuaded its true Source amnesia: when you don’t remember how/when you found out information Cryptomnesia: reading something and later misremembering it as your own idea (accidently) (plagiarism) Studying Techniques Distribute your learning -Don’t cram because it goes in your short-term memory -Start studying at least a week before the test Elaborate the material -Think about the meaning of material -Make it relevant to you -Understand how concepts are related -Study in different environments Overlearn -Rehearse until it is easy -Study in different orders (middle, beginning, end) -Cost-benefit analysis: how much work should you put in to understand the concept Use verbal mnemonics -Mnemonics can be hard to make, but once you have it, you rarely forget it. -Ex.: “I” before “E” except after “C” -PEMDAS Use visual imagery -Creating a mental image may help you remember -Flow charts make information easier to remember -Concept maps Testing -Test yourself before the actual test -Get used to the format -This helps you know if you actually know the information Attention Our attention span is 10-15 minutes Attention: the behavioral process of allocating limited processing resources Sustained attention: remain attentive over time on one thing Selective attention: choosing to ignore one thing in order to pay attention to another Divided attention: focusing on more than one thing at once Change blindness: we miss big changes in our environment You cannot remember what you did not attend to Trying to pay attention, but can’t remember could be caused by -Too much stimuli going on (talking, shuffling, phones) -Not enough stimuli (long lectures, not interested) -Sleep deprivation -Stress -Depression/anxiety Amnesia: problem retrieving information from long-term memory (childhood events, car accident, event/period of time) Absent-mindedness: when we don’t allegate enough resources to push the memory to the long-term memory (divided attention) -Caused by putting attention into too many things Persistence: keep having unwanted memories -Cause by PTSD, anxiety, or something you feel guilty for Decision Making Decision making: choosing between alternatives Problem solving: finding solutions Expected utility theory: make decisions to maximize utility associated with choice Emotions impact different choices depending on how you feel Anchoring: the tendency, in making judgements, to rely on the first piece of information encountered or information that came first Framing: in decision making, the tendency to emphasize the potential losses or potential gains from at least one alternative Heuristics: shortcuts used to reduce the amount or thinking that is needed to make decisions (unconscious) Affective forecasting: expecting a good outcome that is unlikely but you keep trying Availability heuristic: the tendency to make decisions based on the answer that most easier comes to mind Intelligence The ability to use knowledge to: -Reason -Make decisions -Make sense of events -Solve problems -Understand complex ideas -Learn quickly -Adapt to environmental challenges Entity view -Goddard (1920): intelligence is an innate ability, or present at birth Incremental view -Binet (1916): “Intelligence is judgement and adapting to one’s circumstances” Eugenics movement: those of lesser intellectual capacity shouldn’t be allowed to reproduce. Facilities took these individuals (disabled) and forced sterilized them, so they couldn’t reproduce. General intelligence -Spearman’s g (g represents general intelligence) -The idea that one general factor underlies intelligence Fluid vs. Crystallized -Cattell proposed that g consists of 2 types of intelligence -Fluid: nonverbal- problem solve, adapt to situations, complex circumstances -Crystallized: things you learn- vocab, facts Emotional intelligence -EI: a form of social intelligence -Manage own emotions -Use own emotions to guide thoughts and actions -Recognize others’ emotions -Understand emotional language -If you can’t control your emotions in certain situations, you are not intelligent Sternberg’s Triarchic theory -Analytic: mental steps or components used to solve problems -Creative: use of experience in ways that foster insight -Practical: ability to read and adapt to the contexts to everyday life Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences -People learn in different ways. They are smart in their own ways. -8 different intelligences Visual/spatial: picture smart; excels in graphics, designs, visualization Verbal/linguistic: word smart; excels in reading, writing, speaking, poetry Logical/mathematical: number smart; excels in problem- solving, numbers Bodily/kinesthetic: body smart; excels sports, physical activity Musical: music smart; excels in performing and composing music pieces Naturalist: nature smart; excels in outdoors, plants, natural world IntERpersonal: people smart; excels in working with others, leader IntrApersonal: self-smart; excels in self-realization, understands inner feelings
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