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FAU - HDFS 1005 - BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle - Study Guide

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FAU - HDFS 1005 - BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle - Study Guide

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background image Lecture 7 Vocab Malnutrition = a medical condition resulting from the lack of essential nutrients in the 
diet
Macronutrients = nutrients that organisms must ingest in large amounts to maintain 
health (
EX. Carbs, proteins, lipids) Digestion = process of breaking down huge food molecules into smaller pieces so that 
our body can use them
Metabolism = all chemical reactions occurring in the body Catabolic reactions = break down larger structures into smaller ones Anabolic reactions = build new structures from smaller subunits Enzyme = protein that speeds up a chemical reaction Substrate = molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts Active site = part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate Catalysis = the process of speeding up the rate of chemical reaction Activation energy = energy required for a chemical reaction to start Micronutrients = nutrients. Including vitamins and minerals, that organisms must ingest 
in small amounts to maintain health
Cofactors = Inorganic micronutrients required to activate an enzyme Coenzymes = Small organic molecules required to activate enzymes Minerals = inorganic elements required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, 
and tissue maintenance
Vitamins = organic molecules required in small amounts for normal growth, 
reproduction, and tissue maintenance
Complete foods = foods that contain all the nutrients necessary RUTF = Ready­to­use food therapeutics Balanced diet = fruits, vegetables, and whole grains making up most of your diet  Lecture 7 Information Malnutrition is the number one killer of children around the world More children die each year from malnutrition than from AIDS, TB and Malaria 
Combined
Macronutrients are large molecules They must be broken down through digestion to be fully used Macronutrients
­ Proteins
Broken down into amino acids Used to assemble new proteins that have many different functions in the body ­ Carbs
background image Broken down into simple sugars Used to build cell­surface markers, energy­storage molecules ­ Fats Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol Used to build molecules that form call membranes Used to assemble the phospholipids that make up cell membranes Nucleic acids
­ Are NOT macronutrients
­ Provided in SMALL mounts
­ Used to build DNA and RNA
­ Broken down into individual nucleotides Essential Nutrients
­ Cells cannot synthesize them
­ Must be obtained through diet
­ Essential amino acids 20 amino acids used to build proteins 9 cannot be synthesized Digestion ­ A series of chemical reactions to break down the bonds that hold food molecules  together ­ Starts in our mouths and continues throughout the digestive system Metabolism ­ The assistance of helper molecules called enzymes Micronutrients ­ Minerals act as cofactors ­ Vitamins act as coenzymes The Peanut Butter Project ­ Nonprofit organization using peanut butter to end malnutrition in Africa
­ Peanut butter, full­fat milk, sugar, vegetable oil
background image Lecture 8 Vocab Chemical energy = potential energy stored in bonds of biological molecules Potential Energy = stored energy in the chemical bonds Kinetic energy = the energy of motion or movement Heat = the kinetic energy generated by random movement of molecules or atoms Photosynthesis = pants and autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy­rich molecules Autotroph = self­feeder Heterotroph = other feeder Chloroplasts = organelles present in cells of plants and algae Light energy = the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation Photons = packets of light energy  Chlorophyll = a pigment present in the green parts of plants Adenosine triphosphate = excited electrons that help generate an energy­carrying molecule Carbon fixation = conversion of inorganic gaseous carbon into organic molecules Biofuels = fuels made from living organisms Lecture 8 Information Energy gives all living things the capability to do work Without a source of energy, all life on Earth would stop Conservation of energy
­
Energy cannot be created or destroyed ­ Transfer of energy is not 100% efficient ­ With each energy transformation, some energy is lost as heat Autotroph
­
Heterotroph
­
Gets their energy from other autotrophs or heterotrophs Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts Photons of different wavelengths contain different amounts of energy ATP is used to make sugar Photosynthesis captures carbon dioxide gas from the air Energy basics
­
Algae, plants and cyanobacteria get energy from the sun Fossil fuels
­
Oil, gas, coal ­ Compressed remains of once­living organisms ­ Sources are limited and nonrenewable Biofuels
­
renewable

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School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Human Development
Course: Lab-Biol 1005-010
Professor: Diane Lowell
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle
Description: BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle
Uploaded: 10/03/2016
7 Pages 58 Views 46 Unlocks
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