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BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle

by: Cristina Rodriguez

BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle BSC 1005

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BSC 1005 Test 2 Notes Bundle
Lab-BIOL 1005-010
Diane Lowell
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Rodriguez on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 215 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Lecture 7 Vocab  Malnutrition = a medical condition resulting from the lack of essential nutrients in the  diet  Macronutrients = nutrients that organisms must ingest in large amounts to maintain  health (EX. Carbs, proteins, lipids)  Digestion = process of breaking down huge food molecules into smaller pieces so that  our body can use them  Metabolism = all chemical reactions occurring in the body  Catabolic reactions = break down larger structures into smaller ones  Anabolic reactions = build new structures from smaller subunits  Enzyme = protein that speeds up a chemical reaction  Substrate = molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts  Active site = part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate  Catalysis = the process of speeding up the rate of chemical reaction  Activation energy = energy required for a chemical reaction to start  Micronutrients = nutrients. Including vitamins and minerals, that organisms must ingest  in small amounts to maintain health  Cofactors = Inorganic micronutrients required to activate an enzyme  Coenzymes = Small organic molecules required to activate enzymes  Minerals = inorganic elements required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction,  and tissue maintenance  Vitamins = organic molecules required in small amounts for normal growth,  reproduction, and tissue maintenance  Complete foods = foods that contain all the nutrients necessary  RUTF = Ready­to­use food therapeutics  Balanced diet = fruits, vegetables, and whole grains making up most of your diet  Lecture 7 Information  Malnutrition is the number one killer of children around the world  More children die each year from malnutrition than from AIDS, TB and Malaria  Combined  Macronutrients are large molecules  They must be broken down through digestion to be fully used  Macronutrients ­ Proteins  Broken down into amino acids  Used to assemble new proteins that have many different functions in the body ­ Carbs  Broken down into simple sugars  Used to build cell­surface markers, energy­storage molecules ­ Fats  Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol  Used to build molecules that form call membranes  Used to assemble the phospholipids that make up cell membranes  Nucleic acids ­ Are NOT macronutrients ­ Provided in SMALL mounts ­ Used to build DNA and RNA ­ Broken down into individual nucleotides  Essential Nutrients ­ Cells cannot synthesize them ­ Must be obtained through diet ­ Essential amino acids  20 amino acids used to build proteins  9 cannot be synthesized  Digestion ­ A series of chemical reactions to break down the bonds that hold food molecules  together ­ Starts in our mouths and continues throughout the digestive system  Metabolism ­ The assistance of helper molecules called enzymes  Micronutrients ­ Minerals act as cofactors ­ Vitamins act as coenzymes  The Peanut Butter Project ­ Nonprofit organization using peanut butter to end malnutrition in Africa ­ Peanut butter, full­fat milk, sugar, vegetable oil Lecture 8 Vocab  Chemical energy = potential energy stored in bonds of biological molecules  Potential Energy = stored energy in the chemical bonds  Kinetic energy = the energy of motion or movement  Heat = the kinetic energy generated by random movement of molecules or atoms  Photosynthesis = pants and autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy­rich molecules  Autotroph = self­feeder  Heterotroph = other feeder  Chloroplasts = organelles present in cells of plants and algae  Light energy = the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation  Photons = packets of light energy   Chlorophyll = a pigment present in the green parts of plants  Adenosine triphosphate = excited electrons that help generate an energy­carrying molecule  Carbon fixation = conversion of inorganic gaseous carbon into organic molecules  Biofuels = fuels made from living organisms Lecture 8 Information  Energy gives all living things the capability to do work  Without a source of energy, all life on Earth would stop  Conservation of energy ­ Energy cannot be created or destroyed ­ Transfer of energy is not 100% efficient ­ With each energy transformation, some energy is lost as heat  Autotroph ­  Heterotroph ­ Gets their energy from other autotrophs or heterotrophs  Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts  Photons of different wavelengths contain different amounts of energy  ATP is used to make sugar  Photosynthesis captures carbon dioxide gas from the air  Energy basics ­ Algae, plants and cyanobacteria get energy from the sun  Fossil fuels ­ Oil, gas, coal ­ Compressed remains of once­living organisms ­ Sources are limited and nonrenewable  Biofuels ­ renewable Lecture 9 Vocab  Calories = the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g water by 1*C  Aerobic respiration = extracting energy from food using oxygen  Body mass index (BMI) = estimates body fat based on height and weight  Trans fat = vegetable fat that has been hydrogenated  Saturated Fat = animal fat  Unsaturated fats = form plants, are liquid at room temperature and are considered more healthy Lecture 9 Information  Food is not only a source of nutrition but also a source of energy  Food contains different amounts of stored energy ­ Fat contain 9 C/g ­ Protein contain 4 C/g ­ Carbs contain 4 C/g  Food is a source of chemical energy  Not everyone burns Calories at the same rate due to generics, muscle mass and gender  Animals store extra energy as glycogen in muscle and liver cells and triglycerides in fat cells  Glycogen ­ Complex animal carbs ­ Made up of linked chains of glucose ­ Used for short term energy  Triglycerides ­ Type of lipid found in fats cells ­ Used for long term energy   Extracting energy from food ­ Through digestion, our bodies break down food molecules into smaller subunits ­ Then they enter the bloodstream where they are carried to the body’s cells  Glucose is the most common source of energy  Glycolysis ­ First step of aerobic respiration ­ Occurs in the cytoplasm ­ Breaks down sugar into smaller units  Citric acid cycle ­ Second step of aerobic respiration ­ Reactions that helps extract energy from food  Electron transport chain ­ Final step of aerobic respiration ­ Electrons stripped from citric acid cycle are carried to inner membrane of mitochondria ­ Electrons passed with final acceptor being oxygen ­ Produces most of the ATP  Cells can also burn fats and amino acids for fuel  Fats have more electron and produce more ATP  Fermentation ­ Glycolysis occurs in the absence of oxygen ­ Occurs in cytoplasm ­ Make lactic acid or alcohol ­ Also known as anaerobic respiration  BMI ­ Doesn’t account for muscle mass, gender or frame size  Fats ­ Food manufacturers add trans fats to their products to give them a longer shelf life or a  pleasing texture Eating large amounts of trans fats or saturated fats Lecture 10 Vocab  Chromosomes = a very long molecule of DNA tightly packed with proteins  Sister chromatids = two identical, side­by­side copies of a chromosome that are linked at the  centromere  Centromere = specialized part of chromosome where sister chromatids join  Karyotype = specific number of chromosomes found in a species  Mitosis = division of nucleus and chromosomes  Cytokinesis = physical division of the cell into two daughter cells  Mitotic spindle = the structure that separates sister chromatids during mitosis  Apotosis = cellular suicide  Tumor = a mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division  Metastasis = the spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another  Radiation therapy = using high energy radiation beams to kill dividing cells  Chemotherapy = using drugs to kill dividing cells  Taxol = highly effective chemotherapy agent Lecture 10 Information  Cell division ­ Growth  One fertilized egg cell begins to divide  Develops into a mature multicellular organism  Adults ­ Replace worn out cells ­ Repair damage and heal wounds  Before cell division ­ Cellular components must be duplicated  Cell cycle ­ G 0phase  Exit from cell cycle  Can last days to years  Some cells will enter cell cycle again  Some will stay in the G 0 phase   Interphase ­ Longest phase of the cell cycle ­ Cell duplicated organelles, DNA and cytoplasm ­ Divided into three phases  G ph1 e = cell grows and makes extra cytoplasm   S phase = DNA synthesis resulting in chromosomes with identical sister chromatids  G  p2ase = cell prepares for division  Chromosomes are visible during mitosis  Human karyotype = 46 chromosomes  Number of chromosomes does not determine the complexity of the species  Mitosis ­ Chromosomes are evenly divided ­ Sister chromatids are separated ­ Occurs in series of phases  Prophase    replication of chromosomes begin to coil up   the nuclear membrane begins to disassemble  Microtubule fibers begin to form the mitotic spindle  Metaphase  Microtubule spindle fibers form opposite ends of the cell attach to the sister  chromatids of each chromosome  Replicated chromosomes become aligned along the middle of the cell  Anaphase  Microtubules shorten, pulling the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the  cell  Telophase  Identical sets of chromosomes reach each pole  Microtubule spindle fibers disassemble  Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, forming the  daughter cell nuclei  Cytokinesis  Animal cells the cell membrane pinches into separate the daughter cells  Cytokinesis in plant cells involve the synthesis of a new cell wall between  the daughter cells  Cytokinesis ­ Enlarged cell splits into two cells ­ One parent cell splits into two daughter cells ­ Each cell has full complement of DNA  Microtubules ­ Hollow protein fibers ­ Components of cytoskeleton ­ Attach to centromere on chromosome with the help of kinetochore proteins  Cancer ­ Invades normal cells  Fighting cancer ­ Surgery ­ Radiation therapy ­ chemotherapy


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