PSY 1010 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY 1010 Exam 2 Study Guide 1010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madie Ritter on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Weeks 4, 5, 6 and 7 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE 1. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION A. Sensation and Perception Are Distinct Activities i. Sensation is the physiological process through which you are aware of external stimuli ii. Perception is the physiological process of interpreting those stimuli iii. Transduction: the process that converts physical signals from the environment into neural signals carried by sensory neurons into the central nervous system iv. Psychophysics: an approach to studying perception that measures the strength of a stimulus and an observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. v. Just noticeable difference: amount of difference between two stimuli necessary for detection of difference vi. Sensory adaption occurs because sensitivity to lengthy stimulation to decline over time B. How the Eyes and the Brain Convert Light Waves to Neural Signals i. Receptors within the retina that transduce light into neural impulses: 1. Cones: detect information about intensity (brightness) 2. Rods: detect information from the wavelengths of light (color) ii. Light striking the retina causes a specific patter that results in red, green, or blue iii. Information encoded by the retina travels along the optic nerve, the thalamus, and then to the primary visual cortex (area V1) in the occipital lobe iv. The ventral stream projects to the areas of the temporal lobes that represent an object’s shape and identity v. The dorsal stream projects to the parietal lobes that identify the location and motion of an object C. Recognizing What We Perceive i. Feature-integration theory: attention provides the glue necessary to bind features together, the parietal lobe plays a role in this as well ii. Modular view: specialized brain areas represent categories of objects like faces, houses, or body parts 1. This is supported because some regions in the occipital and temporal lobes respond selectively to specific categories iii. Gestalt principles of perceptual grouping: like simplicity, closure and continuity govern how things fit together iv. Depth perception: depends on monocular cues like familiar size and linear perspective v. Binocular cues: like retinal disparity and motion based cues, are based on the movement of the head over time vi. Change blindness and inattentional blindness: when we fail to notice visible changes in our environment 1. These two topics emphasize that our conscious visual perceptions depend on our attentiveness D. Audition: More Than Meets the Ear i. 3 dimensions of a sound wave 1. Frequency, amplitude, and complexity which influence our perception of pitch, loudness, and quality ii. Pitch perception begins in the outer ear, then moves to the middle ear, then the inner ear which contains the cochlea iii. Action potentials travel from the inner ear along an auditory path, through the thalamus, and then to the primary auditory cortex (area A1) in the temporal lobe iv. Our ability to localize sound sources depends on the placement of our ears on opposite sides of our heads E. The Body Senses More Than Skin Deep i. Sensory receptors on the body send neural signals to the locations in the somatosensory cortex, which the brain then translates as a sensation of touch. ii. Pain signals indicate the location and type of pain iii. The vestibular system is responsible for our balance and acceleration F. The Chemical Senses: Adding Flavor i. The olfactory bulb sends information regarding smell to parts of the brain that control drives, emotions, and memories, which explains why some smells have immediate effects on us ii. Smell is also involved in social situations, for example pheromones which are related to sexual responses 2 iii. Taste buds are located across the tongue, on the roof of the mouth, and the upper throat and detect salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory) 2. CONSCIOUSNESS A. Conscious and Unconscious: The Mind’s Eye, Open and Closed i. Consciousness is a mysterious aspect of psychology because other people’s minds cannot be observed directly and the relationship between mind and body is complicated ii. 4 basic properties of consciousness: intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience iii. 3 levels of consciousness: minimal consciousness, full consciousness, and self-consciousness iv. Conscious thoughts: things like current concerns, daydreams, and unwanted thoughts v. Cognitive unconscious: subliminal perception and unconscious decision making influences out behavior without our awareness B. Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind i. During one night of sleep, the brain passes through five steps of sleep: stages 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM sleep ii. The older we become the less sleep we need, however sleep deprivation and dream deprivation have psychological consequences iii. Sleep disorders include: 1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep 2. Sleep apnea: the person stops breathing for a short period 3. Somnambulism (sleepwalking): the person walks around while asleep 4. Narcolepsy: sleep attacks during the middle of waking activities 5. Sleep paralysis: waking up unable to move 6. Night terrors: awakenings with panic and intense emotion C. Drugs and Consciousness: Artificial Inspiration i. Psychoactive drugs: depressants, stimulants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and marijuana 1. influence consciousness by altering the effects of neurotransmitters 3 ii. Drug tolerance: occurs when people build a tolerance to a drug, requiring more and more of the drug for it to take effect 1. Can result in overdose and/or addiction iii. Alcohol: a depressant that can result in 1. Alcohol expectancy: alcohol’s effects can be influenced by how people think alcohol will affect them 2. Alcohol myopia: condition in which alcohol hampers attention, causing people to respond simply to complex things D. Hypnosis: Open to Suggestions i. When a person is under hypnosis, their suggestibility is increased ii. Hypnosis can create analgesia (reduction of pain) and help those suffering from disorders like PTSD, OCD and phobias 3. LEARNING A. Classical conditioning: One Thing Leads to Another i. Pairs a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus or CS) with a meaningful event (an unconditioned stimulus or US). After repetition of pairing the two together, the CS elicits a conditioned response or CR. ii. Rules of classical conditioning 1. The CS should be presented before the US 2. The CS and the US should be presented closely together in time 3. The CS and the US must be paired consistently 4. If the CS and the US are no longer paired, extinction will occur 5. However, spontaneous recovery can occur quickly iii. Each species is predisposed to acquire particular CS-US associations based on evolution B. Operant Conditioning: Reinforcements from the Environment i. A process in which behaviors are reinforced and therefore become more likely to occur 1. Thorndike’s Law of Effect a. Behavior that leads to satisfying consequences will be strengthened b. Behavior that leads to unsatisfying consequences will be weakened 4 2. Consequences a. Positive: presentation of a stimulus or consequence b. Negative: removal of a stimulus or consequence c. Reinforcement: increases the response or behavior d. Punishment: decreases the response of behavior i. Negative reinforcement is not the same as a punishment, it allows you to avoid a negative situation ii. Reinforcement is defined as whatever the individual finds reinforcing e. Schedules i. Fixed-interval (FI) 1. Reinforcers are presented at fixed-time periods ii. Variable- interval (VI) 1. Behavior is reinforced based on the average time that has expired since the last reinforcement iii. Fixed-ratio (FR) 1. Reinforcement is delivered after a certain number of responses iv. Variable-ratio (VR) 1. Reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses ii. Has clear cognitive components 1. Organisms act as though they have expectations of the consequences of their actions and adjust them accordingly C. Observational Learning: Look at Me i. Species gather information from their surroundings and it influences them socially and culturally ii. Mirror neurons are become active during this type of learning 5
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