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UGA - PSYC 1101 - Class Notes - Week 7

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UGA - PSYC 1101 - Class Notes - Week 7

School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Professor: Kara Dyckman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology, Psychology, PSYC1101, chapternotes, Lecture Notes, and cyterski
Name: PSYC 1101 Week 7
Description: Remainder of chp.7, beginning of chp.8
Uploaded: 10/04/2016
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background image PSYC 1101
Week 7 Notes
Chapter 7: Cognition (cont’d) ●  Decision-making: process of cognition that involves identifying,  evaluating, and choosing among several alternatives ○ Trial and Error
○ Algorithms (step-by-step, works every time)
○ Heuristics (generally effective but not all the time)
■ Representative heuristic: assumption that  any object or person sharing characteristics with the members  of a particular category is also a member of that category ■  Availability heuristic: estimating the  frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to  think of related examples ■ Working backwards from the goal is a useful  heuristic (restructuring) ● Problem solving -  barriers ○  Insight
○  Confirmation bias: tendency to search for evidence that 
fits one's beliefs and ignoring other evidence ○  Functional fixedness: a block to problem solving that  comes from thinking about objects only in terms of their typical  contexts ○  Mental set: tendency for people to persist in using  problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past  ● Intelligence: the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire  knowledge, and use resources effectively in problem-solving and adaptation ○  Charles Spearman ■  G Factor: general intelligence
■  S factor: specific intelligence
○  Gardner's multiple intelligences 1
background image ○ Sternberg's triarchic Theory ○ Alfred Binet and Paris school children  2
background image “In 1899, Binet was asked to be a member of the Free Society for the Psychological  Study of the Child. French education changed profusely during the end of the  nineteenth century, because of a law that passed which made it mandatory for  children ages six to fourteen to attend school. This group to which Binet became a  member hoped to begin studying children in a scientific manner. Binet and many  other members of the society were appointed to the Commission for the Retarded.  The question became "What should be the test given to children thought to possibly have learning disabilities, that might place them in a special classroom?" Binet  made it his problem to establish the differences that separate the normal child from  the abnormal, and to measure such differences. L'Etude experimentale de  l'intelligence (Experimental Studies of Intelligence) was the book he used to  describe his methods and it was published in 1903. Development of more tests and investigations began soon after the book, with the  help of a young medical student named Theodore Simon. Simon had nominated  himself a few years before as Binet's research assistant and worked with him on the intelligence tests that Binet is known for, which share Simon's name as well. In  1905, a new test for measuring intelligence was introduced and simply called the  Binet-Simon scale. In 1908, they revised the scale, dropping, modifying, and adding  tests and also arranging them according to age levels from three to thirteen. Binet published the third version of the Binet-Simon scale right before he died in  1911, but it was still unfinished. If it were not for his early death, Binet surely would  have continued to revise the scale. Still, the Binet-Simon scale was and is hugely  popular around the world, mainly because it is easy to give and fairly brief.” ( ) 3

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Professor: Kara Dyckman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology, Psychology, PSYC1101, chapternotes, Lecture Notes, and cyterski
Name: PSYC 1101 Week 7
Description: Remainder of chp.7, beginning of chp.8
Uploaded: 10/04/2016
11 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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