Study Guide - Midterm
Study Guide - Midterm HD 1004
Popular in Human Development I
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Popular in Human Development
This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HD 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Katarina Krizova (Doctoral Student) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Development I in Human Development at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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STUDY GUIDE – MID TERM CHAPTER 1 – INTRO TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT Louise Brown- First test tube baby Born by in vitro fertilization (IVF) o Fertilization of a mother’s egg by a father’s sperm and takes place outside the body Now > 5 million babies born by IVF These techniques (IVF, cloning, etc.) raise developmental concerns and fundamental issues. Physical functioning before her birth was affected by her conception outside of the womb How the biological endowment from her parents affects her later behavior How understanding of the nature of her conception changed as she aged Whether growth rate differed from children conceived traditionally The way she interacts with others Stages of Development Conception-Birth (Prenatal) o Germinal stage (fertilization-2 weeks) Cell divides rapidly Zygote attaches to uterine wall o Embryonic stage (2-8 weeks) Major organs and body systems grow Major organs become differentiated Fetus kicks/clenches fist, hears sounds outside the uterus Health can be affected by mother’s diet, age, and substance use Reflexes emerge o Cognitive development Intelligence is partly determined, and some psychological disorders may take root Cognitive functions can be affected by substance use of mom o Social/personality development Some personality traits are partly determined genetically Drug/alcohol use can lead to irritability, difficulty dealing with multiple stimuli, and difficulty forming attachments in the child Birth-3 years (Infancy and Toddlerhood) o Physical development Rapid height and weight growth Neurons grow and form interconnections in the brain Infants wiggle, push up, crawl, walk, etc. Vision is 20/20 by 6 months with depth perception and recognition of patterns, faces, shapes, and colors Hear a wide range of frequencies, localize sound, and make sound distinctions that underlie language development o Cognitive development Infants begin to understand object permanence Use of representations/symbols Information-processing speed increases Language develops rapidly through paralinguistic communication o Social/personality development Infants exhibit different temperaments and activity levels Facial expressions reflect emotions Toddlers begin to feel empathy Style of attachment begins 3-6 years (Preschool Period) o Physical development Height and weight continue to increase rapidly The body becomes less rounded and more muscular The brain grows larger, neural interconnections continue to develop, and lateralization emerges Gross and fine motor skills advance quickly (can throw and catch balls, use forks, tie shoelaces) Children begin to develop handedness o Cognitive development Children show egocentric thinking and “centration”, a focus on only one aspect of a stimuli Memory, attention span, and symbolic thinking improve, and intuitive thought begins Language improves rapidly o Social/personality development Children develop self-concepts, which may be exaggerated A sense of gender and racial identity emerges Children begin to see peers as individuals and form friendships based on trust and shared interests Morality is rule-based and focused on rewards and punishments Play becomes more constructive and cooperative, social skills become important 6-12 years (Middle Childhood) o Physical development Growth becomes slow and steady, muscles develop and “baby fat” is lost Gross motor skills and fine motor skills continue to improve o Cognitive development Children apply logical operations to problems Understanding of conservation and transformation emerge Children can “decenter”- take multiple perspectives into account Memory encoding, storage, and retrieval improve, and control strategies develop Language pragmatics and metalinguistic awareness improve o Social/personality development Children refer to psychological traits to define themselves, sense of self becomes differentiated Social comparison is used to understand one’s standing and identity Self-esteem grows differentiated, and a sense of self-efficacy develops Children approach moral problems intent on maintaining social respect and accepting wat society defines as right Friendship patterns of boys and girls differ. Boys mostly interact with boys in groups and girls tend to interact singly or in pairs with other girls 12-20 years (Adolescence) o Physical development Girls begin the adolescent growth spurs around age 10, boys around age 12 Girls reach puberty around age 11 or 12, boys around age 13 or 14 Primary sexual characteristics develop (affecting reproductive organs), as do secondary sexual characteristics (pubic and underarm hair in both sexes, breasts in girls, deep vices in boys) o Cognitive development Abstract through prevails, use formal logic to consider problems Relative, not absolute, thinking is typical Verbal, mathematical, and spatial skills improve Adolescents are able to think hypothetically, divide attention, and monitor thought through metacognition Egocentrism develops, with a sense that one is always being observed; self-consciousness and introspection are typical A sense of invulnerability can lead adolescents to ignore danger o Social/personality development Self-concept becomes organized and accurate and reflects others’ perceptions; self-esteem grows Defining identity is a key task; popularity issues become acute Adolescents’ quest for autonomy can bring conflict with parents as family roles are renegotiated Sexuality assumes importance in identify formation; dating begins An Orientation to Child Development Child development is the study of the patterns of growth, change and stability that occur from conception through adolescence o Focuses on human development although some scientists study the course of development in nonhuman species o Continuing process throughout childhood and adolescence o Consider stability in children’s and adolescents’ lives o Some believe in continuous change until death whereas some believe in stable behavior Every period of life contains the potential for both growth and decline in abilities and that individuals maintain the capacity for substantial growth and change throughout their lives VIDEO Psychodynamic theories- early childhood and unconscious mind Cognitive theories- intelligence, problem solving, memory, attention span Socio-Cultural Theories- culture, formal and informal learning, life experiences Case studies- o One person in depth Experiments o Two groups of people o If something is causing change or just related Naturalistic observation o Watch people without knowing Laboratory observation o Observation of someone with them knowing o Can influence their behavior since they know they are being watched What is the scope of the field of child development? Physical development- examining the ways in which the body’s makeup Brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, as well as the need for food, drink and sleep Cognitive development- seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior Study learning, memory, problem solving, and intelligence Personality development- study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another Social development- way in which individuals’ interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life Age Ranges and Individual Differences People mature at different rates and reach developmental milestones at different points Environmental factors also play a significant role in determining the age at which a particular event is likely to occur Typical age for romantic relationships varies with culture When developmental specialists discuss age ranges, they are talking about averages As children grow older, they become more likely to deviate from the average and exhibit individual differences CHAPTER 2 – THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND RESEARCH Theories: Theory provides framework for understanding the relationships among a seemingly unorganized set of facts or principles Personal theories are built on unverified observations that are developed haphazardly Child developmental theories are built more formal, based on systematic integration of prior findings and theorizing; also allow them to move beyond existing observations to draw deductions that may not be immediately apparent SUMMARY OF PERSEPECTIVES--- Psychodynamic: Behavior throughout life is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, stemming from childhood, over which we have little control Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight has a fixation in the oral stage of development Behavioral: Development can be understood through studying observable behavior and environmental stimuli John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura In this perspective, an adolescent who is overweight might be seen as not being rewarded for good nutritional and exercise habits Cognitive: Emphasis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior Jean Piaget This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight hasn’t learned effective ways to stay at a healthy weight and doesn’t value good nutrition Contextual: Behavior is determined by the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social, and physical worlds Lev Vygotsky, Uric Bronfenbrenner In the view an adolescent may become overweight because of a family environment in which food and meals are unusually important and intertwined with family rituals Evolutionary: Behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors; traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection Konrad Lorenz; influenced by early Darwin This view might suggest than an adolescent might have a genetic tendency toward obesity because extra fat helped his or her ancestors to survive in times of famine Scientific Theory: Scientific method= process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data 1. Identifying questions of interest 2. Formulating an explanation 3. Carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it Hypotheses: Prediction state din a way that permits it to be tested Research Strategy: Answering Questions Operationalization is the process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed Correlational research seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists Experimental research is designed to discover casual relationships among various factors Represents the heart of developmental research The Correlation Coefficient: A mathematical score that represent the strength and direction of a relationship between two factors Ranges from +1.0 to -1.0 Positive correlation = as the value of one factor increases, it can be predicted that the value of the other will also increase The stronger the association between the factors, the closer the coefficient to +1.0 Negative correlation = as the value of one factor decreases, the value of the other factor decreases The stronger the association between the factors, the close the coefficient to -1.0 No association = coefficient of 0 Types of Correlational Studies: Naturalistic observation- observation of a naturally occurring behavior without intervention in the situation “Natural habitat” Ethnography and Qualitative Research- method borrowed from the field of anthropology and used to investigate cultural questions Goal is to understand a culture’s values and attitudes through careful, extended examination Several drawbacks: can influence behavior because they know they are being watched Case Studies- involve extensive, in depth interviews with a particular individual or small group Survey Research- a group chosen to represent some larger population is asked questions about attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic Not always effective Psychophysiological methods- focus on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior Most frequently measure the following: EEG; CAT scan; MRI Experiment- an investigator devises two different experiences for participants Treatment- procedure applied by an investigator Designing an Experiment: IV; DV; control; random assignment (participants are assigned to experimental groups by chance alone); hypothesis Theoretical Research: Designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge Theoretical research can provide concrete solutions to a range of practical problems Applied research: Meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems Most applied research can help advance our theoretical understanding of a particular topical area Longitudinal Research: The behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age Measures change in individuals over time, enabling researchers to understand the general course of change across some period of life Has provided great insight into language development Cross-sectional research: People of different ages are compared at the same point in time Provide information about differences in development among different age groups Considerably more economical than longitudinal research Sequential studies: A combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies Researchers examine a number of different age groups at several points in time Research Study Laws: Researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study The use of a deception in research must be justified and cause no harm Participant’s privacy must be maintained CHAPTER 3 – GENETICS AND PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT How a baby is formed: Sperm and eggs make a baby—sperm penetrates mothers egg zygote then attached to the wall of woman’s uterus First two weeks after conception o germinal stage Weeks 2-8 o embryonic stage o Zygote becomes embryo o Develops major organs like heart and lungs 8 weeks—embryo develops into fetus o 8 weeksbirth is the fetus stage o multiple births – more than one baby at a time (most common is twins) o monozygotic twinsidentical, same fertilized egg and they are the same gender how does it happen? Germinal stage fertilized zygote splits into 2 pieces o Dizygotic twins – more common Ferternal twins Each DNA unique Two different zygotes Same gender or differenct Genes: 46 chromosomes Women XX Men XY Each parent contributes half of genetic material Dominant alleles: always wins Recessive alleles- trait within an organism that is present but not expressed Genes determine which characteristics will be expressed Genotype: actual genetic material we process for a trait (genes) Phenotype: expressed Genes are made of 2 alleles Polygenic traits: result of more than one pair of genes co-dominant traits o light skin and dark skin—baby will be in between the two heterozygous o inheriting from parent’s different forms of a gene for a given trait o Bb homozygous o inheriting from parent’s similar gene for a given trait o BB or bb Polygenic inheritance o Inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for production of a particular trait X linked genes: o Considered recessive only on X chromosomes Hemophilia—blood disorder is produced by X-linked genes o Queen Victoria of Great Britain Mendel’s Pea Plants Provided the foundation for the study of genetics PKU inherited disorder, if left untreated it builds up toxins levels leading to mental retardation and brain damage Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk etc. Produced by a single allele or pair of genes Mutations: Tay Sachs Disease Sickle Cell anemia Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Nature: heredity Nurture: environment teratogen (ex. Alcohol, cleaning supplies/chemicals, some medications, some illnesses) Infertility: inability after 12-18 months of trying Causes: failure to release an egg Men: STDs etc. Different options available Multiple births Fertility drugs increase risk of twins or multiple births # of twins and multiple birthdays is rising a lot compared to 1980 women carrying multiple run a larger risk for premature delivery and birth complications Vocab: Gametes o Sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception Zygote o New cell formed by fertilization Genes o Basic unit of genetic information 70,000-,100,000 genes + 23 chromosome pairs + 46 chromosomes= one human cell genes determine what cells become part of which part of the body 46 chromosomes o rod-shaped portions of DNA; organized in 23 pairs DNA molecule (Deoxyribonucleic acid) o The substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function o Behavior genetics- studies the effects of heredity on behavior - Genes can break down due to wear and tear - Spontaneous mutation when genes change form for no reason Down syndrome: st - Disorder produced by an extra chromosome on the 21 pair - Monogolism - Most frequent cause of mental retardation - 1/500 births Fragile X Syndrome occurs when a particular gene is injured on the X chromosome - result: mild/moderate mental retardation Sickle Cell anemia - blood disorder - symptoms include poor appetite, stunted growth, yellowish eyes and swollen stomach - rarely live beyond childhood when its very severe - in less severe cases medical advancements produced significant life expectancy increases - primary effects people of African decent Tay Sachs disease - occurs mainly in Europe Jewish - causes death before victim reaches school age - no treatment - blindness and muscle degeneration Klinefelter’s Syndrome - 1/400 males born with this - extra X chromosome - underdeveloped genitals, extreme height and enlarged breasts - sexual characteristic problems Genetic counseling - helps people deal with issues like inherited disorders - take a lot into account - useful for people trying to get pregnant; infertility - usually suggest physical examination Prenatal testing - accessing tst health of an unborn - earliest 1 trimester screen is 11-13 weeks in: ultra sound sonography o high frequency sound waves bombard mother’s wound o produce image of baby so size and health can be accessed - CVS can be at 8-10 weeks if blood tests and ultra sounds show a potential problem Behavior is not JUST due to genetic or environmental factors= combination of the 2 Temperament: patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual Multifactorial transmission: the determination of traits by a combination of genetics and environmental factors: genotype provides range within which a phenotype may be expressed Genetics plays a big role in intelligence IQ scores of twins become less similar as they age - Closer the genetic link the greater correspondence between their IQ scores Most basic personality has genetic roots Neurotism: the degree of emotional stability an individual displays Extraversion: degree to which a person seeks to be with others/ sociable Mental disorder: Schizophrenia- increasing evidence shows this is brought about genetic favors Usually shows in adolescence Monozygotic twin has a 50% of developing it Another family member is more likely to develop it around someone who has it Pre-fertilization: Females are born with 400,000 ova in 2 ovaries - Egg released during ovulations - Ovulation is every 28 days - Ovum and sperm meet in the fallopian tube Sperm - Shorter life span - Cervixuterusfallopian tubes - Outer layer of the embryo: ectoderm forms skin teeth hair - Endoderm- inner layer, produces digestive system, liver, pancreas, respiratory system - Between the two is the mesoderm- muscles blood circulatory system, bones - Embryos: at 8weeks have a tail-like structure and gills - Head and brain undergo rapid growth during embryonic period - Growth of nerve cellsneurons, become coded with insulin material called myelin - 4 months in you feel the baby move - fetal stage: brain becomes sophisticated, left right hemispheres grow rapidly IVO- fertilization: women’s ova are removed from her ovaries and a man’s sperm are used to fertilize ova in the lab—increasingly successful for women under 35 15-20% end in miscarriage Stillbirth developing child 20 weeks or more after conception Miscarriages usually relate to genetic abnormality Teratogen- factor that produces a birth defect Mother’s age: Women giving birth later in life than two decades ago Delay in child birth has consequences for mother and baby, over 30 much more risky Women over 42 90% eggs contain defects ¼ have down syndrome with women over 50 Chicken pox can effect developing fetus Syphilis can be transmitted to the fetus Children exposed to weed have memory deficit and restricts oxygen to the baby CHAPTER 4 – BIRTH AND THE NEWBORN INFANT The Apgar Scale- Newborn infant first undergo a quick visual inspection- looks for variety of indications to five basic qualities: appearance (color), pulse, grimace (reflex irritability), activity (muscle tone), and respiration A score of 7-10 is considered normal Each quality gets a score of 0-2; overall score adds up to 10 Newborn Medical Screening- Just after birth newborns are tested for a variety of diseases and genetic conditions Screened for 29 disorders by a small amount of blood drawn from heel Permits early treatment of problems Physical Appearance and Initial Encounters- Vernix- thick, greasy substance (like cottage cheese) that covers then newborn; smooths the passage through the birth canal Lanugo- dark fuzz, fine substance covers the infants body when first born, quickly disappears Eyelids could be puffy due to accumulation of fluids during labor Bonding- the close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately following birth The physical stimulation leads to the production of chemicals in the brain that instigate growth Alternate Birthing Patterns- Lamaze Birthing Techniques: achieved widespread popularity in the United States. Makes use of breathing techniques and relaxation training. Series of weekly training sessions in which they learn exercises that help them relax various parts of the body on command. Goal is to learn how to deal positively with pain and to relax at the onset of a concentration. Bradley Method: “husband-coached” childbirth; based on the principle that childbirth should be as natural as possible and involve no medication or medical interventions. Women “tune into” their bodies to deal with the pain. Taught muscle relaxing techniques and good nutrition and exercise. Hypnobirthing: New, but increasingly popular technique. Involves a form of self-hypnosis during delivery that produces a sense of peace and calm, thereby reducing pain. Basic concept is to produce a state of focused concentration in which a mother relaxes her body while focusing inward. Water Birthing: Still uncommon in the U.S. Practice in which a woman enters a pool of warm water to give birth. Theory is that the warmth and buoyancy of the water is soothing, easing the length and pain of labor and childbirth, and the entry into the world is soothed for the infant, who moves from the watery environment of the womb to the birthing pool. Risk of infection from unsterile environment. Childbirth Attendants- Typically obstetricians, physicians who specialize in delivering babies, have been the childbirth attendants of choice. Last few decades more mothers have been choosing midwifes- childbirth attendant who stays with the mother throughout labor and delivery, usually nurses specializing in childcare. Midwives help deliver some 80 percent of babies in other parts of the world. Home birth is common in countries at all levels of economic development. Newest tend is one of the oldest: the doula. Trained to provide emotional, psychological, and educational support during birth. A doula does not replace an obstetrician or midwife, and does not to medical exams. They provide mother with support and makes sure parents are aware of alternatives and possibilities regarding the birth process. Use in the U.S. is new they represent an older tradition in other cultures. Pain and Childbirth- Pain is a subjective, psychological phenomenon that cannot be easily measured. Pain is usually a sign that something is wrong in the body, but in childbirth it is a signal that the body is working appropriately- the contractions meant to propel the baby through the birth canal are doing the job. Use of Anesthesia and Pain-Reducing Drugs- Epidural anesthesia: 1/3 of women who receive anesthesia; produces numbness from the waist down; inability to walk and in some cases prevent women from helping to push the baby out during delivery Walking epidural/dual spinal-epidural: uses smaller needles and a system for administering continuous doses of anesthetic. Permits women to move more freely and has fewer side effects Drugs affect the mother and the fetus; stronger the drug, the more effects it has on the fetus. Can temporarily depress the flow of oxygen to the fetus and slow labor. Newborns whose mothers were anesthetized are less physiologically responsive, and first days of life cry more and have harder breastfeeding. Post-Delivery Hospital Stay- Women should stay in the hospital no less than 48 hours after giving birth. U.S. passed legislation mandating a minimum insurance coverage of 48 fours for childbirth. Birth Complications- Infant mortality in the U.S. (richest country) is 5.98 deaths per 1000 live births. The other 13 wealthy countries range from a low of 2.6 deaths (Japan) to a high of just over 5 deaths per 1000 (Canada). Nearly 50 countries have better birth rates than the U.S. Preterm Infants: born prior to 38 weeks after conception. Not had time to fully develop as fetuses, are at high risk for illness and death. Extent of danger largely depends on child’s weight at birth. Most weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 ½ lbs). Vulnerable to infection, and lungs have not fully developed so problems with taking in oxygen. Often placed in incubators. Small-for-gestational-age infants: because of delayed fetal growth, weigh 90 percent (or less) of the average weight of infants of the same gestational age. Not always preterm, but may be. Could be caused by inadequate nutrition during pregnancy. Very-low-birthweight infants: weigh less than 1,250 grams (around 2 ¼ lbs) or have been in the womb for less than 30 weeks. Some can fit in the palm of a hand. In grave danger due to immaturity of their organ systems. A baby born earlier than 25 weeks has less than a 50-50 chance of survival. Medical costs are outrageous for unlikely positive outcomes. Post-mature Infants: spend extra time in the womb, still unborn two weeks after the mother’s due date. Blood supply from the placenta may become insufficient to nourish the still-growing fetus; blood supply to the brain may be decreased, leading to brain damage. Labor becomes riskier (for child and mother) as a fetus becomes too large for the birth canal. Difficulties are more easily prevented then those of premature infants, since medical practitioners can induce labor or perform a cesarean delivery (C-section). Causes- About ½ of preterm and low birth weight births are unexplained Premature labor can result from difficulties relating to the mother’s reproductive system Young mothers- under age of 15- are more prone to deliver prematurely than older ones. Women who becomes pregnant within 6 months of her previous deliveries is more likely to deliver a preterm or low birthweight infant because reproductive system has not had a chance to recover Women whom the father is older are more likely to have preterm deliveries General factors include: nutrition, level of medical care, amount of stress in the environment, economic support Rates of preterm birth vary between racial groups because of lower incomes and higher stress Cesarean Delivery- The baby is surgically removed from the uterus, rather than travelling through the birth canal. Occur most frequently when the fetus shows distress of some sort-appears to be in danger, indicated by increase in heart rate or blood from mother’s vagina during labor. In mother’s over 40, a C-section is most likely to be performed over younger ones Used in some cases of breech position, which baby is positioned feet first in birth canal. This is about 1 out of every 25 births. They place the baby at risk because the umbilical cord is more likely to be compressed, depriving the baby of oxygen. More likely in transverse position births, which baby lies crosswise in the uterus, or when the baby’s head is so large it has trouble moving through the canal The use of fetal monitors (measures baby’s heart rate) has led to more C- sections. 1/3 of all children in U.S. are born by C-section. Other countries have lower rates. There is no association of birth consequences and rate of C- sections. C-section dangers: Major surgery; mother’s recovery can be lengthy; risk of maternal infection is higher; easy passage for baby into the world can deter the normal release of certain stress-related hormones (catecholamine’s) in baby’s bloodstream Babies who have not experienced labor, are more likely to have breathing problems upon birth. Mothers who deliver by C-section are less satisfied with the birth experience but this does not influence the quality of mother-child interactions Use of fetal monitors has been decreasing, because monitors tend to indicate fetal distress when there is none-false alarms- with disquieting regularity, Infant Mortality Stillbirth: the delivery of a child who is not alive. Occurs fewer than 1 out of 100. Can sometimes be detected before labor begins; in this case labor is typically induced or a C-section is performed. Some cases the baby dies during travel through the birth canal. Overall infant mortality is 6.05 deaths per 1000 live births. Has generally been declining since the 1960’s and declined 12% from 2005 to 2011. Depression is common and is often intensified owing to a lack of support. Some parents even experience post-traumatic stress disorder. The lack of prenatal services results in a higher mortality rate. A change would be to ensure that all economically disadvantaged pregnant women have access to free or inexpensive high-quality medical care from the very beginning of pregnancy. Postpartum Depression- A period of deep depression following the birth of a child, affects some 10 percent of all new mothers. Takes several forms, main symptom is an enduring, deep feeling of sadness and unhappiness, lasting in some cases for months or even years. The Competent Newborn- The brain of the average newborn is just ¼ of what it will be at adulthood. In comparison, the brain of the macaque monkey, which is born after just 24 weeks of gestation, is 65 percent of its adult size. Because of the size of the brain, some observers think we are propelled out of the womb some 6-12 months sooner than we should be. Reality, evolution knew what it was doing, if this were true, hands would never get through the birth canal Underdeveloped brain of the human helps explain the infant’s apparent helplessness, because of its vulnerability. As future advances, nature of newborns have an astounding array of capabilities in all domains of development: physical, cognitive, and social. Physical Competence- Once umbilical cord is cut, respiratory system needs to begin a lifetime’s work Neonates emerge from the uterus more practiced in other types of physical activities Reflexes: unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically I the presence of certain stimuli Sucking reflex and swallowing reflex Rooting reflex involves turning in the direction of a source of stimulation near the mouth, is also related to eating The newborn’s digestive system initially produces feces in the form of meconium (a greenish-black material that is a remnant of the neonate’s days as a fetus) Because the liver, does not always work effectively at first, almost half of all newborns develop a distinctly yellowish tinge to their bodies and eyes. This change in color is a symptom of neonatal jaundice. Sensory Capabilities- “Seeing” refers to both a sensory reaction due to the stimulation of the visual sensory organs and an interpretation of that stimulation. Although their visual acuity is not fully developed, newborns actively pay attention to certain types of information in their environment. Neonates pay attention to portions of scenes in their field of vision that are highest in information, objects that contrast sharply with the rest of their environment. Evidence suggesting newborns have a sense of size constancy. They seem aware that objects stay the same size of the image on the retina varies with distance. Newborns can distinguish colors, and prefer certain ones. They stare more at blue and green objects. Newborns are capable of hearing. React to certain sounds. Startled by loud, sudden noises. Auditory system is not completely developed. Amniotic fluid is trapped in the middle of the ear, must drain out before the newborn can fully hear. Senses of touch, smell and taste are also developed. Classical Conditioning- A basic type of learning first identified by Ivan Pavlov, an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neural stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response. Pavlov, dog salivating to sound of bell Key feature is stimulus substitution in which a stimulus that doesn’t naturally bring about a particular response is paired with a stimulus that does evoke that response. Infants are very capable of learning through this conditioning. Operant Conditioning- Infants also learn through this technique Form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences. Infants learn to act deliberately on their environments in order to bring about some desired consequence Habituation- Most primitive form of learning Decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus In infants, relies on the fact that when newborns are presented with a new stimulus, they produce an orienting response, in which they become quiet, attentive, and experience a slowed heart rate as they take in the novel stimulus Occurs in every sensory system Development is linked to physical and cognitive maturation, present at birth and becomes more pronounced over the first 12 weeks of infancy. Social Competence- Tiffany Field and colleagues- infants could imitate facial expressions of adults Rejected by saying this was exploration not imitation Jury is still out on this debate Imitative skills are important because effective social interaction with others relies in part on the ability to react to other people in an appropriate manner and to understand the meaning of other’s emotional sates CHAPTER 5 – PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Infants: By 5 months- weight doubles to 15 (average starting a little over 7 pounds) By age of 2; 4x original birth weight, 3 feet by 2 years old African Americans are slightly bigger than whites Asians are smaller Nervous system and brain Neurons are the basic cell of the nervous system Communicate with other cells b/c of dendrites (cluster of fibers on neuron) o Dendrites receive the signal message o Axon carries the message to designated cell o Cell body- part of neuron o Neurons coded with myelin (protective insulation) o Neurons communicate through chemical messengers Neurotransmitters o Synapses Small gaps that connect neurons Infants are born with 100-200 billion neurons o Neurons multiply prior to birth o After two years of life neurons establish connections between them; becoming more complex as months go on o Babies brain triples weight at 2 years of life, reaching more than ¾ of adult size Babies are born with more neurons then they need o The brain “prunes down” the neurons it doesn’t need o Become reduced and eventually die out, increasing nervous system efficiency o Synaptic pruning- if a baby’s experiences do not stimulate certain nerve connections, the unused neurons are eliminated Growth spurt at 3-4 months for synapse and myelination o In the area of the cortex involving auditory and visual skills; corresponds to the rapid increase in auditory and visual skills Shaken Baby Syndrome: injury due to child abuse, infant is shaken by caretaker, usually out of frustration or anger Can lead to the brain to rotate within the skull; causing blood vessels to tear and destroys connections between neurons. Leads to long term disabilities, such as blindness, hearing impairment, speech impairments, learning/behavior disabilities o 25% of shaken babies die o 600-1400 cases a year in US Plasticity: the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable o greatest during first several years of life o infants w/ brain injuries recover better than adults Sensitive period: specific, limited time, usually early in organism’s life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development Integrating the Bodily Systems Rhythms: repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior Infant’s state: the degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation o infants consecutively sleep 6 hours a night when they reach 16 weeks EEG measures patterns of electrical brain waves once they reach 3 months patterns become irregular and more mature REM rapid eye movement sleep the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults; associated with dreaming 20% of adults sleep ½ of infants sleep as we age proportion of rem sleep increases as the proportions of non-rem sleep declines Sudden infant death syndrome (SID) unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby 1 in 2,500 infants put to bed at night, never wake up academy of pediatrics says babies should sleep on their backs; with pacifier during napping leading cause of death in children under 1 decreased boys and blacks at greater risk Possibly die from undiagnosed sleep disorders, suffocation, and nutrition? Reflex problems, undiagnosed illnesses. Motor Development: heads so large limited amount of muscle, lack strength range of motion and reflexes rapidly increases in first 2 years Reflexes: unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli cultural variations motor reflex o activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed o consists of the infants arm thrusting outward and then appearing to grab on to something 3.2 months = rolling over 3.3 months= grasping rattler 5.9 months= sitting up w/ no support 7.2 months= standing while holding on 8.2 months= grasping with thumb and finger Norms- represent he average performance of children of a given age Brazelton Neonatal behavior assessment measure designed to determine the infants neurological and behavior response to their environment 27 categories of responses Nutrition infants can’t reach physical potential without proper nutrition can also suffer cognitively and socially too 1940s breast feeding started bottle: parents could keep track of amount breast milk o contains all nutrients for growth o offers immunity to childhood diseases/allergies o more easily digests o even for 4 months lowers infection rate o women who breast feed lower ovarian cancer rate o hormones during breast feeding my inhibit chance of being pregnant again Solid food- Two tablespoons of solids around 6 months Gradually introduced Commonly cereal first Malnutrition- improper amount or balance of nutrients Kids show a slower growth rate by age of 6 months 22% in US live in poverty can lead to marasmus o disease in which infants stop growing older children with malnutrition can lead to kwashiorkor o disease which aa child’s stomach, limbs and face swell with water nonorganic failure to thrive o disorder when infants stop growing due to lack of stimulation and attention as a result of inadequate parenting Obesity weight greater than 20% height Sensation: physical stimulation of the sense organs Perception: the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain Neonate’s vision of the word: limited between 8-14 inches distance is fuzzy A month after birth infants vision gets better, lacks clarity by 3 months infants see with clarity Binocular Vision the ability to combine images coming to each eye to see depth and motion achieved around 14 weeks do not integrate information from each Visual Cliff: examines the depth perception of infants range from 6-14 months cannot be coaxed to cross cliff ability to perceive depth Hearing infants hear from the time of birth more sensitive to high and low frequencies sound localization permits us to pinpoint the direction from which sound is emanating 4-4 ½ months infants are able to discriminate language from each other and their own names, similar sounding words by 5 months can know English from Spanish Smell: Know their mother based on their sense of smell Taste: Develop taste preferences based on what their mother drank when they were in the womb Touch: One of the most highly developed sensory systems in a new born One of the first to develop 32 weeks after conception- evidence Multimodal approach to perception: the approach that considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated Affordances: the action possibilities that a given situation or stimulus provides CHAPTER 6 – COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY REVIEW STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory of “Action=Knowledge”. Argued that infants do not acquire knowledge from facts communicated by others, nor through sensation and perception. Suggested that knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior. Piaget’s Theory: Based on a stage approach to development. Assumed that all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Movement from one stage to the next occurred when a child reached an appropriate level of physical maturation and was exposed to relevant experiences. Without experiences, children are assumed to be incapable of reaching their cognitive potential. The Sensorimotor Period: Six Sub-stages: Sensorimotor stage = the initial major stage of cognitive development. The ages at which children reach each stage are different. The exact timing of each stage reflects an interaction between the infant’s level of physical maturation and the nature of the social environment in which the child is being raised. Substage 1: Simple Reflexes- The center of a baby’s physical and cognitive life, determining the nature of his or her interactions with the world. Provides the newborn with information about objects- information that paves the way to the next substage of the sensorimotor period. Some of the reflexes begin to accommodate the infant’s experience with the nature of the world. Substage 2: First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions- Occurs from 1 to 4 months. Infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities. Repetition of a chance motor event helps the baby start building cognitive schemes through a process known as circular reaction. Primary circular reactions are schemes reflecting an infant’s repetition of interesting or enjoyable actions, just for the purpose of doing them. They are primary because the activities they involve focus on the infant’s own body. Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions- Occurs from 4 to 8 months. Infants begin to act upon the outside world, seeing to repeat enjoyable events in their environments if they happen to produce them through chance activities. Secondary circular reactions are schemes regarding repeated actions that bring about a desirable consequence. The difference is whether the infant’s activity is focused on the infant and his or her own body (primary) or involves actions relating to the world outside (secondary). Babies’ vocalization increases as infants realize they can make noises. Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions- Occurs from 8 to 12 months. Infants begin to employ goal-directed behavior, in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem. They begin to anticipate upcoming events. They can also owe their developmental achievement to object permanence, the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen. Object permanence extends to people too. Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions- Occurs around 12 months to 18 months. Infants develop tertiary circulatory reactions, schemes regarding the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences. Infants appear to carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences. The world is their laboratory. Infant’s discoveries can lead to newfound skills, some which may cause a certain amount of chaos. Substage 6: Beginnings of Thought- lasts from 18 months to 2 years. Major achievement is the capacity for mental representation, or symbolic thought. A mental representation, is an internal image of a past even or object. Argued that this stage infants can imagine where objects might be that they cannot see. They can plot in their heads unseen pathways of objects. Their understanding of causality also becomes more sophisticated. The attainment of mental representation also permits another development: the ability to pretend. Deferred Imitation, in which a person who is no longer present is imitated later, children are able to pretend that they are driving a car, feeding a doll, or cooking dinner long after they have witnessed such scenes played out in reality. Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval: The Foundations of Information Processing Three basic aspects: encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the process by which information is initially record in a form usable to memory. People encode selectively, picking and choosing the information to which they will pay attention. This does not guarantee that they will be able to use it in the future if it is not stored in memory properly. Can be thought of as a computer’s keyboard. Storage regress to the placement of material into memory. Storage is the computer’s hard drive. Retrieval is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used. Thought of as the software that accesses the information for display on the screen. Automatization is the degree to which an activity requires attention. Processes that require relatively little attention are automatic; processes that require large amounts of attention are controlled. Automatic mental processes help children in their encounter with the world by enabling them to easily and “automatically” process information in particular ways. Depending on the experimental condition, one of two outcomes occurred. In the “current addition” condition, the screen dropped, revealing the two statuettes. But in the “incorrect addition” condition, the screen dropped to reveal just one statuette. Memory during Infancy Infants have memory capabilities, the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved. Duration: The quantity of information stored and recalled does differ markedly as infants develop. Older infants can retrieve more rapidly and they can remember it longer. Infantile amnesia is the lack of memory for experiences occurring prior to 3 years of age. This suggests that memories, even from infancy, may ne enduring. One reason infants appear to remember less may be because language plays a key role in determining the way in which memories from early in life can be recalled. Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory: Explicit memory is memory that is conscious and which can be recalled intentionally. Implicit memory consists of memories of which we are not consciously aware but that affect performance and behavior. Includes motor skills, habits, and activities that can be remembered without conscious cognitive effort. These two types emerge at different rates and involve different parts of the brain. The forerunner of explicit memory involves the hippocampus, but true explicit memory doesn’t emerge until the second half of the first year. When explicit memory does emerge, it involves an increasing number of areas of the cortex of the brain. Individual Differences in Intelligence- Developmental Quotient: formulated by Arnold Gesell, the developmental quotient is an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills (balance and sitting), language use, adaptive behavior (alertness and exploration), and personal-social behavior. Bayley Scales of Infant Development: Developed by Nancy Bayley, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development evaluate an infant’s development from 2 to 42 months. The scales focus on two areas: mental (senses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, and language) and motor abilities (fine- and gross- motor skills). Visual-Recognition Memory Measurement: Measures of visual-recognition memory (the memory of and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen) also relate to intelligence. The more quickly an infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory, the more efficient, presumably, is that infant’s information processing. Mental Scale: 2 months- Turns head to locate origin of sound; visibly responds to disappearance of face 6 months- Picks up cup by handle; notices illustrations in a book 12 months- constructs tower of 2 cubes; can turn pages in a book 17-19 months- mimics crayon stroke; labels objects in photo 23-25 months- pairs up pictures; repeats a 2-word sentence 38-42 months- can identify 4 colors; past tense evident in speech; distinguishes gender Motor Scale: 2 months- can hold head steady and erect for 15 seconds; sits with assistance 6 months- sits up without aid for 30 seconds grasps foot with hands 12 months- walks when holding onto someone’s hand or furniture; holds pencil in fist 17-19 months- stands on right foot without help; remains upright climbing stairs with assistance 23-25 months- strings 3 beads; jumps length of 4 inches 38-42 months- can reproduce drawing of a circle; hops two times on one foot descends stairs, alternating feet Information-Processing Approaches to Individual Differences Contemporary approaches to infant intelligence suggest that the speed with which infant’s process information may correlate most strongly with late intelligence, as measured by IQ tests administered during adulthood. Measures of visual-recognition memory, the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to IQ. The more quickly an infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory, the more efficient, presumably, is that infant’s information processing. The multimodal approach to perception, may offer clues about later intelligence. The ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experienced through only one sense by using another sense (cross-modal transference) is associated with intelligence. Other factors such as degree of environmental stimulation, also play a crucial role in helping to determine adult intelligence. The Fundamentals of Language- Language, the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, provides the basis for communication. It is closely tied to the way we think and understand the world. It enables us to reflect on people and objects and to convey our thoughts to others. Has several formal characteristics that must be mastered as linguistic competence is developed. Phonology: refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes that can be combined to produce words and sentences. Morphemes: The smallest language unit that has meaning. Some are complete words, while others add information necessary for interpreting a word, such as endings. Semantics: The rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences. As their knowledge of semantics develops, children are able to understand the subtle distinction between “Ellie was hit by a ball” and “A ball hit Ellie”. Comprehension is the understanding of speech, and linguistic production is the use of language to communicate. Comprehension precedes production. Throughout infancy, comprehension also outpaces production. Early Sounds and Communication- Prelinguistic communication is through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other nonlinguistic means. Its repetition, however, which mimics the give-and-take of conversation, teaches the infant something about turn taking and the back-and-forth of communication. Babbling, is making speech-like but meaningless sounds, starting at the age of 2 or 3 months and continues until the age of about 1 year. Infants repeat the same vowel sound over and over, changing the pitch from high to low. Babbling is a universal phenomenon, even with deaf children. It typically follows a progression from simple to more complex sounds. First words: Usually spoken somewhere around the age of 10 to 14 months. Typically child will say “mama”, “dada” or “baba” but this is the same sound that will be used if the child is asking for a cookie or a blanket. Disagreement over what is the first word. In a short period (16 and 24 months) there is an explosion of language, child’s vocabulary increases from 50 to 400 words. First words typically regard objects and things, both animate and inanimate. Most refer to people or objects who constantly appear and disappear. These are often holophrases, one- word utterance that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used. Culture has an effect on the type of first words spoken. Unlike North American English- speaking infants, who are more apt to use nouns initially, Chinese Mandarin-speaking infants use more verbs than nouns. First Sentences: The linking together of individual words into sentences that convey a single thought. Although there is a good deal of variability in the time at which children first create two-word phrases, it is generally around 8
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