Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 2300
Popular in Microbiology 2300
Popular in Microbiology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Fuhua Lu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Microbiology 2300 in Microbiology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5, 6, 11, 12) Methods for Control of Microbial Growth o Describe the principles of sterilization, disinfection, pasteurization, sanitization, and preservation: Sterilization: the process of destroying or removing all microorganisms and viruses through physical or chemical means Disinfection: Process of removing or eliminating pathogenic microorganisms or viruses in or on a material so that they are no longer a hazard Sanitization: The process of reducing the microbial population to a level that meets accepted health standards Pasteurization: Process of heatinf food or other substances under controlled conditions to kill pathogens and reduce the total number of microorganisms without damaging the substance Preservation: The process of inhibiting the growth of microorganism in products to delay spoilage o Physical and Chemical Removal of Microbes Chemicals : FDA anitseptics EDA disinfectants pg 117 Filtration : used to remove organisms from heat sensitive fluids or remove microbes from the air Sugar solutions, beer, and wine Membrane filters allow liquids to flow Depth filters trap microbe : e charge Radiation : UV, X rays, Gamma Rays Ionizing radiation : has enough energy to remove electrons from atoms Gamma radiation/ Xrays/ e accelerators Used to sterlize medical equipment/ surgical supplies/ medications This is a direct method Destroys DNA and damagin cyctoplasmic membranes Shorter wavelength and higher frequency = more energy UV Radiation : Nonionizing radiation Damages DNA / thymic dimers Destroys microbes in air/ surfaces/ drinking H2O Limitation Poorpenetrating power Thin films of coverings Heat : Boiling (100C) Destroys most microorganisms and viruses Does not destroy endospores Pasteurization : Not sterlizing but reduces Increases shelf life of food HighTemperature ShotTime (HTST) : Heat : 72C and held for 15 secs Parameters are adjusted for the product Milk or Ice Cream UltraHighTemperature (UHT) Heat to 140C and held for several seconds Destroys are microorganisms that grow Pressurized Steam Autoclave used to sterilize withs steam Heat H2O Steam Increase pressure Achieves sterilization at 121C / 15psi / 15 minutes Against endospores Flash autoclave: 135C in 3 minutes Prions: 132C for 1-4.5 hours Surgical Instruments, microbiological media, and resuable glassware Commerical Canning Process: Destroys Clostridium botulinum endospores If these are not destroyed they can survive within the cans Dry Heat: Not as effective Longer times/ higher temperatures 200C/ 1.5 hours vs. 121C / 15 minutes incineration method: oxidizes cells to ashes destroys medical waste and animals’ carcasses flaming lab. inoculation loop incinerates sterile loop Metabolic diversities among microorganisms o Carbon source (auto/hetero), electron source (organo/litho), energy source (photo/chemo) Carbon Source : Auto : CO 2 Hetero : Organic Carbon Electron Source : Organo : organic substrates Litho : inorganic substrates Energy Source : Photo : Light Chemo : Inorganic or Organic Chemicals o Compare and contrast each of the central metabolic pathways: gradually oxidizes glucose to C2 pathways are catabolic Glycolysis: Splits glucose and gradually oxidizes it to form two pryuvates Provides the cell with ATP = energy Reducing power Six precursor metabolites Pentose Phosphate Pathway: primary purpose: the production of compounds used in biosynthesis Reducing Power: NADH 2 precursor metabolites Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA): Turn pyruvate into acetyl-CoA Releases two molecules of CO 2 Generates the most reducing power of the pathways Three precursor metabolites ATP Respiration: Tranfers the electrons extracted from glucose tp the electron transport chain Proton motive force form ATP by oxidative phosphorylation Aerobic: O s2rves as the terminal electron acceptor Anaerobic: does not use O as a2terminal electron acceptor Fermentation: Cells breakdown glucose using glyclosis Then pyruvate is a terminal electron acceptor Transferring electrons by NADH Produces little ATP o Compare and contrast the electron transport chains of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. o Compare and contrast aerobic, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation o Explain how chemolithotrophs obtain energy. o Compare and contrast the tandem photosystems of cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes with the single photosystems of purple and green bacteria. o Understand how anabolism depends on catabolism in terms of energy, precursor metabolites, and reducing power Compare and contrast bacteria, protists (algae, protozoan), and fungi o Fungi includes molds, single-celled yeasts, and mushrooms Yeasts: single celled fungi Molds: filamentous fungi Mushrooms: reproductive structures of certain fungi Cell wall: chitin Primciple decomposers of organic compounds CO 2nd N Types: Chytrids: live in water/ guts Motile cells Some can be parasitic Zygomycetes: mold Black bread mold Sporangia: reproductive structures Others spoil fruits and vegatables Ascomycetes: made up of about 75% of the fungi population Pencillium: earliest antibiotic Some cause diseases and others can be eaten Basidomycetes: mushrooms Collected and grown for food Plant parasites Wheat, rye, and corn crops Multiceullular; threadlike filaments called hyphae Used to gather their food source Found: everywhere Many are terrestrial organisms Prefer 20C to 35C climates pH of 5 or lower Reproduction: Spore: reproductive cells Fusion of hyphae from two different mating types growing together Budding: yeasts Fragmentation: molds o Algae Simple photosynthetic eukaryotes Lack organized vascular systems Most are aquatic Diverse group of protists Unicellular or multicellular Cell walls: cellulose Groups: Green Algae Brown Algae Red Algae Diatoms Dinoflagellas Euglenids Found in both fresh and salt water / moist soil Plankton: phytoplankton Reproduction Fragmentation Alternate between haploid and diploid generations o Protozoa Diverse group where there is a little relationship between them Unicellular heterotrophic organisms Types: Apicomplexans: Parasites with an apical complex Plasmodium that cause malaria Diplomonads and Parabasalids Flagellated protists that lack mitochondria Two nuclei and reside within hosts Giardia lambia : diarrhea Water from streams Kinetoplastids: At least one flagellum and characterized by DNA mass Large mitochondrian Leishmania major: cause of leishmaniasis Sand flies Trypanosoma cruzi: Chagas disease Loboseans and heteroloboseans Ameboid body form Change shape as they move Entamoeba histolytica: infects humans causing diarrhea o Convergent evolution; lichen; mycorrhizae Lichen: mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae Fungus: protection and absobs water and minerals Algae: organic nutrients Can grow in extreme environments but only together Mycorrhizae: plant roots and fungi Increases the plant ability to absorb water and minerals Examples of microorganisms in terms of metabolic diversity, environmental diversity, and impact on human FOUND THROUGHOUT THE STUDY GUIDE Clostridium Saccharomyces Rhizobium algae Myxobacteria dinoflagellate Streptomyces Agrobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Plasmodium E. coli Trypanosoma Propionibacterium Trichomonas Sulfur oxidizer Methanogen Purple &green bacteria Cyanobacteria Bdellovibrio Legionella Lactobacillus
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