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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Lauren Dennis

Exam 2 Study Guide 2300

Lauren Dennis

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About this Document

Concise overview of chapter 5, 6/11, and 12
Microbiology 2300
Dr. Fuhua Lu
Study Guide
protozoa, fungi, algae, reproduction, Microbiology, glycolysis, metabolic pathways, Microbial, growth, heat, radiation, Chemicals
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Fuhua Lu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Microbiology 2300 in Microbiology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5, 6, 11, 12)    Methods for Control of Microbial Growth o Describe the principles of sterilization, disinfection, pasteurization, sanitization,  and preservation:   Sterilization: the process of destroying or removing all microorganisms  and viruses through physical or chemical means  Disinfection: Process of removing or eliminating pathogenic  microorganisms or viruses in or on a material so that they are no longer a  hazard  Sanitization: The process of reducing the microbial population to a  level that meets accepted health standards  Pasteurization: Process of heatinf food or other substances under controlled conditions to kill pathogens and reduce the total number of microorganisms without damaging the substance  Preservation: The process of inhibiting the growth of microorganism in products to delay spoilage o Physical and Chemical Removal of Microbes  Chemicals :   FDA­ anitseptics  EDA­ disinfectants  pg 117   Filtration : used to remove organisms from heat sensitive fluids or remove  microbes from the air  Sugar solutions, beer, and wine    Membrane filters allow liquids to flow  Depth filters trap microbe : e­ charge  Radiation :   UV, X rays, Gamma Rays  Ionizing radiation : has enough energy to remove electrons from  atoms   Gamma radiation/ X­rays/ e­ accelerators   Used to sterlize medical equipment/ surgical supplies/  medications  This is a direct method  Destroys DNA and damagin cyctoplasmic membranes   Shorter wavelength and higher frequency = more energy  UV Radiation :  Non­ionizing radiation  Damages DNA / thymic dimers  Destroys microbes in air/ surfaces/ drinking H2O  Limitation  Poor­penetrating power  Thin films of coverings   Heat :  Boiling (100C)  Destroys most microorganisms and viruses  Does not destroy endospores  Pasteurization :   Not sterlizing but reduces  Increases shelf life of food  High­Temperature Shot­Time (HTST) :  Heat : 72C and held for 15 secs  Parameters are adjusted for the product  Milk or Ice Cream  Ultra­High­Temperature (UHT)  Heat to 140C and held for several seconds  Destroys are microorganisms that grow  Pressurized Steam  Autoclave used to sterilize withs steam  Heat H2O  Steam  Increase pressure  Achieves sterilization at 121C / 15psi / 15 minutes  Against endospores  Flash autoclave: 135C in 3 minutes  Prions: 132C for 1-4.5 hours  Surgical Instruments, microbiological media, and resuable glassware  Commerical Canning Process:  Destroys Clostridium botulinum endospores  If these are not destroyed they can survive within the cans  Dry Heat:  Not as effective  Longer times/ higher temperatures  200C/ 1.5 hours vs. 121C / 15 minutes  incineration method:  oxidizes cells to ashes  destroys medical waste and animals’ carcasses  flaming lab. inoculation loop incinerates  sterile loop  Metabolic diversities among microorganisms o Carbon source (auto/hetero), electron source (organo/litho), energy source  (photo/chemo)  Carbon Source :  Auto : CO 2  Hetero : Organic Carbon  Electron Source :  Organo : organic substrates   Litho : inorganic substrates  Energy Source :  Photo : Light  Chemo : Inorganic or Organic Chemicals  o Compare and contrast each of the central metabolic pathways:  gradually oxidizes glucose to C2  pathways are catabolic  Glycolysis:  Splits glucose and gradually oxidizes it to form two pryuvates  Provides the cell with ATP = energy  Reducing power  Six precursor metabolites  Pentose Phosphate Pathway:  primary purpose: the production of compounds used in biosynthesis  Reducing Power: NADH  2 precursor metabolites  Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA):  Turn pyruvate into acetyl-CoA  Releases two molecules of CO 2  Generates the most reducing power of the pathways  Three precursor metabolites  ATP  Respiration:  Tranfers the electrons extracted from glucose tp the electron transport chain  Proton motive force  form ATP by oxidative phosphorylation  Aerobic: O s2rves as the terminal electron acceptor  Anaerobic: does not use O as a2terminal electron acceptor  Fermentation:  Cells breakdown glucose using glyclosis  Then pyruvate is a terminal electron acceptor  Transferring electrons by NADH  Produces little ATP o Compare and contrast the electron transport chains of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. o Compare and contrast aerobic, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation o Explain how chemolithotrophs obtain energy. o Compare and contrast the tandem photosystems of cyanobacteria and  photosynthetic eukaryotes with the single photosystems of purple and green  bacteria. o Understand how anabolism depends on catabolism in terms of energy, precursor  metabolites, and reducing power  Compare and contrast bacteria, protists (algae, protozoan), and fungi o Fungi  includes molds, single-celled yeasts, and mushrooms  Yeasts: single celled fungi  Molds: filamentous fungi  Mushrooms: reproductive structures of certain fungi  Cell wall: chitin  Primciple decomposers of organic compounds  CO 2nd N  Types:  Chytrids: live in water/ guts  Motile cells  Some can be parasitic  Zygomycetes: mold  Black bread mold  Sporangia: reproductive structures  Others spoil fruits and vegatables  Ascomycetes: made up of about 75% of the fungi population  Pencillium: earliest antibiotic  Some cause diseases and others can be eaten  Basidomycetes: mushrooms  Collected and grown for food  Plant parasites  Wheat, rye, and corn crops  Multiceullular; threadlike filaments called hyphae  Used to gather their food source  Found: everywhere  Many are terrestrial organisms  Prefer 20C to 35C climates  pH of 5 or lower  Reproduction:  Spore: reproductive cells  Fusion of hyphae from two different mating types growing together  Budding: yeasts  Fragmentation: molds o Algae  Simple photosynthetic eukaryotes  Lack organized vascular systems  Most are aquatic  Diverse group of protists  Unicellular or multicellular  Cell walls: cellulose  Groups:  Green Algae  Brown Algae  Red Algae  Diatoms  Dinoflagellas  Euglenids  Found in both fresh and salt water / moist soil  Plankton: phytoplankton  Reproduction  Fragmentation  Alternate between haploid and diploid generations o Protozoa  Diverse group where there is a little relationship between them  Unicellular heterotrophic organisms  Types:  Apicomplexans:  Parasites with an apical complex  Plasmodium that cause malaria  Diplomonads and Parabasalids  Flagellated protists that lack mitochondria  Two nuclei and reside within hosts  Giardia lambia : diarrhea  Water from streams  Kinetoplastids:  At least one flagellum and characterized by DNA mass  Large mitochondrian  Leishmania major: cause of leishmaniasis  Sand flies  Trypanosoma cruzi: Chagas disease  Loboseans and heteroloboseans  Ameboid body form   Change shape as they move   Entamoeba histolytica: infects humans causing diarrhea  o Convergent evolution; lichen; mycorrhizae  Lichen: mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae  Fungus: protection and absobs water and minerals  Algae: organic nutrients  Can grow in extreme environments but only together  Mycorrhizae: plant roots and fungi  Increases the plant ability to absorb water and minerals    Examples of microorganisms in terms of metabolic diversity, environmental diversity,  and impact on human FOUND THROUGHOUT THE STUDY GUIDE  Clostridium                                 Saccharomyces        Rhizobium                                                       algae Myxobacteria                                                  dinoflagellate                                                  Streptomyces                                                                                                   Agrobacterium                                                                                                Pseudomonas aeruginosa                               Plasmodium                                                  E. coli                                                              Trypanosoma                                                  Propionibacterium                                          Trichomonas Sulfur oxidizer                                                                                                Methanogen                                                        Purple &green bacteria                                    Cyanobacteria             Bdellovibrio     Legionella Lactobacillus


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