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by: Jenna Notetaker


Marketplace > Ohio University > Dance > DANC 2230 > LOD STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
Jenna Notetaker
GPA 3.65

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Languages of Dance
Tresa Randall
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to DANC 2230 at Ohio University taught by Tresa Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Languages of Dance in Dance at Ohio University.




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Date Created: 10/03/16
Midterm LOD Terms Meduri Transcendental  of or relating to a spiritual or nonphysical realm: Theatrical ­ of, for, or relating to acting, actors, or the theater: Synthesis  combination or composition, in particular.  Religious world  view- A worldview is the framework from which we view reality and  make sense of life Colonialism ­ the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control  over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. Classical ­ regarded as representing an exemplary standard; traditional and  long­established in form or style: Nondualistic- not the state of being dual or consisting of two parts; division into two. Patronage  the support given by a patron Authenticity ­ he quality of being authentic Vulgar  vs. sublime ­ lacking sophistication or good taste; unrefined vs of  such excellence, grandeur, or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe Secular/  secularization ­denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that  have no religious or spiritual basis Respectability   the state or quality of being proper, correct, and socially  acceptable Circularity  already containing an assumption of what is to be proved, and  therefore fallacious Patriarchal  society ­ a system of society or government in which the father  or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line. Doolittle and Elton Ceremonial ­ relating to or used for formal events of a religious or public  nature: Shaman ­ a person regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of good and evil spirits, especially among some peoples of northern Asia and North  America. Typically, such people enter a trance state during a ritual, and practice  divination and healing.  Pan ­Indian  of or relating to the whole of India, or to all its ethnic, religious, or  linguistic groups. Predecessor ­ a person who held a job or office before the current holder: Titillation  stimulate or excite (someone), especially in a sexual way Suppression ­ the action of suppressing something such as an activity or  publication Rekindling ­ relight (a fire) Human rights legislation- allowance to defend your own rights  Emotional restraint ­unemotional, dispassionate, or moderate behavior;  self­control: Commercialization ­ the process of managing or running something  principally for financial gain:  Stylistic  integrity ­ the quality of being honest and having strong moral  principles; moral uprightness: Synchrony  simultaneous action, development, or occurrence Cardinal directions ­ north west east south Initiation  the action of admitting someone into a secret or obscure society or  group, typically with a ritual Regalia ­ the emblems or insignia of royalty, especially the crown, scepter, and  other ornaments used at a coronation. Asante Polyrhythmic ­ a rhythm that makes use of two or more different rhythms  simultaneously. Polycentrism ­many centers Holistic ­ characterized by comprehension of the parts of something as  intimately interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole. Aesthetics ­ a set of principles underlying and guiding the work of a particular  artist or artistic movement: Artist as  conduit- the artist as a creator Curvilinear  ­contained by or consisting of a curved line or linAntithesis of symmetrical, proportional, profile-oriented Western form Extrasensory dimensions- qualities outside one's normal sense perception. Collective ­ done by people acting as a group Ontological  showing the relations between the concepts and categories in a  subject area or domain Ecstasy ­ an overwhelming feeling of great happiness or joyful excitement Possession ­ the state of having, owning, or controlling something Helland Islamic  relating to Islam: Muslim ­a follower of the religion of Islam. Harem ­ the separate part of a Muslim household reserved for wives,  concubines, and female servants.  Mystique  a fascinating aura of mystery, awe, and power surrounding  someone or something Ambiguous ­ open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning Courtesan ­ a prostitute, especially one with wealthy or upper­class clients Fertility ­ the quality of being fertile; productiveness Ritualistic ­ the regular observance or practice of ritual, especially when  excessive or without regard to its function. Alluring and seductive ­ powerfully and mysteriously attractive or  fascinating; seductive Matriarchal ­ relating to or denoting a form of social organization in which a  woman is the head Malnig Attainment of social  status ­ the action or fact of achieving a goal toward which one has worked: Deportment  a person's behavior or manners Debutante ball ­a young woman making a debut into society. Decorum ­ dignified propriety of behavior, speech, dress, etc. Social  mobility ­ the ability of individuals or groups to move within a social hierarchy with changes in income, education, occupation, Industrialization ­conversion to the methods, aims, and ideals of industry a nd economic activity, particularly of an area that was previously underdeveloped economically. Consumer  culture ­ study of consumption choices and behaviors from a social and  cultural point of view Rags /Ragtime ­ music characterized by a syncopated melodic line and  regularly accented accompaniment, evolved by black American musicians in the  1890s and played especially on the piano Exhibition  ballroom dance ­ competitive ballroom dance Fashion ­ a manner of doing something Rhythmical  synchronization Kinetic  language ­ of, relating to, or resulting from motion Rhetoric ­ the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the  use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques Progressive Era ­ period of widespread social activism and political reform Leisure ­ free time Refinement ­ the process of removing impurities or unwanted elements from  a substance: Proficiency  competent or skilled in doing or using something Acculturation ­ assimilate or cause to assimilate a different culture, typically  the dominant one American cabaret ­ restaurant belly dancing Urbanization ­ make or become urban in character Winter Virtuosity ­ great skill in music or another artistic pursuit Counterpoint ­ the art or technique of setting, writing, or playing a melody or  melodies in conjunction with another, according to fixed rules Antiphonal  (in traditional Western Christian liturgy) (of a short sentence or its musical setting) sung, recited, or played alternately by two groups. Minstrelsy ­ the practice of performing as a minstrel Amalgam  a mixture or blend Caricature ­ a picture, description, or imitation of a person or thing in which  certain striking characteristics are exaggerated in order to create a comic or  grotesque effect: Syncopation  displace the beats or accents in (music or a rhythm) so that  strong beats become weak and vice versa Rhythmic  breaks ”­ planned musical breaks Spectacle ­a visually striking performance or display Extravaganzas ­ an elaborate and spectacular entertainment or production: Artistic  conventions ­a large meeting or conference, especially of  members of a political party or a particular profession Jam sessions ­ a period of time spent making improvised music, especially  jazz, rock, or pop music, as practice, for fun, or to experiment with new songs or  techniques  Kealiinohomoku Anthropology  the study of humankind, in particular Ethnocentrism ­ evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions  originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture. Monolithic- consisting of one piece; solid or unbroken Expression- the act of expressing or setting forth in words Contemporary- existing, occurring, or living at the same time; belonging to the same time Balletomanes- a ballet enthusiast. Ethnic- pertaining to or characteristic of a people, especially a group (ethnic group) Aesthetic- relating to the philosophy of aesthetics; concerned with notions such as the beautiful and the ugly. Aesthetically  satisfying- Nice to look at Ritual- an established or prescribed procedure for a religious or other rite Chivalry- the sum of the ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms Culture- the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. Society- an organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. Dance 2700 Midterm Exam – Exemplary Student Essays 1. Discuss two traditions in which dance plays a role in religion. Describe the dance styles and how they relate to religious beliefs. Student Essay #1: Two traditions in which dance plays a role in religion are the Snake Dance in India, and the religious dances of the Yoruba people. In both of these instances, dances are performed so that their gods may be pleased. In India, virgin girls are the “snake dancers.” During the ceremony, there is a beautiful mandala made on the ground from brightly colored spices. When it is complete, after a lot of work, the dancers sit down and listen to the music. When they start dancing, it is said they are being possessed by snakes or the god related to snakes. Their movement is fast and smooth, but still twitchy and unplanned or animal-like. The young girls toss their hair and bend forward at the waist, rolling their head or neck all around and letting their heads lead them. When the dancers are “un-possessed,” they fall over and the gods are said to be satisfied, the mandala wiped away. In Yoruba religion, each god has their own dance style and their own drumbeat. The dancers listen to the cues of the drummer as to what kinds of moves they should do. The dance we watched in class, the dancers danced with bent knees at a slow and relaxed pace. The dances are meant to gain the attention of the gods. Student Essay #2: One tradition in which dance plays a role in religion is that of the Yoruba people of Nigeria, Africa. They worship many deities and have separate priests and/or priestesses for each. Additionally, each deity has a unique dance. For example, Osun, the goddess of the river and protector of children. Her dance is very relaxed and unhurried – exhibits patience – and it is not treated as a performance of dance, but rather as a ritual and offering for the deity. If the deity is pleased, than a priestess is possessed and begins communication. For the Yoruba people, dance connects this world to spirits and deities beyond as a means off communication. A second tradition [is] the serpent ritual of the Pullava people of India. The serpent rituals are used as a cleansing method and a means to bring good fortune. They can last for 7 days and consist of mainly two dances: the fire dancer and the possession of the virgin girls. There is a great mosaic created on the floor to create a space for the ritual. The fire dance consists of very large movements and demonstrate strength. The dance with the virgin girls is when the possession of the serpent begins. The girls begin to clear the mosaic and tear down the ritual space during this dance which consists of snake like movements on the ground to clear the mosaic and often lead with the head. Also, during this ritual the girls are either deaf or blind just as a serpent. Like the Yoruba people, this ritual and dance is a means of communication with the spirits beyond. According to Pallabi Chakravorty, why is it important to understand the intercultural history of Bharata Natyam? Student Essay #1: In Chakravorty’s writing, I became aware of two reasons that understanding other cultures and their practices, specifically Bharata Natyam, was important. For one, understanding cultures can help prevent the tendency that the Western world has to picture other, older countries as not only traditional, but as static and as unchanging and even as less civilized than our own society. Understanding Bharata Natyam gives us an in- depth look at India – their beliefs and ideas, making it easier to avoid orientalist thinking. Another reason that understanding Bharata Natyam is important is because it is something that was taken away from Indians at one point, understanding Bharata Natyam gives us an amazing story of how India held onto its culture despite European colonization. After the era of British rule over India and the outlaw of non-Christian practices, Bharata Natyam was almost lost, but was revived by an aspiring Indian ballerina. Today, Bharata Natyam is not only religious, but is performed for entertainment. Student Essay #2: Pallabi Chakravorty spoke about how interculturalism affected Bharata Natyam. It is important to understand this intercultural history because it explains the imbalance of cultural exchange and also explains how both Indian dance and politics were affected by Western ideology. Chakravorty wrote about how interculturalism/appropriation is often an unfair exchange that reflects the power and influence a culture has. The nationalist movement in India was brought on by Western influence. This relates to the intercultural history of Bharata Natyam because it was also influenced by Western culture over time and became more about performance than just tradition. Understanding the intercultural history in dance allows you to see that Western influence was not just in dance, but in politics as well. Compare folk dance and social dance. What functions does each form serve in society, and how do the aesthetics of the form reflect those functions? Student Essay #1: Folk dance and social dance both hold a lot of cultural relevance in history, but they differ in many ways. While both are generally performed by both sexes, folk dances often feature large groups of each sex, and social dances are typically between two people. Also, folk dances are typically costumed in bright colors and performed at heritage festivals, while social dances are not formally costumed, but rather feature the fashion style of the given era, and are danced in clubs, juke joints, or other venues for social interaction. Historically, folk dances act as a way of preserving culture through movement, and may reflect certain gender roles or rituals of the time. However, social dance deals with gender roles more specifically with respect to a relational dynamic, and thus evolves with each generation’s or culture’s understanding of such. For instance, the waltz very much enforced male masculine hegemony in courtship and marital practices, while the Charleston later redefined femininity and took the reliance off the male, during a time which was very much about female sexual freedom. Student Essay #2: Folk dance has been practiced for many years as a way of celebrating one’s ethnic background and culture. It is a way of celebrating and conserving a culture through communal participation. It often brings communities together on holidays. The form and aesthetics of most folk dances include dancing in groups, vibrant costumes, the use of props, and traditional music. The group aspect reflects the importance of community in folk dance. Costumes, props, and music reflect the culture and celebration of ethnicity in folk dance. Social dance up to the 19 century was key to being a participating and respected member of society. It was all about etiquette and social class. Your dance abilities and skill reflected your class and social status. This etiquette was reflected in the highly choreographed and proper movements of the dances. These social dances were mostly done with a partner and not in general groups like folk dances. Social dance functions and aesthetics changed in the 20 th century (next essay). How did the contexts and etiquette rules of social dance change from the 19 thto the 20 thcenturies? Student Essay #1: In the 19 century, social dance had a very rigid set of rules and social etiquette, though it had changed somewhat from its original complexity from the Baroque and Renaissance period. Now, couples were allowed to face each other in court dances such as the waltz, though it was seen as very scandalous for some time. They also held each other very closely during a waltz which was a very bold transition from previously barely touching fingertips. The waltz was also much faster than its predecessors and was very much a twirly, fast spinning dance, the likes of which had never been conceived before. 20 century dances continued the close embrace and fast paced movement as it turned to ragtime dances like the Turkey Trot, Castle Walk, and Grizzly Bear. However, some other dances of the time, such as the Charleston and the Lindy Hop, included more solo opportunities for each partner. Though the couple would dance together, they were also able to dance apart and improvise their own movements before they would come back together. They also featured much more complicated steps and new, exciting rhythms to dance to. These dances no longer took place in courts of kings, but instead in nightclubs or juke joints for everyone to enjoy. It was much less formal and dictated by etiquette, and people of all classes, and races, could enjoy and take part in the highly energized dances. Compare two cultural traditions – how does dance reveal expectations in that culture towards gender and sexuality? Student Essay #1: One cultural tradition in dance that reveals expectations about gender and sexuality is the waltz. It was used during its time as a means of courtship, a way for people to find suitable marriage partners. There were clearly defined gender roles, with the male being the lead, showing dominance, and the woman following, showing a willingness to be taken. The expectation during the 19 century in Europe was that people would be heterosexual, and should find a marriage partner so they can have a family. Another cultural tradition in dance is social dance in the Cook Islands. Some are more courtship oriented dances but there are also group dances that clearly define gender roles in the society. In one example, boys and girls dance together but do different types of movement. Boys dance with their legs apart and keep the rhythm. Girls dance with their legs together and are supposed to beautify the dance. The idea behind this is that boys and girls should dance how society expects them to, in a way that exemplifies their traits. Boys for example can show their sexuality more than girls in dancing with their legs open. Both the waltz and dance in the Cook Islands show how dance traditions involve making people perform their assigned gender, which is essential in societies where courtship and marriage unions are the goal. Why does Marta Savigliano refer to tango milongas in Buenos Aires as a “dance economy”? Discuss the participants and the meaning they find in tango. Student Essay #1: Tango is a dance economy because it involves a series of exchanges and rules, also like a game. The milonguera begins her night at the tango club by “wallflowering” who knows how to dance but does not. She is being actively passive in waiting for a milonguero to choose her as a partner. The meaning participants who are milongueras find in tango is found through gambling their femininity in coaxing a man to ask them to dance. After this is done, and after the wallflower becomes a femme fatale who has danced many times with different partners, her femininity that has been gambled is rebuilt. She has become an active object of desire, and through this process shows feminine agency in the way she has power to choose her own partners. Tango is a representation of female agency through navigating a patriarchal society, since the dancer had to embody traditional notions of femininity to get her power. Student Essay #2: In the context of Tango, “dance economy” refers to the ratio of male dancers to female dancers. This style, developed in Argentina, was practiced in venues called “Milongas.” It was a kind of social dance, and the women (who outnumbered the men) waiting on a turn to dance were referred to as wallflowers. The Tango is an intimate, sensual dance, and many people found meaning in the emotional connection. Even though many of the dancers were single and lonely, for those few hours on the dance floor they felt alive and whole. The dance served as an outlet and escape from the real world, and this is what kept people coming to the Milonga night after night. Discuss three examples of dances that are a cultural fusion between European-based and African-based aesthetics. Student Essay #1: Brenda Dixon Gottschild argued that African American influence has made its way to American dance. This began in the 20 century and really defined the changing times. The first time that you see this take place is with the Cakewalk. Originally African Americans made this dance to mock the white social dance but it actually turned into a hit. Another example would be the Charleston because women would flap their legs, which was never seen before. The Charleston’s flapping leg movement came from African-based aesthetics because they typically had bent knees and used a large amount of feet movement. Finally, the Twist had African-based aesthetics of bent knees and torso movements. This dance was first seen on American Bandstand and was spread across the United States. Ironically, the man who performed the Twist on American Bandstand was African American and the show was known for its integration efforts.


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