This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 7 page document.
to view the rest of the content
Psychology Study Guide Test 2Language DevelopmentMade up of two primary units:Morphemes: smallest language units that have meaning including suffixes and prefixesPhonemes: basic sounds of speech, making them building block of language; lettersSyntax and SemanticsSyntax: rules of speaking, without syntax our communication would fall apartSemantics: meaning of words and phrasesAbout 4,000 languages in the worldLanguage and the BrainBroca’s Area- production of speechWernicke’s Area- understanding speechAphasia: language disorder that results in deficits in language comprehension and productionLanguage in InfancyStart talking about a yearPhrases 1.5-2 yearsSentences 3 yearsCommon mistakeso Overgeneralizations: as children begin to use language in more sophisticated ways they overapply grammar rules they learno Telegraphic speech: tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markingsLearning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Classical ConditioningA neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that responseo Pavlov’s Dog: every time dog got food he would salivate and a bell would be rung, then the researcher just rang the bell and the dog would salivate because he associated the bell with foodUnconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning (food)Unconditioned response: response that does not have to be learned (salivating)
Conditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (bell)Conditioned response: response that has been learned (salivate)o Little Albert: when he reached for a white rat there was a loud banging noise and he would cry. Soon they would just show him the rat and he would cry because he associated the rat with the loud noiseo You can learn and unlearn fearBiological Preparedness: natural fear instinct (snakes, sharks, clowns)Operant ConditioningA learning process in which the consequence of an action determines the likelihood that it will be performed in the futureLaw of effect: if consequence of behavior makes you feel good you’ll do it again, if you feel bad you might not do it againReinforcement and PunishmentReinforcement increases likelihood of a stimulusPositive reinforcement: administration of a stimulus to increase probability of a behavior being repeatedNegative reinforcement: removal of a stimulus to increase probability of behavior being repeated Punishment decreases likelihood of behaviorPositive punishment: administration of a stimulus to decrease probability of behavior recurringNegative punishment: removal of a stimulus to decrease probability of behavior recurringReinforcement (increases behavior)Punishment (decreases behavior)PositiveGive a kid candy for a job well doneGetting paid for doing a taskWatching TV after homeworkDog gets a treat for sittingYelling “No!” at a dog jumping up on someoneSpanking a childGetting a speeding ticket for speedingGetting nauseous after eating rotten foodNegativeScratching an itch of a bug biteDaydreaming or doodling in a Child has a toy take away for fighting with his sister
boring classStudying when you worry about a testDolphin trainer walks away with bucket of fish after dolphin was being aggressiveObservation Learning: learning by watching how others behaveModeling: imitating a behavior through observational learningo Only effective is observer is physically capable of imitating the behaviorVicarious learning: learning to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punishedo Bobo Doll: children were shown a video of a women beating up this doll and when they were presented with the doll they beat it up just like the women in the video did Learning of FearAnimal’s fear can be learned through observationMemory- the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge Encoding: processing of information so it can be stored Storage: retention of encoded representations over time Consolidation: neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory Retrieval: act of recalling stored information when needed Reconsolidation: neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrievalSensory memory is briefSensory memory: a memory system that very briefly stores sensory information in close to its original sensory formo About 1/3 of a second and then progressively fadesWorking memory is activeMaterial is passed from sensory memory to short term memoryo Short term memory: memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of info in awareness; use it or lose it; 20 secondso Working memory: an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current useMemory Span and ChunkingMemory span refers to amount of information held in working memoryChunking numbers/words/objects together make remembering easierLong Term Memory continues on next page
This is the end of the preview. Please
to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa who use StudySoup to get ahead