PY 101, Study Guide Test 2
PY 101, Study Guide Test 2 PY 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Psychology Study Guide Test 2 Language Development Made up of two primary units: Morphemes: smallest language units that have meaning including suffixes and prefixes Phonemes: basic sounds of speech, making them building block of language; letters Syntax and Semantics Syntax: rules of speaking, without syntax our communication would fall apart Semantics: meaning of words and phrases About 4,000 languages in the world Language and the Brain Broca’s Area- production of speech Wernicke’s Area- understanding speech Aphasia: language disorder that results in deficits in language comprehension and production Language in Infancy Start talking about a year Phrases 1.5-2 years Sentences 3 years Common mistakes o Overgeneralizations: as children begin to use language in more sophisticated ways they overapply grammar rules they learn o Telegraphic speech: tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Classical Conditioning A neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response o Pavlov’s Dog: every time dog got food he would salivate and a bell would be rung, then the researcher just rang the bell and the dog would salivate because he associated the bell with food Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning (food) Unconditioned response: response that does not have to be learned (salivating) Conditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (bell) Conditioned response: response that has been learned (salivate) o Little Albert: when he reached for a white rat there was a loud banging noise and he would cry. Soon they would just show him the rat and he would cry because he associated the rat with the loud noise o You can learn and unlearn fear Biological Preparedness: natural fear instinct (snakes, sharks, clowns) Operant Conditioning A learning process in which the consequence of an action determines the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Law of effect: if consequence of behavior makes you feel good you’ll do it again, if you feel bad you might not do it again Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement increases likelihood of a stimulus Positive reinforcement: administration of a stimulus to increase probability of a behavior being repeated Negative reinforcement: removal of a stimulus to increase probability of behavior being repeated Punishment decreases likelihood of behavior Positive punishment: administration of a stimulus to decrease probability of behavior recurring Negative punishment: removal of a stimulus to decrease probability of behavior recurring Reinforcement Punishment (increases behavior) (decreases behavior) Positive Give a kid candy Yelling “No!” at a for a job well dog jumping up done on someone Getting paid for Spanking a child doing a task Getting a Watching TV after speeding ticket homework for speeding Dog gets a treat Getting nauseous for sitting after eating rotten food Negative Scratching an Child has a toy itch of a bug bite take away for Daydreaming or fighting with his doodling in a sister boring class Dolphin trainer Studying when walks away with you worry about bucket of fish a test after dolphin was being aggressive Observation Learning: learning by watching how others behave Modeling: imitating a behavior through observational learning o Only effective is observer is physically capable of imitating the behavior Vicarious learning: learning to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punished o Bobo Doll: children were shown a video of a women beating up this doll and when they were presented with the doll they beat it up just like the women in the video did Learning of Fear Animal’s fear can be learned through observation Memory- the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and knowledge Encoding: processing of information so it can be stored Storage: retention of encoded representations over time Consolidation: neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory Retrieval: act of recalling stored information when needed Reconsolidation: neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval Sensory memory is brief Sensory memory: a memory system that very briefly stores sensory information in close to its original sensory form o About 1/3 of a second and then progressively fades Working memory is active Material is passed from sensory memory to short term memory o Short term memory: memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of info in awareness; use it or lose it; 20 seconds o Working memory: an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use Memory Span and Chunking Memory span refers to amount of information held in working memory Chunking numbers/words/objects together make remembering easier Long Term Memory continues on next page Long Term Memory Episodic Memory (personally experienced Explicit (conscious memories) effort) Semantic Memory (facts and knowledge) Long Term Memory Classical Conditioning (Associating 2 stimuli elicits a Implicit (doesn't response) require a conscious effort) Procedural Memory (motor skills and habits; muscle memory) Memory Distortion Schacter identified what he calls the seven sins of memory o Transience, blocking, absentmindedness, and persistence are related to forgetting and remembering o Bias, misattribution and suggestibility are distortions of memory People reconstruct events to be consistent o Recall past beliefs and past attitudes as being consistent with their current ones Memory bias: want it to be consistent with our view points o Flash bulb memories: vivid recollection of a major event Von Restorff effect: remember vivid memories more than others (amygdala and hippocampus activated) o Source misattribution Memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person or circumstances involved with a memory False fame effect: hearing a person’s name and thinking they are famous Sleeper effect: hearing something once and not believing it then over time believing it Types of Amnesia Source amnesia: can't remember how you learned information Cryptomnesia: when you read or see something and think it it your idea Eyewitness Testimony Most cases of wrongful conviction are a result of incorrect eyewitness testimony Studying Techniques 1. Distribute your learning 2. Elaborate the material 3. Overlearn 4. Use verbal mnemonics 5. Use visual imagery 6. Testing Attention Attention span is 10-15 minutes Attention: behavioral process of allocating limited processing resources o It is limited Concerned with three kinds o Sustained o Selective o Divided Change Blindness Shows us we really do not pay that much attention to our surroundings o Door study Memory and Attention You cannot remember what you don’t attend to Mood affects attention the most Amnesia: lose periods of time, problem retrieving information from long term memory Absentmindness: dividing our attention too much Persistence: continue to have unwanted memories (PTSD) Decision Making Decision making vs. problem solving Decision making: choosing between alternatives Problem solving: how to solve the solution Expected utility theory: make decisions to maximize utility associated with choice Relative comparisons: Anchoring: the tendency, in making judgements, to rely on the first piece of information encountered or information that comes most quickly to mind Framing: in decision making, the tendency to emphasize the potential losses or gains from at least one alternative Heuristics Shortcuts to reduce amount of thinking Representative heuristics o Make a judgement called based on image Affective forecasting o Tendency to overestimate how an outcome will make us feel Availability heuristic o Tendency to make decisions based on the answer that most easily comes to mind Intelligence The ability to use knowledge to: o Reason o Make decisions o Solve problems o Understand complex ideas o Learn o Adapt to environmental challenges Nature v. Nurture Entity: intelligence is an innate ability, present at birth Incremental view: intelligence is judgement and adapting to one’s circumstances Theories of Intelligence 1. General intelligence (g) a. One general factor underlies intelligence 2. Fluid versus crystallized intelligence a. Fluid: ability to solve new problems, use logic and identify patterns b. Crystallized: ability to use learned knowledge and experience 3. Emotional intelligence a. Form of social intelligence i. Manage emotions ii. Use emotions to guide thoughts and actions iii. Recognize other’s emotions iv. Understand emotional language 4. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory a. Analytical i. Abstract thinking and logical reasoning ii. Verbal and mathematical skills b. Creative i. Divergent thinking (generating new ideas) ii. Ability to deal with novel situations c. Practical i. Ability to apply knowledge to the real world ii. Ability to shape one’s environment 5. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence a. Linguistic (word smart) b. Logical-mathematical (number/reasoning smart) c. Spatial (picture smart) d. Bodily-kinesthetic (body smart) e. Musical (music smart) f. Interpersonal (people smart) g. Intrapersonal (self-smart) h. Naturalist (nature smart)
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