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UA - PSYCH 101 - PY 101, Study Guide Test 2 - Study Guide

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UA - PSYCH 101 - PY 101, Study Guide Test 2 - Study Guide

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background image Psychology Study Guide Test 2 Language Development Made up of two primary units: Morphemes: smallest language units that have meaning including 
suffixes and prefixes
Phonemes: basic sounds of speech, making them building block of 
language; letters
Syntax and Semantics Syntax: rules of speaking, without syntax our communication would fall
apart
Semantics: meaning of words and phrases About 4,000 languages in the world Language and the Brain Broca’s Area- production of speech Wernicke’s Area- understanding speech Aphasia: language disorder that results in deficits in language 
comprehension and production
Language in Infancy Start talking about a year Phrases 1.5-2 years Sentences 3 years Common mistakes o Overgeneralizations: as children begin to use language in more  sophisticated ways they overapply grammar rules they learn o Telegraphic speech: tendency for toddlers to speak using  rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical 
markings
Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from 
experience
Classical Conditioning
A neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a 
stimulus that already produces that response
o Pavlov’s Dog: every time dog got food he would salivate and a  bell would be rung, then the researcher just rang the bell and the
dog would salivate because he associated the bell with food
Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response without any 
prior learning (food)
Unconditioned response: response that does not have to be learned 
(salivating)
background image Conditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response only after 
learning has taken place (bell)
Conditioned response: response that has been learned (salivate) o Little Albert: when he reached for a white rat there was a loud  banging noise and he would cry.  Soon they would just show him 
the rat and he would cry because he associated the rat with the 
loud noise
o You can learn and unlearn fear Biological Preparedness: natural fear instinct (snakes, sharks, clowns) Operant Conditioning A learning process in which the consequence of an action determines 
the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
Law of effect: if consequence of behavior makes you feel good you’ll do
it again, if you feel bad you might not do it again
Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement increases likelihood of a stimulus Positive reinforcement: administration of a stimulus to increase 
probability of a behavior being repeated
Negative reinforcement: removal of a stimulus to increase probability 
of behavior being repeated 
Punishment decreases likelihood of behavior Positive punishment: administration of a stimulus to decrease 
probability of behavior recurring
Negative punishment: removal of a stimulus to decrease probability of 
behavior recurring
Reinforcement
(increases behavior)
Punishment
(decreases behavior)
Positive Give a kid candy 
for a job well 
done
Getting paid for 
doing a task
Watching TV after
homework
Dog gets a treat 
for sitting
Yelling “No!” at a 
dog jumping up 
on someone
Spanking a child Getting a 
speeding ticket 
for speeding
Getting nauseous
after eating 
rotten food
Negative Scratching an 
itch of a bug bite
Daydreaming or 
doodling in a 
Child has a toy 
take away for 
fighting with his 
sister
background image boring class Studying when 
you worry about 
a test
Dolphin trainer 
walks away with 
bucket of fish 
after dolphin was 
being aggressive
Observation Learning: learning by watching how others behave Modeling: imitating a behavior through observational learning o Only effective is observer is physically capable of imitating the  behavior Vicarious learning: learning to engage in a behavior or not after seeing 
others being rewarded or punished
o Bobo Doll: children were shown a video of a women beating up  this doll and when they were presented with the doll they beat it 
up just like the women in the video did
 
Learning of Fear
Animal’s fear can be learned through observation Memory- the nervous system’s capacity to retain and retrieve skills and 
knowledge
Encoding: processing of information so it can be stored
Storage: retention of encoded representations over time
Consolidation: neural process by which encoded information becomes stored 
in memory
Retrieval: act of recalling stored information when needed
Reconsolidation: neural processes involved when memories are recalled and 
then stored again for retrieval
Sensory memory is brief Sensory memory: a memory system that very briefly stores sensory 
information in close to its original sensory form
o About 1/3 of a second and then progressively fades Working memory is active Material is passed from sensory memory to short term memory o Short term memory: memory storage system that briefly holds a  limited amount of info in awareness; use it or lose it; 20 seconds o Working memory: an active processing system that keeps  different types of information available for current use Memory Span and Chunking Memory span refers to amount of information held in working memory Chunking numbers/words/objects together make remembering easier  Long Term Memory continues on next page

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: intro, to, and Psychology
Name: PY 101, Study Guide Test 2
Description: Very detailed!!
Uploaded: 10/04/2016
7 Pages 67 Views 53 Unlocks
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