GEOG 1113 Introduction to Landforms Brooks UGA Exam 3 Study Guide
GEOG 1113 Introduction to Landforms Brooks UGA Exam 3 Study Guide GEOG 1113
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1113 at University of Georgia taught by Brooks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Landforms in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 3 / Final Study Guide Brook – GEOG 1113 1. The idea of the “geographical cycle of erosion” was proposed by who? • The Geographical cycle: William Morris Davis – 1930 o Davis relates the geographical cycle of erosion to the human life cycle o The graded profile increases in height (or else the river won’t flow) o Sea level = universal base level o There are low (stage 3), medium (stage 2), and high areas (stage 1), with increasing erosion towards high areas 2. Tropical karst is often referred to as what? • Cockpit Karst o Doline Karst (colloquially called “sinkhole karst”) : usually rolling plains that have few surface streams and often no surface valleys. Instead, the landscape is pocked with sinkholes, often tens or hundreds of sinkholes per square kilometer. These sinkholes range from barely discernible shallow swales one to two meters wide to depressions hundreds of meters in depth and one or more kilometers in width § Uvalas—formed by the coalescence of two or more dolines ( ½ mile to a mile in diameter) § Poljes—the largest of the karst depression classes (can be upwards of 30 miles in diameter o Cockpit karst: conical, round -topped hills separated by star-shaped valleys, that looks similar to an upturned egg carton 3. During the late Wisoncinan glacial maximum sea level was… • Didn’t discuss in class 4. In a karst blind valley there is… • Never any flow beyond the streamsink threshold o dry valley – no water flow – water abandons this part of the valley o semi blind valley – flow beyond the threshold only during floods o blind valley – when all water goes underground through the year - never flows beyond the valley threshold 5. Sinuous streams in sinuous valleys are characteristic of which stage of the Geographical Cycle of Erosion? o Stage 1 = youthful- high in mountains, flowing fast, rapid down cutting, steep sided/straight valleys, stream is pretty straight- +1000 ft o Stage 2 = mature- no more down cutting, so stream becomes sinuous (windy), valley widening, interfluves are weathered down- + 700 ft o Stage 3 = old- broad floodplains/low hills, stream meanders a lot, very sinuous, streams can even flow back up the valley due to this- about 400 f § ex: incised meanders = Colorado river § ex: meandering streams and oxbow lakes (when the stream loops into a circle and is cut off from the rest of the stream so a lake is created) 6. Subsequent streams flow in which direction? • Along the softer rock outcrops • Rock Control of Drainage Patterns o Consequent—direction is determined by the slope of the structural surface o Subconsequent—develop subsequent by initial erosion by consequent streams, usually in the place of the softer rocks o Resequent—stream that flows in the direction of the consequent stream o Obsequent—stream that flows in the direction of the subsequent stream 7. In a system of subsequent, consequent resequent and obsequent streams, which steam flows parallel to the consequent? • Obsequent and resequent flow parallel • Resequent flows parallel and in the same direction 8. Residual hills projecting from the floors of poljes are called what? • Hum o Ponors—sinking points that allow water to drain out of the polje floor into underlying streams 9. The last major glacial phase reached a peak when? • Didn’t discuss in class 10. The eccentricity of the earth’s orbit varies around the sun with a periodicity of how many years? • Didn’t discuss in class 11. Which ice mass is an ice cap? • Columbia • Ice cap—smaller scale than ice sheets, cross valleys o Mountain: occur bc of cold due to high elevation § Columbia ice field in southern Canada o Lowland—rare, develop because of cold because of high latitude § Barnes ice can in Canada, which is shrinking 12. Which ice mass is an alpine valley glacier? • Teton • Valley glacier—occupy valleys o Alpine—occupy a valley, but not connected to or supplied by a larger mass of ice § Cirque glaciers, sits in the highest elevation of the valley system bc of high elevation, develops preferentially to the north east • Teton glacier, Wyoming glacier 13. At Chichen Itza in Mexico the Maya obtained water from where? • Cenote o cenotes = collapsed dolines that contain water at the ground water table - cenotes have steep walls and body of water in them (makes them slightly different than collapsed dolines- water levels in cenotes are at the groundwater level) § Common in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico § ex: collapsed dolines formed by collapse of roof of Skopjanska Cave, Slovenia - large passages in cave are up to 400 ft high § ex: chichen itza, mexico- has a cenote that used to be used for sacrifices 14. Which of these geomorphic features is common on the Serengeti Plains of Tanzania? • Castle kopjes 15. In deserts, after infrequent rain, water in a river can flow into the groundwater body. What is this called? • Influent seepage o Effluent seepage: flow of groundwater into rivers and lakes maybe as springs or seeps o Influent seepage: flow from rivers etc. Into the ground water (common in deserts) 16. Crevasses in ice that develop by the spreading of the ice from a narrow valley to a broad plain are called what? • Longitudinal o Longitudinal Crevasses: Form in the direction of a glac ier flow, and where ice slowly spreads out sideways to cover a larger area. Commonly found near the terminus of glaciers o Transverse Crevasses: Form across a glacier in a region where the speed is increasing, which causes stretching (tensile stress) in the direction of glacier flow. They fan across the glacier. They are common in the accumulation zone and near steepening slopes o Radial Crevasses: Form where a glacier turns a corner. The ice on the outside of the bend has to travel faster than the ice on the inside corner. This tension pulls the ice farther out from the corner, creating crevasses which radiate out from the inside wall 17. Water flowing within tunnels in a valley glacier are called what? • Didn’t discuss in class 18. Debris deposited at the snout of a valley glacier is called what? • End Moraine • Moraine: any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) that occurs in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions on Earth o Ablation Moraine: irregular-shaped layer or pile of glacier sediment formed by the melting of a block of stagnant ice o Recessional Moraine: often observed as a series of transverse ridges running across a valley behind a terminal moraine o Ground Moraine: till-covered areas with irregular topography an d no ridges, often forming gently rolling hills or plains o Lateral Moraine: parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier o Medial Moraine: t he double line of debris running down the center-line of the glacier 19. Calcium carbonate deposits ass ociated with waterfalls and springs are called what? • Tufas o Waterfall tufa: turbulence at waterfall speeds up CO2, degassing and precipitation of CaCO3 on rocks and vegetation (spring tufa = more porous than waterfall tufas) o Tufa is yellowish and porous - occur downstream of streams § ex: waterfall tufa- plitvice in Slovenia § ex: waterfall tufa-pigeon mountain in GA 20. Particles transported by water or wind bounce along in a process called what? • Saltation: a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wi nd or water. It occurs when loose material is removed from a bed and carried by the fluid, before being transported back to the surface 21. Water in equilibrium with atmospheric levels of CO 2can dissolve how many milligrams of calcium carbonate per liter of w ater? • 65 mg/liter o Pure water can dissolve 15 mg/liter of CaCO3 o Water in contact with atmosphere (assuming 0.03% CO 2 by volume) can dissolve 65 mg/liter o BUT, some spring waters have a ca. 350 mg/liter CaCO 3(high) § Occurs in sandstones with water 22. When orthoclase feldspar is mixed with water and CO , 2hich of the following substances is NOT produced? • Potassium Carbonate o Orthoclase feldspar + water = kaolinite + potassium oxide + soluble silica 23. If the mean annual temperature at a location is -10 degrees celcius, and the geothermal gradient is 1 degree celcius per 40m depth, how deep is the permafrost likely to be at this location? • Didn’t discuss in class 24. Around a lake, the thermal contraction crack that will develop will most likely have what geometric pattern? • Didn’t discuss in class 25. In Australia, what are desert pavements called? • Gibber Plains o a desert surface covered with closely packed, interlocking angular or rounded rock fragments of pebble and cobble size o Called reg (in the western Sahara), serir (ea stern Sahara), gibber (in Australia), or saï (central Asia) 26. Which salt appears to be most effective when weathering rocks? • Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) is very effective in breaking down rocks o “write that down in case I ask you on the exam about which salt is m ost effective in terms of salt weathering” 27. Rainfall is what naturally occurring acid? • Carbonic Acid o ALL rainfall is acidic because when water falls through the atmosphere, it dissolves CO2, turns it into H2CO3 (carbonic acid) 28. In Puerto Rico, what are karst towers called? • Mogote 29. Is carbon dioxide more or less soluble in colder water? • More 30. The Sangamon was what kind of period? • Interglacial 31. Variations in the tilt of earth’s axis affect the amount of radiation received at…. • Equator – Milankovitch Cycles 32. The Barnes ice mass is an example of what? • Lowland ice cap 33. Which feature is not produced by glacial deposition? • Arête o Arête: a narrow, sharp ridge separating two adjacent glacial valleys o Kame: a body of stratified glacial sediment o Kettle: a closed depression in a deposit of glacial drift formed where a block of ice was buried/partly buried and then melted o End Moraine: a ridge of till that accumulates at the margin of a gl acier o Esker: a long, narrow, sinuous ridge of stratified glacial drift deposited by a stream flowing underneath a glacier in a tunnel 34. Penck and Bruckner identified four glaciations in their “Classical Model.” After studying evidence from deep ocean cores, how many glaciations did scientists find have occurred in the last one million years? • Didn’t discuss in class??? (I think) 35. Thermoclastis is what? • The breakage in rocks due to heating and cooling o Causes rock spalling or flaking of slabs 1 -3cm thick, irregular shape, several inches long 36. Ablation is what? • All of the above o refers to all processes that remove snow, ice, or water from a glacier or snowfield 37. Mountaintops completely surrounded by ice that project from an ice sheet or ice cap are called what? • nunataks 38. An etchplain is what? • A surface produced by chemical weathering beneath a layer of weathered rock that has been exposed by removal of weathered rock • Etchplain (weathered rock was etched from chemical weathering) —an area where almost ALL weathered rock is eroded, the whole area is a sea of solid rock and boulders at the basal surface of weathering o Matopo Hills, Zimbabwe “best example I can think of” 39. An oxbow lake occupies a depression….. • Formed in the cutoff meander of a stream
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