Physics 2 for Engineering Review
Physics 2 for Engineering Review PHYS 1155
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aubrey Kenderdine on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 1155 at Northeastern University taught by Latika Menon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Physics for Engineering 2 in Physics at Northeastern University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
Physics Review #1: Chapter 21-23 Electric charge q- measured in coulombs (C) Electric force F- force between charged particles in Newtons (N) The direction of the force depends on the sign of charge (same signs attract, opposite signs repel) Coulomb’s Law 2 Fe= k q q1/2r 9 2 2 F es the electric force on q 1ue to q in2N; k is a constant 9 x 10 Nm / C ; q is the charge of each particle in C; and r is the distance between charges in meters Electric field E- force per unit charge E = F / q Direction depends on charge From a positive charge, the electric field points out From a negative charge, the electric field points in Force depends on the interaction between two charges If q is positive, F has the same direction as E If q is negative, F has the different direction as E Dipole Two identical charges of opposite signs Charge goes from negative to positive Dipole moment (p) separated by distance (d) p = q d Dipole moment in Cm (coulomb meters) Torque- force to rotate object Torque is maximum when dipole is perpendicular to electric field Torque is minimum when dipole is parallel or antiparallel to electric field Simple harmonic motion- oscillating about an equilibrium position At equilibrium position, the sum of all forces is 0 Velocity is 0 at peaks and troughs Amplitude is height of a peak (or depth of a trough) A period is one whole cycle of a peak and a trough T = 1/f (period is the inverse of frequency) At velocity = 0, kinetic energy = 0 and potential energy is at maximum Metal sphere = conductor Charge comes to the surface Surface charge σ = Q / A Insulator Charge distributed over the volume ρ = Q / V Gauss’s Law Charges inside closed surfaces (Q = enclosed charge) 2 ϕ is electric flux (electric field and area product with units N*m /C) ϕ = E * A = Q / Ɛ 0 Gaussian surface must be symmetric For point or sphere charges, Gaussian surface has a spherical distribution For linear or sheet charges, Gaussian surface has a cylindrical distribution For a conducting sphere on the circumference E = q / (4 π Ɛ R ) 2 0 Eon the inside of a conducting sphere = 0 λ = Q / L (charge per unit length) For a long wire E = λ / (2 π r Ɛ )0 For a cylinder E = q / (2 π r L Ɛ )0 For an infinitely thin sheet E = σ / 2 Ɛ 0 For an infinitely large object (with thickness) E = σ / Ɛ 0 Electric potential energy is a scalar quantity Unit is Joules (J) U = kQq / r Electric potential is a scalar quantity Unit of electric potential is volts (V) 1 V = 1 J / C Unit of electric field is N / C or V / m V = kq / r ΔV = - E * d at constant electric field For collection of point charges V = Σ kQ / r E direction points from positive charge to negative charge Positive charge moves in the direction of E from high to low potential Negative charge moves opposite to the direction of E from low to high potential E is perpendicular to equipotential lines For infinitely long cylinder or wire V b V = a λ / 2πƐ * l0 (r /r b a For ring of charge V = Q / 4 π Ɛ √0x + a ) 2 Point charge- equipotential lines are spherical Infinite line- equipotential lines are cylindrical Infinite sheet- equipotential lines are flat surfaces V = U / q U = qV
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