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Hist. 110-04 Intro. American Civilizations- Study Guide- Exam 1

by: Jamie Bacher

Hist. 110-04 Intro. American Civilizations- Study Guide- Exam 1 Hist 110-04

Marketplace > Montclair State University > History > Hist 110-04 > Hist 110 04 Intro American Civilizations Study Guide Exam 1
Jamie Bacher

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About this Document

Here are some important terms, the court cases and a few questions we should know how to answer for the exam.
Introduction to American Civilization
Neal Dougherty
Study Guide
Studyguide, history, introtoamericancivilizations, jehovahswitness, questions, exam, study
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jamie Bacher on Monday October 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 110-04 at Montclair State University taught by Neal Dougherty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Civilization in History at Montclair State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Study Guide­ Exam 1 Read chapters 4 and 7 from the book. Terms: ● Cultural Zeitgeist : The Spirit of the Times ● Drapetomania: It was the psychiatric diagnosis of slaves (usually African  American) who attempted to escape slavery. Coined by Dr. Samuel Cartwright. Cure?  Burn the slaves feet. U.S. Supreme Court Highest level in the U.S.(Higher than N.J  Supreme) N.J. Supreme Court Highest level in N.J. (Higher than Appellate) Appellate Court Med ( Higher than County/Superior) County/Superior Court Low (Higher than Municipal) Municipal Court Lowest Level ***** Not sure if the above will be on the test, since it is from the first week, but it is better to study than not***** More Terms:  ● Religion in 7 words:A firmly held moral belief in X. ● Gobitis­ Jehovah's Witness children.  ● Standing­ Means to be affected in some way by the case ● *What must happen for a case to go to the supreme court? ● They choose which ones are  “important” ● Must get a “cert” ­ Writ of Certiorari ● Then, they decided to hear the case ● Who challenged the first amendment the most (In relevance to cases/religious groups) ? Jehovah’s Witnesses ● Domino Theory: If Vietnam falls, other countries will fall. (such as dominoes,  when one falls the others get knocked down) ● Lexus­ Legal database search engine. **** I would also make sure you know: ● The first amendment. ● How can people try to tailor religion to their own needs? (Remember the example  about the Vegan and the Pastafarians. People could easily try to say it is their religion to  only eat certain things, even though they may just be picky.) Questions from the movie “Inherit the Wind” (answer them for the exam) ● What is the issue in the movie? And in the real case? ● What is the name of the real case? ● What was the result? ● Find a similar case post 2000:  Remember the seminal court cases in chronological order: Cantwell vs Connecticut­1940 ● Cantwell is a Jehovah's witness, blasting anti­catholic music ● Police charge him with breaching the peace and solicitation without a permit ● Defense: he is practicing his religion­ goes to supreme court ● The town had the obligation to keep the streets peaceful, however there were no  restrictions based on religious grounds. ● The court decided that they could require a permit, however could not refuse to give him  a permit.  Minersville (P.A.) vs. Gobitis­1940 They said that they owe their allegiance to God, not to idols such as the flag. They will not pray  to vain idols, only God. ● At this point in time there was no “Under God” in the pledge of allegiance ● “National Unity was the basis of National Security” ● Court decided 8­1 that the children HAD to say the pledge (because there was not  a religious card at this point in time) Cox vs. New Hampshire­ 1941 ● Jehovahs witnesses were handing out leaflets on the street, marching down the  sidewalk with signs and telling people to attend their meeting. ● The paraders were charged with parading without a permit. Defense said: Their 14th amendment rights have been violated ● The 14th amendment states that : All rights applicable under federal law are  applicable in all states (this cannot be avoided)  ● People have the right to safe passage Court decided: There will be no interference with their practice of religion, but they may not  obstruct the passage in the streets.  Jones vs. Opelika I ­ 1942 ● Jones is selling Jehovah’s Witness books without a permit ● Says he is on a mission from God, and does not need a permit. ● The state says that you NEED a permit for money making activities.­ final. Jones vs. Opelika II ­ 1943 ● Selling books again, however this time he’s exchanging them for donations. Court Decided: It is evangelism, he is NOT selling goods. If they did not allow this, then the  church would be unable to pass around the plate for donations during the service. Douglas v. Jeannette ­1943 ● Jehovah’s Witness ­selling books. (Same as previous case, James vs. Opelika I.  You need a permit to “sell” anything.) Murdock vs. Pennsylvania ­1943 ● Jehovah’s witness selling books without a permit. (No taxes are being taken out of his sales) ● He says that the Law (taxes) place an unconstitutional burden on his ability to  practice his religion. ● Court: 5 to 4. Agree it is an unconstitutional tax. West Virginia vs. Barnette ­ 1943 ● In Gobitis, the court had said :   “National Unity is the basis of National  Security” (Remember) ● Just 3 years later ( W.VA. vs. Barnette) they have decided that: ● “Compulsory unification of opinion was doomed to failure, and was  antithetical to the 1st amendment values.” (Remember) Folett vs. Town of McCummack ­ 1944 ● Jehovah’s witness selling books­ Says he should not have to pay taxes ● A tax is applied to everyone who sells a merchandise. ● Court: He does not need a permit, there is an exemption of the licensed tax on  the preacher who preaches. Prince vs. Massachusetts ­ 1944 ● Jehovah’s Witness­ selling books ● Her kid is running to cars/people “giving” them books for money ● She is charged with child labor laws ● Court: Child Labor Laws trump “religion” in this case. ● Children are unable to choose for themselves until they are of legal age. It is the  responsibility of the town to protect all children. Wooley vs. Maynard ­ 1976/7 ● New Hampshire License plate reads “Live free or die” ● Maynard­ Jehovah’s Witness ­­“They can’t tell me how I have to live” ● Maynard taped over his licensed plate (removed “or die”) says the license plate  infringes on his religion. ● He asked for a plate that did not say “Live free or die” ● Court says: They must provide an alternate license plate that does not read “Live  free or die”, since this goes against his religious views. Watch Tower vs. Stratton (N.Y.) ­ 1991 ● Watchtower­ Jehovah’s Witness headquarters ● They were going door to door with no permit ● If they had read previous cases, authorities would have known that this was fine.  ● The witnesses did not need a permit. U.S. vs. Seeger ● Seeger gets drafted for war ● He is a conscientious objector ■ Can’t kill, can’t fight, doesn’t believe in violence ● He said he was catholic, can’t fight. ● The court said that the catholic church supported the war ● He was NOT going to go, because he is a conscientious objector, even if he is  catholic and the church supports the war. He refuses to go because of his beliefs.  


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